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Anniversary Meeting, 30th November 1899, ..... 1 

Reix)rt on Events of Last Session. By D. Christison, M.D., Secretary^ 4-14 

The Forts, " Camps," and other Field- Works of Perth, Forfar, and Kincar- 
dine. By D. Christison, M.D., Secretary ^ . . . 43-120 

Notes (1) on an Ancient Interment recently discovered at the Leithies ; (2) 
a Kitchen -Midden at the Rhodes Links ; and (3) a Cist, with an Urn 
of drinking-cup type, near the West Links, North Berwick. By James 
T. RicuARDSON, M.D., Tighnamara, North Berwick, . . .120 

The Scottish De Quenceys of Fawside and Leuchars. Supplementary Notes. 

By JosKPH Bain, F.S.A. Scot., ...... 124 

Note on the Antiquity of the Wheel Causeway. By F. Haverfikld, M. A., 

F.S.A., 129 

Notice of the Discovery of a Cist containing three Urns of Food-Vessel Type 
at Duncra Hill Farm, Pencaitland. By Joseph Anderson, LL.D., 
Assistant- Secretary ami Keeper of the Museum, , . . . 131 

Report on Stone Circles in Kincardineshire (North), and part of Aberdeen- 
shire, with measured Plans and Drawings, obtained under the Gunning 
Fellowship. By Fred. R. Coles, AssUitant-KcejKr of the Museum, 139-198 

Notice of an Original Letter of Instructions for Sir William Fleming, by 
King Charles IL, dated at Breda, 22nd May 1050. By A. G. Reid, 
F.S.A. Scot., 199 

Description of an Earth House at Pitcur, Forfarshire. By David Mac- 

RiTCHiE, F.S.A. Scot., . . . . . . 202-214 

Architological Notes from Moraytown, Dalcross, Inverness-shire. By 

Thomas Wallace, F.S.A. Scot., ..... 215 

Notes on James Fifth's Towers, Holyrood Palace. By John Sinclair, 

F.S.A. Scot, ....... -224-211 



Sapplemontary Notes on the Scottish De Qaencys. By William \V. Ire- 
land, M.D.. F.S. A. Scot., 241-251 

Note on an Incised Stone Cross at Strathy , Sutherlandshire. By Alexandeb 

MUNRO. 252 

Note on a Bronze Scabbard-Tip found on Glencotho Farm, Peeblesshire. By 

William Buchan, Town-Clerk, Peebles, F.S.A. Scot., . . .254 

Anglo-Saxon Burhs and Early Norman Castles. By Mrs E. 8. Armitaoe. 

Communicated by Professor Baldwin Biiown, F.S.A. Scot., . 260-288 

Notices of the King's Master Wrights of Scotland, with Writs of their 

Appointments. By the Rev. R. S. Mylne, M.A., B.C.L. Oxon., 288-296 

Notice on a Cap-marked Boulder called the Saj di Goronc, or Stone of the 
Heel, near Stresa, on the Lago Maggiore. By the Right Rev. G. F. 
Browne, D.D., Bishop of Bristol, F.S.A. Scot., . . . 297 

Notice of a Peculiar Stone Cross found on the Farm of Cairn, Parish of New 
Cumnock, Upper Nithsdale. By Rev. Kiukwood Hew at, M.A., 
F.S.A. Scot., Prestwick, ....... 300 

Description of a Collection of Objects found in Excavations at St Blane's 
Church, Bute, exhibited by the Marquis of Bute. By Josei'H Ander- 
son, LL.D., Assistant-SicrcUry and Keeper of the Museum^ . 307-325 

Notes of some Cap-marked Stones and Rocks near Kenmore, and their 

Folk-Lore. By Rev. J. B. Mackenzik, F.S.A. Scot., Keumore, 325-334 

Notes on some Rock-Basins, Cup- and Ring-Marked Stones, and Archaic 
Customs casually met with in India. By Captain J. II. Anderson, 
F.S.A. Scot., ........ 335 

Notice of the Discovery of a Prehistoric Burial- Place at (^>uarff, Shetland. 

By Rev. David Johnston, Minister of Quarff, .... 340 

s Notes on the Heraldry of Elgin and its Neighbourhood, including the 
Cathedral, Bishop's House, Greyfriars, and High Street in Elgin ; 
Spynie Palace, Church of Holy Trinity at Spynio, Lhanbryd Church, 
Coxton Tower, Birnie Church, Kinloss Abbey, Burgio Castle, Duttus 
Church, Gordonstown House, Ogston Church, Kinneder Church, Drainie 
Church, St Andrew's Church, lunes House, Pluscardin Priory, Cullen 
Church, Deskford Church, and Baull. By W. Rak Macdonald, 
F.S.A. Scot., ....... 344-429 

Notes on the Discovery and Exploration of a Pile Structure on the North 
Bank of the River Clyde, east from Dumbarton Rock. By John 
Bruce, F.S.A. Scot, Helensburgh, . . 437-462 



Notice of ED Incised Sepulchral Slab found in the Church of Lougforgan, 

Perthshire. By A. H, Millar, F.S.A. Scot., .... 463 

Notice of the Wallace Stones, L6ngforgan. By Alexander Hutcheson, 

F.S.A. Scot., Broughty Ferry, ...... 476 

Notice of a Charm-Stone used for the Cure of Diseases amongst Cattle in 
Sutherlandshire. By Alexander Hutcheson, F.S.A. Scot., Broughty 
Ferry, 483 

Notices (1) of the Discovery of Bronze Age Urns on the Braid Hills ; and 
(2) of the Discovery of a Cist and Urn near Portpatrick, Wigtown- 
shire. By Fred. R. Coles, Assistant- Keeper of the Museum^ . . 489 



Glass Bead fou^d in a Cairn at KirkQhrist, Wigtownshire, ... 17 

Wooden Effigy of an Ecclesiastic found in a Moss neaf Whithorn, . . 42 
Map of the Forts, &c., in Perth, Angus, and the Mearns (Plate I., 

facing), ......... 43 

Forts and Earthworks in Perth, Angus, and the Mearns, ... 48 

Castlehill, Inshewan, ....... 49 

Earthwork, Torr Hill, Aberfeldy, ..... 51 

Dundee Law, ........ 52 

Earthworks at Braco, and at Loaninghead, Crieff Junction, . 55 

Position of Evelick Fort on Pole Hill, ..... 57 

Earthwork, Evelick, ....... 58 

Maiden Castle, near Arbroath, ...... 59 

Lud Castle, Auchmithie, ....... 60 

Green Castle, near Kincardine Castle, Fettercairn, . 61 

Dunmore, Bochastle, Ben Ledi, ...... 63 

Dundum, ......... 64 

Dundurn from the N.W., . . . . 66 

Dundurn from the W., . . . . .68 

Dun Mac Tual, ........ 69 

Remains of Wall, Dun Mac Tual, ..... 70 

Caisteal Dubh, near Aberfeldy, . . . .71 

Forts on the Ochils near Auchterarder, ..... 73 

Castle Law, Forgandenny, ...... 75 

Holes for Beams in the Wall of Castle Law, Forgandenny, . . 76 

Plan of the Site of Abernethy Fort, ..... 77 

Plan of the Structure of the Fort on Castle Law, Abernethy, . 78 

Outer Face of Inner Wall, West End, Abernethy, ... 79 

Carnac, Hill of Moncrietfe, ...... 80 

Fort on Dron Hill, Longforgan, ...... 82 

East End of the Laws Fort, Monifieth, ..... 84 

Dunsinnan (Mr Hutcheson), ...... 86 

Profiles of Dunsinnan, ....... 87 

Dunsinnan (the late Mr A. Stewart, Collace), .... 88 

Sectional View of Dunsinnan, ...... 89 

Excavated Wall and Buildings, Dunsinnan, .... 90 

Denoon Law Fort, Glamis, ...... 92 


Forts and Earthworks in Perth, Angus, and the Mearns — continued. 

Barra HUl Fort, Alyth, . 

Profile at Barra Hill, 

Fort on Turin Hill, 

Masonry of Turin Hill Fort, 

Finavon, near Aberlemno, 

The White Caterthun, . 

The Brown Caterthun, 

Profiles of the Caterthuns, 

Profiles of Site of Fort, Auchterhouse Hill, 

Chart of ruined " Towers,*' Upper Glenlyon 

Earthen Fort, Orchill, 
Oval Vessel of Glazed Pottery, found in the Kitchen Midden on the Rhodes 

Links, ..... 
Portion of an Urn from a Cist near the West Links, . 
Urn (No. 1) found in a Cist at Duncra Hill, . 
Urn (No. 2) found in a Cist at Duncra Hill, . 
Urn (No. 3) found in a Cist at Duncra Hill, . 
Churinga of Slate from the Arunta Tribe, Central Australia, 
View of the Broch called Castle Telve, Glenelg, from the North, 
Map of part of Kincardine and Aberdeenshires, showing Sites of Stone Circles 
surveyed in 1899, .... 

Ground Plan of Stone Circle at Old Bourtree Bush, 

Old Bourtree Bush from the N.W., 

Old Bourtree Bush from the N.E., 

Auchquhorthies (Kincardine), Ground Plan, 

Auchquhorthies (Kincardine), Sections, . 

Auchquhorthies (Kincardine), View from the South, 

Auchquhorthies (Kincardine), Recumbent Stone, 

Cairnwell, Ground Plan, .... 

Craighead, Ground Plan, .... 

Craighead, View from the South, . 

Raes o' Clune, Ground Plan and Section, 

Raes o' Clune, Recumbent Stone and Pillars, 

Cairnfauld, Ground Plan, 

Cairnfauld, View from the W^est, . 

Garrol Wood, Ground Plan and Section, . 

Garrol Wood, View from within the Circle, 

Garrol Wood, View from without the Circle, 

Esslie (the Greater), Ground Plan, 

Esslie (the Greater), View from the Centre looking South, 

Esslie (the Greater), View from the South, 

Esslie (the Smaller), Ground Plan and Section, 

Esslie (the Smaller), View from tlie \Vest, 
















Stone Circles surveyed in 1899 — continued. 

Inchmarlo Standing Stone, 

Glassel, Ground Plan and Section, 

Glassel, Views from the North and the South, 

The Auld Kirk o* Tough, Ground Plan, . 

Tom-na-gom, Ground Plan and Sections^ 

Tom-na-gorn, Recumbent Stone, etc., 

Tom-na-gom, Full View of Recumbent Stone, 

Tom-na-gom, Centre Stone Setting, 

Afidmar Kirk, Ground Plan, etc., 

Seanhinny, Ground Plan, 

Seanhinny, Sectional Views, 

Seanhinny, Recumbent Stone, etc., 

Seanhinny, View from the N.E., . 

Tyrebagger, or Standing Stones of Dyce, Ground Plan, 

Tyrebagger, Sectional Views, 

Tyrebagger, Sectional Views, 

Tyrebagger, Recumbent Stone, etc. , from the West, 

Tyrebagger, Recumbent Stone, etc., from without, 

Tyrebagger, Recumbent Stone, etc., from within, 

Tyrebagger, View from the North, 
Ground Plan and Sections of Earth -house at Pitcur, Forfarshire, 
Pitcur Earth-house, Interior View looking from v towards t, . 
Pitcur Earth-house, Interior View showing Fireplace, 
Samian Bowl found in 1878 in the Earth-house at Pitcur, 
Iron Axe of Peculiar Shape, ..... 
Stone Axe said to have been found on Culbin Sands, . 
Luckenbooth Brooch and Cross found in an Indian Mound, . 
View of Edinburgh in 1544, showing Hertford's Army entering the 

Watergate, ...... 

Hollar's View of Holyrood Palace, .... 

The Palace of Holyrood House, and Gardens, etc., 
Holyrood Palace as it was before the Fire of 1650, 
Holyrood Palace, the Regent Moray's House and Gardens, etc., 
Private Stair, Holyrood Palace, .... 

Arms of Seyr and of Roger de Quency, 

Rude Stone Cross at Strathy, ..... 

Bronze Chape of Scabbard for a Sword, of * ' late Celtic " Period, 

Roman Altar found near Bridge of Brightens in 1841, 

Cup-marked Boulder called the Saj di Gorone near Stresa, 

Front and right and left sides of Broken Cross-shaft found at Cairn, New 

Cumnock, ..... 
Arm of Cross found at Cairn, New Cumnock, • 
Stone Implements from St Blane's, Bute, 








Pieces of Shale and Slato with Incised Letters and Scrolls, . . 312 

Pieces of Slate with Incised Ornament, ..... 314 

PiecesofSIate with Incised Animals and Stag Hunt, . 315 

Portion of Cross-Shaft of Sandstone, ...... 316 

Sculptured Stones at St Blane's Church, Bute, . .318 

Sculptured Cross- Heads and Cross-Slab at St Blane's Church, Bute, . . 319 

Sculptured Stone at St Blane's, ...... 320 

Sculptured Stones at St Blane's, ...... 321 

Sculptured Stones at St Blanc's, ...... 323 

Book-clasp of Brass found at St Blanc's, ..... 324 

Boulder with Cup and Ring Markings, on Braes of Balloch, . . 326 

Two Rows of Cups on a Rock Surface on Braes of Balloch, 326 

Stone Axe from Riskbuie, Colousay, ...... 332 

Stone Cup found on Schiehallion, ...... 334 

Urn of Steatite found at QuarfT, Shetland, ..... 341 

Urn of Clay found at Quartf, Shetland. ..... 342 

Armorial Bearings in Morayshire and Banffshire, . . 346-429 

Shields of Arms above the West Window of Elgin Cathedral, . 346 

Tombstone of John Dunbar of Bennetfield, .... 347 

Dunbar Arms on the Breast of a Recumbent Effigy, . . 349 

Shieldof Arms on North Wall. ...... 349 

Shields of Arms in the Chapter-House, Elgin Cathedral, 351 

Shields of Arms in the Chapter- House, Elgin Cathedral, 352 

Shield of Arms of Bishop Innes, ...... 364 

Shields of Arms in the Chapter- House, ..... 355 

Shield of Arms in the Chancel, ...... 357 

Date on the Tomb of the first Earl of Huntly, . .859 

Tombstone of Alexander Gordon, ...... 360 

Part of Burial-Slab in St Mary's Aisle, Elgin Cathedral, 362 

Shield impaling ('alder and Munro Arms, .... 363 

Armorial Stone in South Transept, ..... 366 

Shield of Arms of Bishoj) James Stewart, .... 367 

Shields of Arms on cither side of Recessed Tomb, . . . 370 

Shields in South Aisle of Nave, ...... 372 

Shields in th<3 Cathedral Precincts and Bishop's House, . 377 

Shield in tho Bisho J >'h House, ...... 379 

Shields of two liishops, . ..... 380 

Anns of Alexander Stewart, ...... 382 

Shields of Arms at (Jroy friars Church, Elgin, .... 384 

Shields of Arms at (Jreyfriars (!huroh, Elgin, .... 386 

Shield in South Wall of Nave at ( trey friars ('hurch, 387 

Shield at Orey friars (;hurch, ...... 389 

Back of a Chair from Dallas, ...... 390 

Shield built into I )r Adam's Mouse, Elgin, .... 391 




Armorial Bearings in Morayshire and BAnffshire^eofUinued, 

Shield bnilt into Dr Mackay's House, Elgin, .... 892 

Shields at Spynie Palace, ...... 393, 894 

In the Wall at Trinity Church, Spynie, ..... 896 

In the Wall at Trinity Church, Spynie, ..... 397 

At Lhanbryd Church, . . . . . . 400 

Shield in Coxton Tower, ....... 401 

On a Monument in Bimie Church, ..... 402 

Shield at Burgie Castle, ....... 408 

Shield and Monogram at Burgie Castle, ..... 405 

Shield at St Michaers Church, Ogston, ..... 407 

Sepulchral Slabs at Pluscarden Priory, . . .410 

Shield at Pluscarden Priory, . . . . .412 

Sepulchral Slab at Pluscarden Priory, . .418 

Recumbent Slab at Pluscarden Priory, . . .416 

Shield at Pluscarden Priory, . . . . .417 

Shield in the Chapter- House, Pluscarden, .... 418 

Shields at Pluscarden, ....... 420 

At Cullen, ........ 420 

Shield in North Wall of Cullen Church, ..... 422 

On a Slab at Deskford, ....... 425 

On a Slab at Banff, ........ 429 

Splinters of Slate with Incised Markings (Dumbuck), 442 

Opposite Sides of a Spear-shaped Implement of Slate, 448 

Opposite Sides of a Spear-shaped Piece of Slate, .... 444 

Implement of Stone resembling a Knife, in a Bone Handle, . 445 

Implement of Stone in Handle of Deer-horn, ..... 446 

Perforated Stones with Incised Markings, . . .447 

Obverse and Reverse of Perforated Pebble, ..... 448 

Rude Figures of Shale, ....... 449 

Rude Figures of Shale, ....... 450 

Pieces of Shale or Cannel Coal with Incised Ornament, . . 4r)2 

Oyster Shell with Incised Lines and Perforation, .... 454 

Incised Sepulchral Slab at Longforgan, ..... 464 

Incised Sepulchral Slab at Creich, Fifeshiro, ..... 467 

Fragments of Ancient Font at Longforgan, ..... 471 

The " Wallace Stones,'* a Enocking-Stone with its Cover, . . . 479 

The *' Wallace Stones," a Knocking-Stone with its Cover on, . . 480 

Charm-Stone used for the Cure of Diseases of Cattle in Sutherlandshire, 485 

Ground-Plan of Site of Bronze-Age Burials on the Braid Hills, . . 490 

Large and Small Urns of Cinerary Type found on the Braid Hills, , , 492 

OFFICE-BEARERS, 1899-1900. 


The Most Hon. The Marquess op Lothian, K.T., LL.D. 

The Hon. John Abercrombt. 

The Hon. Hew Hamilton Dalrymple. 

Reginald Macleod, C.B. 


Sir George Reid, LL.D., \ 

P.R.S.A., I Representing the Board 

Sir Arthur Mitchell, j of Trustees. 

K.C.B., M.D., LL.D., J 
The Right Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart., M.P. 
John Horne Stevenson, M.A. 
Alexander J. S. Brook. 
Sir James Balfour Paul. 
John Findlay. 
Robert Munro, M.A., M.D. 
W. Rae Macdonald. 


David Christison, M.D. 

J. H. Cunningham. 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D., Amstant-Secretary. 

Thomas Graves Law, ) 

LL D { Secretaries for Foreign 

Jambs Macdonald, LL.D., ) Correspondence, 



John Notman, F.F.A., 26 St Andrew Siiuare. 

€muioxB of i^jt Pttstnm. 
Robert Carpuae. 
Professor Duns, D.I). 

Curator of Coins. 
Adam B. Richardson. 

James Curlr, Jim. 


(InAtitHted 1874, in terms of a Bequest for its emlmcmeiit by the late 

Alexander Henry Rhind of Sibster, Hon. Mem, S.A. Scot,) 

SESSION 1899-19()(). 
Hhind Lectuhkr in Akch*olooy-,Toskph Bain, RS.A.Scot. 




(Revised and adopted December 1, 1873.) 

The purpose of the Society shall be the promotion of AncHiEOLOGY, 
especially as connected with the Antiquities and Historical Literature 
OF Scotland. 

I. Members. 

1. The Society shall consist of Ordinary and Honorary Fellows, and 
of Corresponding and I-.ady Associates. 

2. The number of the Ordinary Fellows shall be unlimited. 

3. Can<lidate8 for admission as Ordinary Fellows must sign the Form 
of Application prescribed by the Council, and must be recommended by 
one Ordinary Fellow and two Memlwrs of the Council. 

4. The Secretary shall cause the names of the Candidates and of their 
Proposers to be inserted in the billet calling the Meeting at which they 
are to l>e Ixilloted for. The Ballot may ])e tiiken for all the Candidates 
named in the billet at once ; Init if tliree or more black balls aj)pear, the 
Chairman sliall cause the Candidates to be balloted for singly. No Can- 
didate shall ]>e admitted uiUess by the votes of two-thirds of the Fellows 

5. The number of Hcmorary Fellows shall not exceed twenty-five ; and 
VOL. xxxiv. h 


shall consist of men eminent in Archaeological Science or Historical 
Literature, and they shall not be liahle for any fees of admission or 
annual contributions. 

6. All recommendations of Honorary Fellows must be made through 
the Council ; and they shall be balloted for in the same way as Ordinary 

7. Corresponding Associates must be recommended and balloted for in 
the same way as Ordinary Fellows, and they shall not be liable for any 
fees of admission or annual contributions. 

8. The number of Lady Associates shall not exceed twenty-five. 
They shall be elected by tlie Council, and shall not be liable for any 
fees of admission or annual contrilmtions. 

9. Before the name of any person can be recorded as an Ordinary 
Fellow, he shall pay Two Guineas of entrance fees to the funds of the 
Society, and One Guinea for the current year's subscription. Or he may 
compound for all future contrilmtions, including entrance fees, ])y the 
payment of Twenty Guineas at the time of his admission ; or of Fifteen 
Guineas after having paid five annual contributions ; or of Ten Guineas 
after having paid ten annual contributions. 

10. If any Ordinary Fellow wlio has not compounded shall fail to pay 
his annual contribution of One Guinea for three successive years, due 
application having been made for payment, the Treasurer shall rej)ort the 
same to the Council, by whose authority the name of the defaulter may 
be erased from the list of Fellows. 

1 1 . Every Fellow not being in arrears of his annual subscription shall 
be entitled to receive the printed Proceedings of the Society from the 
date of his election, together with such special issues of Chartularies, or 
other occasional volumes, as may be provided for gratuitous distrilmtion 
from time to time under authority of the Council. Associates shall have 
the privilege of purchasing the Society's publications at the rates fixed 
by the Council for supplying back numbei's to the Fellows. 

12. None but Ordinary Fellows shall hold any office or vote in the 
business of the Society. 


II. Officb-Bearers and Council. 

1. Tlie Office- Bearers of tlie Society shall consist of a President, who 
continues in office for three years ; three Vice-Presidents, two Secretaries 
for j^eneral i)urposes, and two Secretaries for Foreign Correspondence, a 
Treasurer, two Curators of tlie Museum, a Curator of Coins, and a 
Librarian, who shall be elected for one year, all of whom may be re- 
elected at the Annual General Meeting, except the first Vice-President, 
who shall go out by rotation, and shall not be again eligible till he has 
been one year out of office. 

2. The Council shall consist of the Office-Bearers and seven Ordinary 
Fellows, besides two annually nominated from the Board of ^lanufactures. 
Of these seven, two shall retire annually by rotation, and shall not be 
again eligible till they have been one year out of office. Any two Oflice- 
Bearers and three of the Ordinary Council shall be a quorum. 

3. The Council shall have the direction of the affairs and the custody 
of the effects of the Society ; and shall report to the Annual General 
Meeting the state of the Society's funds, and other matters which may 
have come before them during the preceding year. 

4. The Council may appoint committees or individuals to take charge 
of particular departments of the Society's business. 

5. The Office-Bearers shall be elected annually at the General Meeting. 

6. The Secretaries for general purposes shall record all the proceedings 
of meetings, whether of the Society or Council ; and conduct such corre- 
spondence as may be authorised by the Society or Council, except the 
Foreign Correspondence, which is to be carried on, under the same 
authority, by the Secretaries appointed for that particular purpose. 

7. The Treasurer shall receive and disburse all moneys due to or by the 
Society, and shall lay a state of the funds before the Council previous to 
the Annual General Meeting. 

8. The duty of the Curators of the Museum shall be to exercise a 
general supervision over it and the Society's Collections. 

9. The Council shall meet during the session as often as is requisite 


for tlio duo despatch of business ; and tlic Secretaries shall have power to 
call Meetin«^s of the Council jvs often as they see cause. 


1. One General Meetinj^ shall take place every year on St Andrew's 
day, the 30th of Xoveniber, or on the following day if the 30th l>e a 

2. The Council shall have jwwer to call Extraordinary Oeneral 
Meetings when they see cause. 

3. The Ordinary Meetings of the Society shall ])e held on the second 
Monday of each month, from December to March inclusive at Eight p. m , 
and in April an<l ^Fay at Four p.m. 

The Council may give notice of a projX)sal to change the hour and 
day of meeting if they see cause. 

IV. Bye-Laws. 

1. All Bye- Laws formerly made are hereby repealed. 

2. Every proposal for altering the I^aws as already established must be 
made through the Council ; and if agreed to by the Council, the Secretary 
shall cause intimation thereof to be made to all the Fellows at least three 
months before the General Meeting at which it is to be determined on. 

Form of Special Bequest. 

I, A. B., do hereby leave and bequeath to the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland incorporatea by Royal Charter, my collection of , and I 

direct that the same shall be clelivered lo the said Society on the receipt of 
the Secretary or Treasurer thereof. 

(ie.nernl Form of Iktiuext. 

I, A. B., do hereby leave and bequeath to the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland incorporated by Royal Charter, the sum of £ , sterling, to be used 
for the general purposes of the Society or for any special purposes or objects, 
as the Society may detennine from time to time, and I direct that the said 
sum may be j^id to the said Society on the receipt of the Treasurer for the 
time being. 




NOVEMBEK 30, 1900. 


1879. Abbrcromby, Hon. John, 62 Palmer- ' 1886. Alexander, W. Lindsay, Piukieburn 

ston Place, — Vice-President. Musselburgh. 

1853.*Aberdbin, Francis, Garvocklea, • 1897. Allan, Rev. Archibald, Minister of 

Laurencekirk. | Channel kirk. 

1896, Adam, Frank, Sourabaya, Java. 1900. Alijirdyce, Col. James, LL.D., of 

1898. Adam, Stephen, 199 Bath Street, i Culr|uoich, 3 Queen's Terrace, Aber- 

Glasgow. deen. 

1889. AoNEW, Alexander, Procurator- 1864. ♦Anderson, Archibald, 30 Oxford 
Fiscal, Balwherrie, Dundee. Square, London, W. 

1899. Agnbw, Sir Andrew N., Bart., M.P., 1884. Anderson, Charles M., 7 Welling- 

Lochnaw Castle, Stranraer. ton St., Higher Broughton, Man- 

1884. AoNBW, Sir Stair, K.C.B., M.A., 22 Chester. 

Buckingham Terrace. 1889. Anderson, James, Carronvale, Wardie 

1887.*AiKMAN, Andrew, Banker, 6 Drum- | Road. 

sheugh Gardens. , 1897. Anderson, Capt. J. H., 2ud East 
1898. Airman, Henry Erskine, 5 Princes Lancashire Regiment, Bombay, 

S(iuare, Glasgow. - ' Intlia. 

1892. AiLSA, Tlie Most Hon. the Marquis of, I 1899. Anderson, Robert, Ardgowan, Dick 

Culzeau Castle, Maylwle. Place. 

1884. AiTKEN, George Suaw, Architect, 1871.*Andeuson, Robert Rowand, LL.D., 

49 Queen Street. i Architect, 16 Rutland S(iuai'e. 

1892. AiTKBN, James H., Gartcows, Fal- I 1865.*Anderson, Thomas S., Lingarth, New - 

kirk. I burgh, Fife. 

An asteritk (*) denotes Life Members who have compounded for their Annual ContributiouB. 


1894. Anderson, William, Arns Brae, New 

1887. Andbrson - Bbrry, David, M.D., 

Bodleian House, Reigate, Surrey. 
1894. Angus, Robrrt, Craigston House, 

Lugar, Ayrsliire. 

1882. Annandalb, Thomas, M.D., Pro- 

fessor of Clinical Surgery, Univer- 
sity of RUnburgh, 34 Cliarlotte 

1900. Anstruthbr, Sir Ralph W., Bart, of 
Balcaskie, Pittenweem. 

1897. Anstruthbr -Thomson, William, 
Major, Royal Horse Guards, Kil- 
many, Fife. 

1878. ♦Armstrong, Robbrt Bruce, 6 Ran- 
dolph Cliff. 

1889. Atholl, His Grace the Duke 
of, K.T., Blair Castle, Blair 

1886. ♦Atkinson, W. A., Knockfarrie, Pit- 

1897. Bain, Alexander, 14 Waterloo 

1868. ♦Bain, Joseph, Bryn Dewi, St David's, 
S. Wales. 

1889. Bain, William, 42 Moray Place, 


1892. B-UN, William, Lochboisdale, Soutli 

1900.*Bairi), John G. Alexander, M.P., 
of Wellwood and Adnmton, Monk- 
ton, Ayrshire. 

1891. Baird, Willi am j Clydesdale Bank, 

1883. Balfour, Charles Barrington, 

M.P., of Newton Don, Kelso. 
1885. B.vLFouR, Major Francis, Femie 

Castle, Collessie, Fife. 
1876. Ballantine, Alexander, 42 George 

1877.*Bannerman, Rev. D. Dougl.\s, M.A., 

D.D., Free St Leonard's Manse, 

1897. B.vnnbrman, W. Bruce, The Lindens, 

Sydenham Road, Croydon. 

1890. Bannerman, William, M.A., M.D., 

West Park, Polwarth Terrace. 

1896. Barbour, James, Architect, St 

Christopher's, Dumfries. 

1897. Barclay-Allardice, Robert, M.A., 

Rosehill, Lostwithiel, Cornwall. 

1899. Barnard, Francis Pierrbpont, MA. 
Ox(m., St Mary's Abl»ey, Win<ler- 

1897. Barnett, Rev. T. R., Fala U.P. Manse. 
Blackshiels, Midlothian. 

1897. Barnett, Walter. No address. 

1880. Barron, James, Editor of Inixi^neas 
Courier J Inverness. 

1891. Baxter, Rev. George Chalmers, 
F.C. Minister, Cargill, Guild- 
town, Perth. 

1891.^Bayne, Thomas, 69 West Cmnberland 
Street, (Glasgow. 

1884. Beaton, Angus J., C.E., 26 Alex- 
andra Terrace, Rock Ferry, Birken- 

1877. Beaumont, Charles G., M.D., Old 
Manor House, Epsom, Surrey. 

1889. Bedford, Stirgeon - Capt. Charles 
Henry, D.Sc, M.D., Professor of 
Chemistry, Medical College, Cal- 

1872.*Beer, John T., Green Heys, Rock 
Ferry, Cheshire. 

1897. Bell, Richard, of Castle O'er, Dum- 

1889. Bell, Thomas, of Belmont, Hazel- 

wood, Broughty Ferry. 
1877. Bell, William, 293 Lordshij) Lane, 
Dulwich, London, S.E. 

1890. Beveriik;e, Erskine, St Leonard's 

Hill, Dunfenuline. 
1886.^Bevbridge, Henry, Pitreavie House, 

1891. Beveridge, James, Church of Scot- 

land's Training College, 4 Blyths- 

wood Dri\e, Glasgow. 
1895. ♦B UPLAND, William, 28 Park Circus, 

1877.*BiLToN, Lewis, W.S., 16 Hope 

1S91. Bird, George, St Margaret's, 3Ji Inver- 

leith Place. 
1882. Black, William George, Ramoyle, 

Dowanhill Gardens, Glasgow. 


1847.*Blackib, Waltbr G., PI1.D., LL.D., 
1 Belliaveu Terrace, Kelviuside, Glas- 

1885. Blaikie, Walter Bigqab, 11 Thistle 

1891. Blair, Rev. William, M.A., D.D., 
Leiglitoii Maiise, Duublaue. 

1879. Blanc, IIippolytb J., R.S.A., Archi- 
tect, 25 Rutlaiul Square. 

1887. Bogie, Alexander, Banker, 48 Lander 

1885. BoMPAS, Charles S. M., 121 West- 
bourne Terrace, London. 

1880.»BoxAR, HoRATius, W.S., 3 St Mar- 
garet's Road. 

1898. Borland, Rev. R., Minister of 

Yarrow, Selkirkshire. 

1899. BoswALL, Jambs Donaldson, W.S., 

Donaldson House, Wardie. 
1873.*BoYD, William, M.A., 56 Palmer- 

stou Place. 
1893. Boyle, the Hon. Robert, Colonel, 6 

Suraner Terrace, London. 
1884. BoYNTON, Thomas, Noi-man House, 

Bridlington Quay, Hull. 

1883. Brand, DxVVId, Sheriff of Ayrshire, 

13 Royal Terrace. 
1891. Brand, James, C.E., 10 Marchmont 

Terrace, Glasgow. 
1884.*Breadalbane, The Most Hon. the 

Marquess of, Tayniouth Castle. 
1887. Brook, Alexander J. S., 21 Chalmers 

1878. Broun - Morison, John Broun, of 

Finderlie, Murie House, Errol. 
1887. Brown, George, 2 Spottiswoode 


1884. Brown, G. Baldwin, M.A., Professor 

of Fine Art, University of Edinburgh, 

20 Lansdowne Crescent. 
1871.*Brow^, John Taylor, Gibraltar House, 

St Leonard's Bank. 
1897. Brown, Richard, C.A., 22 Chester 

1884. Browne, Right Rev. G. F., D.D., 

Bishop of Bristol. 
1882. Browne, George Washington, 

A.R.S.A., Architect, 8 Albyn 


1892. Bruce, Gborob Waugh, Banker, 

Leven, Fife. 
1882. Brucb, Jambs, W.S., 59 Great King 

1893. Bruce, John, Inverallan, Helens- 

1898.*Bruck, John, of Sumburgh, Shet- 

1880. Bruce, Rev. William, B.D., Duni- 

marle, Culross. 
1896. Brucb, William Balfour, Allan 

View, Dunblane. 
1889. Bryce, William Moir, 11 Blackford 


1894. Brydall, Robert, St George's Art 

School, 8 Newton Terrace, Charing 
Cross, Glasgow. 

1896. BucHAN, Alexander, LL.D., Secre- 

tary, Scottish Meteorological Society, 

42 Heriot Row. 
1899.*BucHAN, William, Town Clerk of 

1885.*Buchanan, Thomas Rtburn, M.A., 

12 South Street, Park Lane, Lon- 
don, W. 
1882. Burnet, John James, A.R.S.A., 

Architect, 18 University Avenue, 

Hillhead, Glasgow. 
1892. Burnett, Rev. J.B., B.D., Minister of 

Aberlenmo, Forfar. 
1887. Burgess, Pbter, Craven Estates Office, 


1897. Burn-Murdoch, W. G., 1a Ramsay 

1887. Burns, Rev. Thomas, Croston Lodge, 

Chalmers Ci-escent. 
1889. Burr, Rev. P. Lorimer, D.D., 

Manse of Lundie and Fowlis, 

1895. Butler, Charles, D.L., 3 Connaught 

Place, London. 
1899. Butler, Juuan G. Wandbsford, 

C.E., 2 Garsculje Terrace, Murray- 


1898. Cadenhkad, James, R. S. W., 14 

Ramsay Garden. 
1880. Caldwbll, Jambs, Craigielea Place, 


1898. Callandeb, John Graham, 20 

Rupert Street, Glasgow. 
1887. Cameron, J. A., M.D., Nairn. 
1890. Cameron, Richard, 1 St David 


1899. Campbell, Archibald, Springfield 

Quay, Glasgow. 
1886. Campbell, Donald, M.D., 102 Dess- 

wood Place, Aberdeen . 
1886. Campbell, Sir Duncan Alexander 

DUNDAS, Bart., of Barcaldine and 

Glenure, 16 Ridge way Place, Wimble- 
1865. ♦Campbell, Rev. James, D.D., The 

Manse, Balmerino, Fifesbire. 
1877.*Campbell, James, of Tillichewan. 

Alexanilria, Dumbartonshire. 
1874. ♦Campbell, Right Hon. James A., 

LL.D., M.P., of Stracatbro, Brechin. 
1890. Campbell, James Lennox, Acha- 

corrach, Dalmally. 
1850. ♦Campbell, Rev. John A. L., 2 Albyn 

1882.*Campbell, Patrick W., W.S., 25 

Moray Place. 
1884. ♦Campbell, Richard Vary, M.A., 

LL.B., Advocate, 37 Moray 

1883. Campbell, Walter J. DougLxVs, of 

Innis Chonain, Loch Awe. 
1877.*Campbell-Bannerman, Right Hon. 

Sir Hknry, G.C.B., LL.D., M.P., 

6 Grosvenor Place, London. 

1895. Capi*on, Thomas Martin, Architect, 

CliflTljank, Newport, Fife. 

1891. Carmicuael, James, of Arthurstone, 
Ardler, Meigle. 

1888.^Carmichael, Sir Thomas D. Gibson, 
Bart., of Castlecraig, Dolphinton. 

1871.*, Thomas Lesue Mel- 
ville, Melville House, I^dybank, 

1896. Caw, Jamk.s L., Curator of Scottish 

National Portrait Gallery, Queen 

1890. Chalmers, P. Macoregor, Architect, 

176 J Hope Street, Glasgow. 
1898. Charleson, Malcolm Mackenzie, 

Solicitor, Stromness. 

1889. Chatwin, J. A., Wellington House, 
Edgbaston, Binningham. 

1895. Chisholm, A. W., Goldsmith, 7 Clarc- 

mont Crescent. 

1881. Christie, John, of Cowden, 19 

Buckingham Terrace. 
1898. Christie, Rev. J, G., B.D., Minister 
of Helensburgh. 

1882. Christison, David, M.D., 20 Magdala 

Crescent, — Secreta ry. 

1889. Clark, David R., M.A., 8 Park 
Drive West, Glasgow. 

1885. Clark, George Bennett, W.S., 15 
Douglas Crescent. 

1871.*Clark, Sir John Forbes, Bart, 
LL.D., of Tillypronie, Aberdeen- 

1896. Clark, Thomas Bennet, C.A., New- 

milns House, Balemo. 
1874. Clarke, William Bruce, M.A., M.B., 
51 Harley Street, Cavendish S<iuare, 

1879. Cleland, John, M.D., Professor of 

Anatomy, University of Glasgow. 
1896. Clouston, Robert Stewart, Artist, 
21 Duke Street, Manchester Square, 
London, W. 

1880. Clouston, Thomas S., M.D., Tip- 

perlinn House, Moniingside Place. 
1891. Coats, Sir Thomas Glkn, Bart, of 

Ferguslie, Paisley. 
1898. Cochran-Patrick, Neil J. Kennedy, 

of Woodside, Advocate, 71 Great 

King Street. 
1885. Cooper, John, Burgh Engineer, 15 

Cumin Place. 
1895. CoRRiE, Adam J., 69 Marina, St 

1891. Coutts, Rev. Au-red, B.I)., 8 

John's Place, Leith. 
1879. •Cowan, Rev. Charles J., B.D., 

Morebattle, Kelso. 

1887. Cowan, John, W.S., St Ro<iue, 

Gnmge Loan. 

1888. Cowan, Willl\m, 47 Braid Avenue. 
1893. *Cox, Au-'RED W., Glcndoick, (Jlen- 

carse, Perthshire. 
1899. Cox, Benjamin C, Mauldsheugh, 


1876. Cox, James C, The Cottage, Lochee, 

1882. Crabbie, Gkobob, 8 Rothesay 


1892. Craiq-Brown, T., Wood))uni, Sel- 

1879. Craik, George Lillie, 2 West Halkin 
Street, London, S.W. 

1893. Cramond, William, M.A., LL.D., 

1900. Cran, John, 11 BrunHwick Street. 
1880. ♦Cran, John, Kirkton, Inverness. 
1861.*Crawfurd, Thomas Macknioht, of 

Cartsbum, Lauriston Castle. 
1878. Croal, Thomas A., 16 London 

1889. C*R0MBiE, liev. James M., The 

1886.*Davidson, Jambs, Solicitor, Kirrie- 

1882.*Dbuchar, David, 12 lIoi»e Ter- 
1884. Dick, Major J. Proudfoot (M'Clure, 

Naisniith k Brodie, 77 St Vincent 

Street, Glasgow). 
1898. Dick, Rev. Robert, Coliusburgh, 

1893. Dickson, Rev. John, 160 Ferry Road, 

1870. ♦Dickson, Thomas, LL.D., 26 Staffonl 

1895. Dickson, W. Kirk, Advocate, 3 Dama- 

way Street. 
1882.*DicKS0N, William Traquair, W.S., 

11 Hill Street. 

Manse, Cote des Neiges, Montreal, I 1886.*DixoN, John Henry, Inverau, 

Canada. , Poole we. 

1886. Cross, Robkrt, 13 Moray Place. 1877. Dobie, John Shedden, of Morishill, 

1891. Cullen, Alexander, Architect, Bran- I Beith. 

don Chambers, Hamilton. 
1867.*CuMiNa, H. Syer, 63 Kennington Park 

Road, Surrey. 
1898. Cunningham, G. GonrBEv, Liberton 

House, Mid- Lothian. 
1891. Cunningham, Jambs Henry, C.E., 2 

Ravelston Place, — Secretary, 
1893. CUNNINGTON, B. HoWARD, Devizes. 
1893. CuRLB, Alkxandku O., W.S., 91 

Comely Bank Avenue. 
1889.*CURLE, Jamf-s, jun., Priorwood, 

Mel rose, — Libra ria n . 
1886.*CURRIE, J.VMEs, jun., Larktield, Golden 

1884. CuRRiE, Walter Thomson, of Tryn- 

law, Cupar- Fife. 
1879.*CURSITKR, James Walls, All)ert St., 


I 1899. DoBiB, William Fraser, 47 Grange 

i 1887. Dodds, Rev. James, D.D.,The Manse, 
' Corstorphine. 

, 1895. Donaldson, Hknry T., British Linen 
Bank, Nairn. 

1867.* Donaldson, James, LL.D., Prin- 
cipal of the University of St 

1891. Donaldson, Kobert, M.A., 22Fettes 

1861. ♦Douglas, David, 10 Castle Street. 

1895. Douglas, Sir George, Bart, Spring- 
woo<l Park, Kelso. 

1885. Douglas, Rev. SholtoD. C, Douglas 
Support, Coatbridge. 

1881.^DouGL.vs, W. D. Robinson, Orchardton, 

1893. DowDEN, Right Rev. John, D.D., 
Bishop of the Episcoi»al Church in 
Eilinbur„'h, 13 licarmonth Ter- 

1871. DoWELL, Alkxandkr, 13 Palnierston 

1879. Dalgleish, J. J., Brankston Grange, 

Stirling. { 
1893. Dalrvmi'LK, SirCiiAiiLBs, Bart, M.P., 

Newhailes, Mid-Lotlii.ui. , 

lb83. Daluymi'lk, Ihm. IIkw Hamilton, ' Plaice. 

Lochinch, Wigtownshire,— Vice- I 1895. Downik, Kenneth Mackenzie, M.D., 

President. ; 3 Linsdowne Crescent. 

1872.* Davidson, Hugh, . Procunitor- Fiscal, 1900. Drummond, James AV., Westerlands, 

Bracdale, Lanark. ! Stirling. 


1896. Drummond, Robert, C.E., 2 Lyles- 

laini Terrace, Paisley. 
1878. Drummond, William, 4 Learmontli 

1895.*Drummond-Moray, Capt W. H., of 

Al)ercairiiey, Crieff. 
1867.*DuKF, Right Hon. Sir Mountsteuart 

Elphinston Grant, C5.C.S.I., 11 

Chelsea Enibauknient, Loudon. 

1891. Duff, Thomas Gordon, of Druninmir, 

1872.*DUKE, Rev. William, D.D., St Vigeans, 

1878. Dunbar, Sir Archibald Hamilton, 

Bart., of Northfield, DuflFus House, 

1887. Duncan, (J. S., Duninore Villa. 

1880. Duncan, James Dalrymple, Meikle- 

wood, Stirling. 

1874. Duncan, Rev. JoHN,Al)die, Newburgh, 

1877.*DuNi)A8, Ralph, C.S., 16 St Andrew 

1875. Duns, John, D.D., Professor of 

Natural Science, New College, 5 
Greenhill Place, — Curator of 

1895. Edgar, John, M.A., Classical Muster, 
Royal High School, 4 Alfred Place, 

1892. Edw.vrds, John, 4 Great Western 

Terrace, Glasgow. 
1885.*Elder, William Nicol, M.D., 6 

Torphichen Street. 
1880. Elliot, John, of Binks, Cran- 

bounie, Shaftesbury Road, South- 
1889. Erskine, David C. E., of Linlatheu, 

liinlathen House, Broughty FeiTy. 
1895. Evans, Charlks W. J., I^tlioni Lo<lge, 

Lough borougli Park, S.W. 
1892. Eyub, The Most Ucv. Charlks, D.D., 

R.C. Archbishop, 6 Bowniont 

Gardens, (Jlasgow. 

1S80.*Faulds, A. Wilson, Kuockbuckle 
House, Beith. 

1891. Fergus, Oswald, 12 Clairmont 

Gardens, Glasgow. 

1890. Ferguson, Prof. John, LL.D., Uni- 
versity, Glasgow, 

1890. Ferguson, Rev. John, B.D., Manse of 
Aberdalgie, Perthshire. 

1892. Ferguson, John, Writer, Duns. 
1872.*Fergu80N, William, LL.D., of Kin- 

mundy, Mintlaw, Abenieenshire. 

1883. Fkrousson, Alfjcander A-, 38 
M 'Alpine Street, Glasgow. 

1875. Fergusson, Sir James R., Bart, of 
Spitalhaugh, West Linton. 

1899.*FiNDLAY, James Leslie, Architect, 14 
Coates Gardens. 

1892.»FiNDLAY, John, 3 Rothesay Ter- 

1880. FiNLAY, John Hope, W.S., 19 Glen- 
cairn Crescent. 

1885. Fleming, D. Hay, LL.D., 16 Greyfriars 

Garden, St Andrews. 
1888. Fleming, James, jun., Kilmory, 
Skelmorlie, Ayrshire. 

1895. Fleming, James Stark, Solicitor, 


1893.* Fleming, Rev. James, M.A., Minister 
of Kettins. 

1875.*FooTE, Alexander, 111 Warwick 
Road, Earl's Court, London. 

1880. Forlono, Major-Gen. J. G. RocHB, 11 
Douglas Crescent. 

1890. Forrester, Henry, Woodfield, Colin- 

1887. Foulis, James, M.D., 34 Heriot 

1883. Fox, Charles Henry, M.D., 35 

Heriot Row. 
1862.*Fraser, Alexander, 65 Bruntslield 

1898. Fraser, Hugh Ernest, M.A., M.D., 

Medical Superintendent, Royal In- 

firniary, Dundee. 

1886. Frasku, James L., 5 Castle Street, 


1896. Fullkhton, John, I Garthland Place, 


1884. Galbraith, Thomas L., Town-Clerk, 

24 Park Terrace, Stirling. 


1890. Garden, Farqch arson T., 4 Rubislaw 1894. 

Terrace, Aberdeen. 

1891. Garson, William, W.S., 5 Albyn 1891. 


1891. Garstin, John Ribton, D.L., M.A., 1887. 

Broganstowu, Castlebellingliani, Co. 
Lonth, Ireland. 1886. 

1898. Gaythorpe, Harper, Prospect Road, 

Barrow-in-Furness. 1899. 

1886. Gebbib, Rev. Francis, 20 Lynedoch 

Place. 1880. 

1887. Geddbs, Gborqe Hutton, 8 Douglas 

Crescent. 1889. 

1895. GiBB, Alexander, 12 Antigua 

Street. 1871. 

1877. GiBB, John S., 8 Cobden Cres- 
cent 1884. 

1897. Gibson, Rev. John Mackenzie, M.A., 

22 Regent Terrace. 
1886. Gill, A. J. Mitchell, of Savock, 1899. 
Acbinroath, Rothes. 

1896. Gillies, Patrick Hunter, M.D., 1874. 

Ballachuan, Easdale, Oban. 
1885. Glen, Robert, 32 Dublin Street. 
1893. Good, George, Braefoot, Liber- 1861 

1896. Gordon, Archibald A., C.A., 1 1882. 

Coates Gardens. 
1884. Gordon, James, W.S., 8 East Castle 1891. 

Road, Merchiston. | 

1872. 'Gordon, WiLUAM,M.D., 11 Maytield i 1898. 

Gardens. { 

1889. Gordon, William, of Tarvie, Killie- , 1897. 

crankie House, Perthshire. I 

1883. Gobdon-Gilmour, Major Robert, ' 

of Craigmillar, Tlie Inch, Liber- I 

ton. I 1887. 

1869. 'Goodie, Gilbert, 31 Great King I 

Street. I 1886. 

1898. GoDRLiE, James, Birdston, Helens- 

burgh. I 1875. 

1882. Graham, James Maxtone, of Culto- j 

quhey, Crieff. 1882. 

1892. Graham, Robert C, Skipness, | 

Argyll. 1874. 

1888. Grant, F. J., W.S., Lyon OlKce, H. M. 1865. 

Gen. Register House. 1897 

1882. Gray, George, Clerk of the Peace, 
County Buildings, Glasgow. 

Gray-Buchanan, A. W., Parkhill, 

Green, Charles E., The Hollies, 

Gordon Terrace. 
Greio, Andrew, C.E., 3 Duntrune 

Terrace, Broughty Ferry. 
•Greig, T. Watson, of Glencarse, 

Grewar, David S., Dalnasnaught, 

Glenisla, Alyth. 
Grieve, Symington, 11 Lauder 

•Griffith, Henry, 18 St James's 

Square, London. 
^Grub, Rev. George, ' Rector, Holy 

Trinity, Ayr. 
♦GuTHRiK, Charles J., Advocate, Q.C., 
Sheritf of Ross, Cromarty, and Suther- 
land, 13 Royal Circus. 
GuTHRii, John, Solicitor, Town Clerk 

of Crail. 
Guthrie, Rev. Roger R. Lingaud, 
Taybank House, Dundee. 

♦Haddington, Right Hon. The Earl of, 

Tynninghame, Prestonkirk. 
H.vlkett, Sir Arthur, Bart of Pit- 

firrane, Dunfermline. 
Hamilton, James, Hafton, London 

Road, Kilmarnock. 
Hampton, Rev. David Machardv, 

Harris, David F., M.D., Lecturer 

in Physiology, University of St 

Andrews, 6 Bell Street, St An- 
Harrison, John, Rockville, Napier 

Hart, George, Procurator-Fiscal of 

Renfrewshire at Paisley. 
Hay, George, R.S.A., 7 Ravelston 

Hay, GEOiiQKy ArltrocUh Guide OtHcx;, 

Hay, J. T., Blackball Castle, Banchory. 
*Hay, Robert J. A., Florence. 
Heddbrwick, Thomas C. H., M.A., 

The Manor House, Weston Turville, 

Wendover, Bucks. 


1892. Hbdley, Robbrt C, Cheviott, Cor- 

1895. Heiton, Andrew Granger, Architect. 

1888.*Hendkrson, C^l. George, of Hevers- 

wood, Brasted, Kent. 
1892. Henderson, James, 49 Priory Place, 

Craigie, Perth. 
1889.*Henderson, James Stewart, 1 

Pond Street, Hampstead, London, 

1897. Henderson, John G. B., W.S., Nether 

Parkley, Linlithgow. 

1886. Henry, David, Architect, 2 Lockhart 

Place, St Andrews. 

1891. Herries, Capt. William D., 

yr. of Spottes Hall, Dal- 
1897. Hewat, Rev. Kirkwood, Free Churcli 
Manse, Prestwick. 

1887. Hewison, Uev. J. Kino, The Manse, 


1896. HiGoiN, J. Walter, Benvoulin, 

1881. Hill, George W., 6 Princes Terrace, 

Dowanhill, Glasgow. 
1877.*Home-Drumm()ND, Col. II. 8., of Blair 

Drummond, Stirling. 
1874.*H()PE, Henry W., of Luffuess, 

1874.*lIoRNiMAN, Fukderick John, Surrey 

Mount, Forest Hill, London. 
1896. HoRSBUROH, James, 6 Brunswick 

Place, Regent*s Park, London. 

1892. Houston, Rev. A. M'Neill, M.A., 

B. D., The Manse, Auchterdenau, 
Cardendeu, Fife. 

1899. HOWATT, Henry R., 99 Millbrae Road, 

Langside, Glasgow. 
1889.*HowDEN, Charles R. A., Advocate, 

25 Melville Street. 
1886. HowDEN, John M., C.A., 11 Eton 

1861.*HowE, Alexandkk, W.S., 17 Moray 

1880. H()WOiiTH, Daniel Fowler, Grafton 

Place, Ashton-under-Lyiic. 

1900. HoziER, Hon. James, M.P., Mauldslie 

Castle, Carluke. 

1896. Humphrey, Kobert, Secretary, Edin- 
burgh Life Assurance Co., 12 King 
Street, Manchester. 

1872. ♦Hunter, Col. C'harles, Plas C<>ch, 
Llanfair P.G., Anglesea. 

1891. Hunter, Rev. James, Fala Manse, 

1896. Hunter, Rev. John, M.A., B.D., 
Minister of Rattray, Blairgowrie. 

1886. Hunter, Rev. Joseph, M.A., Cock- 


1898. Hunter, Thomas, W.S., Town Clerk 

of Etlinburgh, Inverarbour, 54 Inver- 
leith Place. 

1882. HuTCHESON, Alexander, Architect, 

Ilerschel House, Broughty Ferry. 

1895. Hutchison, James T., of Morelaud, 12 

Douglas Crescent. 
1871.*HuTCHisoN, John, R.S.A., 19 Manor 

1891. Hutchison, Rev. John, D.D., Afton 

Lodge, Bounington. 

1899. Imrie, Rev. David, St Andrew's Free 

Church, Dunfennline. 

1891. Inglis, Alexander Wood, Secretary, 

Board of Manufactures, 30 Aber- 
croinby Plac^j. 

1887. Inglis, Rev. W. Mason, M.A., 


1896. Ireland, William W., M.D., 1 

Victoria Terrice, Musselburgh. 

1884. IsLKS, James, St Ninians, Blairgowrie. 

1895. J.\CKSON, Rev. J. W., M.A., 7 
Lothian Gardens, Glasgow. 

1883. Jackson, Major Randle, Swordale, 

Evanton, Ross-.shire. 
1867. *J AMES, Rev. John P., Woilley House, 
Ilkley, Leeds. 

1885. Jameson, Andrew, M. A., Q.C., Sheriff 

of Perthshire, 14 Moray Place. 
1871.*Jamies()n, James Auldjo, W.S., 14 
Buckingham Terrace. 

1892. Johnston, David, 2 J Huutly Gardeu.s, 

Kelvinsidc, (Jiasgow. 

1900. Johnston, William, M.D., Lt- 

Col. (retired), Anny Medical Staff, of 
Newton Dec, Murtle. 


1892. Johnstone, Hkniiy, M.A. Oxon. ! ISSf). Law, Thomas Gravrs, LL.D., 

(Erlinburgh Academy), 93 Comely | Librarian, Signet Lihrary^— Foreign 

Bank Avenue. 1 Secretary. 

1898. Jonas, Alfrbd Charles, 45 Parch- ' 1894. Lawlor, Rev. Hugh Jackson, D.D., 

more Road, Thornton Heath, SuiTey. Professor of Ecclesiastical History, 

I University of Dublin. 

1893. Kaye, Walter Jenkinson, Pembroke ;• 1882.*Leadbetter, '1*homa8, Architect, 17 

College, Harrogate, ' Young Street. 

1870.*Keltie, John S., LL.D., Secretary, 1871.*Leishman, Rev. Thomas, D.D., 4 

Royal Geogi-aphical Society. Glen- | Douglas (Crescent. 

devon House, Compayne Gardens, | 1883. Lkith, Rev. Wiluam Forbes, Sel- 

Hampstead, London. kirk. 

1880. ♦Kennedy, John, M.A., 25 Abingdon ' 1884. Lennox, James, Eden Bank, Dum- 

Street, Westminster. | fries. 

1889.*Kermode, Philip M. C, Advocate, 1857.*Leslie, Charles Stephen, of Bal- 

Hillside, Ramsey, Isle of Man. | quhain, 11 Chanonry, Aberdeen. 

1889. Kerr, Andrew William, 81 Great , 1890. Lindsay, Leonard C, New Gallerj-, 

King Street. ' 121 Regent Street, London. 
1896. Kerr, Henry F., A.R.LB.A., 36 I 1873.*Undsay, Rev. Thomas M., D.D., Pro- 
Hanover Street. | fessor of Divinity, Free Church Col- 

1889. Kerr, Rev. John, Dirleton, Drem. | lege, Glasgow. 

1878. Kino, Sir James, Bart., LL.D., 115 1892. Linton, Simon, Oakwoo<l, Sel- 

Wellington Road, Glasgow. I kirk. 

1884. KiNix)CH, Sir John G. S., Bart., M. P., i 188L ♦Little, Robert, Ardenlca, North- 

Kinloch House, Meigle. ! wood, Middlesex. 

1892. Kinross, John, Architect, A.R.S.A., | 1898. Livingstone, Duncan Paul, New- 

1 West Savile Terrace. bank, Giffnock. 

1900.^KiNTORE, Right Hon. the Earl of, j 1883. Lockhart, Rev.WiLLL\M,M.A.,D.D., 

G.C.M.G., LL.D., Keith Hall, , Minister of Colinton. 

Inverurie. ' 1882. Lorimkr, George, Durrisdeer, Gils- 

1896. Kirkpatrick, John G., W.S., 32 land Road. 

Momingside Park, Edinburgh. ' 1899. Low, Rev. Gkoroe Duncan, 27 Mer- 

1887. KiRKWOOD, Henry Bruce, 68 Thistle : chiston Avenue. 

Street. 1896. Low, Sir James, Kincraig House, 

I Broughty Ferry. 

1882. Laing, Alexander, S.S.C, 9 Pal- , 1873.^Lumsden, Lt.-Col. Henry William, 

merston Place. I Langley Park, Montrose. 

1890. Laing, James H. W., M.A., B.Sc., I 1873.^Lumsden, Hugh Gordon, of Clova, 

M.B., CM., 9 Tay Square, Dundee. | Lumsden, Al>erdeenshire. 

1884. Lamb, James H., The Ijatch, I 1880.*Lumsden, James, Arden House, Alex- 

Brechin. I audria. 

1899. Lamb, James, Leabrae, Inverary Ter- ' 1893. Lynn, Francis, Livingstone Terrace, 

race, Dundee. Galashiels. 

1900. Lang, Andrew, 1 Marloes Road, ! 

Kensington, London. 1 1892. Macadam, Joseph H., 38 Shoe Lane, 

1892. Lang, Jambs, 9 Crown Gardens, I London. 

Dowanhill, Glasgow. 1875. ♦Macadam, Stevenson, Ph.D., Lec- 

1893. Langwill, Robert B., 7 St Leonard's i turer on Chemistry, Surgeons' 

Bank, Perth. I Hall. 


1887. Macadam, W. Iviron, Le(;tiirer on 

Cniemistry, Siu-geous' Hall. 
1885. M'JUiN, JamksM., Banker, Arbroath. 

1877. Macbeatii, Jamks Mainland, Lyiin- 

fiel.I, Kirkwall. 
1893. MacBhaynk, David, Aiulnntiel, 

1889. M*Call, Hardy Behtram. Barton 

End Court, Nailswoitli, Ciloucester. 

1890. M'CoMBiK, Pkteu Duc.uid, of Kastor 

Skene, Abenleensliire. 
1885. Macdonald, Coll Reginald, M.D., 

Ardantrae, Ayr. 
1900. Macdonald, Oeorok, M.A., 41 Lily- 
bank Gardens, Glasgow. 
1899. Macdonald, James, 3 Onudas Street. 
1879. Macdonald, James, W.S., 21 Tliistle 

1896. Macdonald, Jamks Cecil, Solicitor, 

1890.*Macdonald, John Matheson, 95 

Ilarley Street, London, W. 
1882. Macdonald, Kenneth, Town Clerk of 

1890. Macdonald, Wiluam Rak, Neidpath, 

Wester Coates Avenue. 
1896. Macdovgall, J. Patten, Advocate, 

39 Heriot Row, and Gallanach, Oban. 
1872.*M'D()WALL, Thomas W., M.D., East 

Cottingwood, Morpeth. 
1860. Macewen, John Cochrane, Trafford 

Bank, Inverness. 
1892. M'Ewen, Rev. John, Dyke, Forres. 
1899. Mackarlane-(;rieve, W. A., M.A. 

and S.C.L. Oxou,, M.A. Cantab.. 

Inipington I*ark, Cambridgeshire. 
1862.*Mac«ibbon. David, LL.D., Architect, 

65 Frederick Street. 
1898. M'Gillivkay, Angus, C.M., M.I)., 

23 Tay Street, Dundee. 

1878. Macgillivrav, William, W.S., 32 

Charlotte Square. 
1885. M'Glashan, Stewart, Sculptor, Ct 

Brandon Street. 
1889. M'IIardy, Lt.-Col. A. B., C.B., 3 

Riivelston Park. 
1898. Macintosh, Rev. Chahlks Douolas, 

M.A., Minister of St Oran'.s Church, 

Conuel, Argyllshire. 

1897. Macinttrr, P. M., Advocate, 12 India 

1876.*Mackat, MiiKAR J. G., LL.D., Q.C., 

Sheriff of Fife and Kinro.«w, 7 Albyn 

1S90. Mack ay, James, Trowle, Trowbridge. 
1888. Mackay, J. F., W.S., Whitebou.'^e, 


1892. Mackay, Thomas A., 22 Clarence 


1882. Mackay, William, Solicitor, Inver- 

1897. Mackay, John S., LL.D., 69 Nor- 
thunil>erland Street. 

1899. Mackenzie, Sir Alexander Muir, 

Bart., of Delvine, Dunkeld. 

1887. Mackenzie, David J., Sheriff-Substi- 
tute, Bellevue, Wick. 

1891.*Mackenzie, James, 2 Rilllmnk Cres. 

1872.*Mackenzie, Rev. James B., Kenniore, 

1900. Mackenzie, Sir Kenneth J., Bart., 

Queen's and Tiord Treasurer's Re- 
membrancer, Exchequer Chambers, 
Parliament Square. 

1882. Mackenzie, R. W. R, Stormonttield, 

1870.*Mackbnzie, Thomas, Sheriff-SuKsti- 
tute, Tain. 

1876. M'KiK, Thomas, Advocate, 30 Moray 

1888.*Mackinlay, J. M., M.A., 4 West- 
bourne Ganlens, Glasgow. 

1864.*Mackintosh, Charles Eraser, LLD., 
of Drummond, Lochardill, Inverness. 

1893. Mackintosh, William Fyfe, Solici- 

tor, Maulesbank House, Arbroath. 
1S65.*Mackison, William, Architect, 8 Con- 
stitution Terrace, Dun«lee. 
1878. Macl.\gan, Robkrt Craig, M.D., 5 

Coates Crescent. 
1896. Mac Lean, J. A., Union Bank House, 

1885.*MacLehosk, Jamks J., M.A., 61 St 

Vincent Street, Glasgow. 
1893. Macleod, John N., of Kintarbert, 

Glensadell, Argyllsliire. 
1890.*Macleod, Rkginald, C.B.,50 Draycott 

PI., London, SAW,— Vice- PrcsUlent. 


1889. MacLucktk, John Rkddoch, Bra&side, 1900. 

1875. Macmath, William, 16 St Andrew 1878. 

1884. M ACHILLA N, Rev. Hugh, D.D.,LL.D., 1885. 

70 Union Place, Greenock. 
1882. Macphail, Rev. J. C, D.D., Harlaw 1882. 
Hill House, Preston pans. 

1890. Macpherson, Alkxandeii, Solicitor, ' 1876. 

Kingussie. I 

1886. Macpherson, Archibald, Architect, | 1896. 

7 Young Street. i 

1895. Macpherson, Capt. James F., United 1898. 

Service Club, Queen Street. 
1878. Macpherson, Norman, LL.D., 6 1878. 

Buckinghanj Terrace. 
1882.*Macritchie, David, C. A., 4 Archibald 1896. 


1896. Malloch, J.VMES, M.A., Dudhope 

Villa, Dundee. 1890. 

1899. Mann, John, C.A., 18 Westbourne 

(J aniens, Glasgow. j 1867. 

1872.*Marshall, David, Tx)chleven Place, 

Kinross. , 1886. 

1885. Marshall, William Hunter, W.S., 1 

Callander. 1888. 

1891. Martin, Francis, 207 Bath Street, 

Glasgow. ! 1884. 

1861.*Marwick, Sir James David, LL.D., 

City Clerk, City Chambers, Gla.s- 1890. 

1886. Masson, David, LL.D., Historio- 

grapher for Scotland, 2 Lockhartou 1886. 

1892. Matheson, Augustus A., M.D., 41 1899. 

Greorge Square. 
1884. Maxwell, Right Hon. Sir Herbert 1890. 

EosTACE, Bart., M.P., of Moureith, 

Wigtownshire. 1851. 

1892. 'Maxwell, Sir John S., Bart., M.P., of 

PoUok, Pollok House, Pollokshaws. 1882. 

1891. Maxwell, Wellwood, of Kirkennan, 

Dalbeattie. 1882, 

1887.* Maxwell, William, of Donavourd, 

Pitlochry. 1887, 

1887. Meldrum, Rev. A., M.A., Logierait, 

Ballinluig. 1897. 

1887. Melville, The Right Hon. Viscount, 

Melville Castle, Lasswade. 1894, 

Menzies, W. D. G., of Pitcur, Hally- 

burton, Coupar Angu.s. 
Mercer, Wiluam Lindsay, of Hunt- 

ingtower, Rilcraig, Scone. 
Metcalfe, Rev. W. M., D.D., South 

Manse, Paisley. 
Millar, Alexander H., Ro.sslynn 

House, Clepington lioad, Dundee. 
Millar, William White, S.S.C, 

Dunesk, Lasswade. 
MiLLKR, Alexander C, M.D., Craig 

Linnhe, Fort- William. 
Miller, Rev. Edward, M.A., F.C. 

Manse, Newtyle. 
♦Miller, George Anderson, W.S., 
Knoweheail, Perth. 
MiLLKR, Robert, J. P., Deputy- 
Lieutenant for Edinburgh, 38 Lauder 
Milne, Rev. Andrew Jamibson, 
LL.D., Fyvie, Aberdeenshire. 
•Mitchell, Sir Arthur, K.C.B., M.D., 

LL.D., 34 Dninimond Place. 
, Mitchell, A. J., Advocate, 60 
Frederick Street. 
Mitchell, Charles, C.E., 132 Princes 
. Mitchell, Hugh, Solicitor, Pit- 
. Mitchell, John Oswald, B.A., 
LLD., 67 East Howard Street, 
♦Mitchell, Richard Blunt, of Pol- 

mood, 45 Albany Street. 
, Mitchell, Sydney, Architect, 34 
Drunimond Place. 
Moncriekf, Col. Sir Alexander, 
K.C.B., Baudirran, Perth. 
♦Montgomery, Sir Graham G., Bart., 

Stobo Ca.stle, Peebles-shire. 
, MoKKis, James Archibald, Architect, 

Wellington Chambers, Ayr. 
. Morrison, Hew, Librarian, Eilinburgh 

Public Library. 
.♦Moubray, John J., Naemoor, Rum- 
bling Bridge. 
MoxoN, Charles, 77 George 
, MuiR, John, Galston, Ayrshire. 

XXX u 

1M77 Mi'iiuiKM*. Andhhw, l» MurmylleM 

IHW. Mi'iniiKvn. (Jkomok. F.K.S.R, Com- 

luliwItMUM' for tho I>uko of lUohinoiul 

Hint Oonlon. S|H'yhniik, FwlmlH^ra. 
IMUI. Mtnho. ArKXANOi^u M.. Aowuntaut, 

M'owu llouHt\ AU'nlrvii. 
IWU. Mi'NMo K>:uur«»oN.IU>N,\im'RAi'KrKn, 

of Novur. M r.. Urtilh, KirkcaMv. 
IMVr. MiNUo. John. J.IV. !»uu !li>:h. OKiu. 
»Mr\i.»MrNUo. HooKUT. M.A.. M.P.. 4v^ 

Mrtuor !Mrt«'*\ 
X'my MrsMo. Kov. WimvM. AU Saints 

YU'Km>:v. N»'W|H»rt. Moumouth<hii\\ 
tJ^V M\»mHH u. Uow A. IV. All SaintV INr 

Roimj:^*. W I^Ani^lmiu Stnvt. 

M<V\H»*» UoUhVXNvhUV 

n \^ . \MulWuxi\» \ \^U\\ NN A<MU\ 

t5SC Nli>»\vN. K \ U 5 Kv' i •' \>vv.N ' : 
\:!\<\ *\^v^. Kxxv.w USV. \>>' IV' 
rvt;>-v/-, Vnnvvvvx 

^; *-.>s ..*»f. Vv'. *..>'» «.• 
.^-- ^V X V X* xx V S- V 


Biel, Piwstonkirk. 
18S>9.*(>RR, UdBKRT, of Kiunanl, 79 West Nile 

StrtH't, CJlasgow. 
ISW. Ormiston, W. Malcolm, Architect, 

Hamilton House, 1 Relugas Road. 
lv^i>(». Ohmond. Rev. David D„ Minister of 

Craig's Free Church, Stirling. 

lJ^l>6. r.vKK. John A., Inveresk House. 

ISv^. Takkkk. Charles Arundel, M.D., 

TarkiKK^k, Gosforth, Cumberluhl 
Iv^'i^.^PATt^N, Sir J^16EPH Noel, R.S.A., 

LUn., 38 C»ev>tp^ Stjumre. 
18^. Tatv^n. Robert. City Chamberhun, 

19 Ki<^nt Terrace. 
IS^M. Fatv^n. Vktv^r Albert Nokl, W.SL. 

*J2 Youiig Street. 
K^\ FvrTKiw^^N. James K.. Ph.D.. Presi- 

aeut of the State CoUe^ of Kentnckr. 

texiit^toti. r.S^A. 
is:i -Fwi. C»b\^Rv;e M.. W.S.. 1«5 St 

Auvirx'w S*jaire. 
isrv. Fvvi. S;r J. RvuvciL AxlTwate. 

t.xsv-tt K'.r^ ,'jf Anus^ 3*> Heriot 

:SSt Fxxi. K«r\. K 55xr. Fa\ MaB;$«*, 

* >{> . .s \ > . - w - x\ ,; r a-^a. :3i 

.. \ ^.K .'•? k'M ^v. V :. ..i; .*tt?v • Vl>\ 




1900. PRIMR081, Rev. Jamrs, M.A., 27 
Onslow Drive, Gla«jfow. 

1886. PcLLAR, Alfred, M.I)., Ill Denmark 

Hill, London, S.E. 

186o.*RArNT, Robert, D.D., Principal and 

J'rofessor of TTieolog}' and Cliurch 

History, New College, Rlinhurgh, 23 

Douglas CreHwnt. 
1 873. ♦Rampini, Charles, LL.D., Vancouver, 

Paignton, S. Devon. 
Ramsay, William, of Rowland, Stow. 
Raxkink, John, Professor of Scots 

Law, University of Rlinburgh, 23 

Ainslie Place. 
Rea, Albxawdbr, M.R.A.S., Sui)erin- 

tendent of the Arcbseological Survey 

of South India, Bangalore. 
1893. Read, Charles Hercules, Briti«h 

Museum, London. 
1832. Reid, Alexander George, Solicitor, 

1888.*Reid, Sir (Jeurge, /^.R.S.A., LL.D., 

22 Royal Terrace. 
1898. Reid, JAM^>l Robert, U Magdala Cre.s. 

1897. Rkid, Rev. Edward T. S., M.A., f»9 

Jeffrey Street. 
Rhind, \V. Birnie, A.R.S.A., Sculp- 
tor, St Helen's, CaniV>ridge Street 
Richards, Rev. Walter J. B., D.D., 

St Charles's College, dotting Hill, 

1880. Richardson, Adam B., 4 Malvern 

Place, Cheltenham, — Curator of 

1896. Richardson, Ralph, W.S., 10 Mag- 

dala Place. 
1886. •Ritchie, Charles, S.S.C, 20 Hill St. 

1898. Roberts, Alexander F., TliornfieM, 

1883. JvOBKUTs, Andrew, Solicitor, Com- 
mercial Bank, (*allander. 

1887. Robertson, D. Argyll, M.D., LL.I)., 

IVfcsident of the Royal College of 

Surgeons, 18 Cliarlotte Sfiuan'. 
1879. Robertson, Oeoroe, Keei)er of the 

Abbey, Dunfermline. 
1886.*Robertson, Robert, Tluutly House, 







1889. Robertson, Thomas S., Architect, 
Riverview, Broughty Ferry. 

1879.*RoBERTaoN, W. W., Architect, H.M. 
Board of Works, Parliament Stjuare. 

1865. ♦Robinson, John Ryley, LL.D., The 
Cedars, Moorlands Road, Dewsbury. 

1880. Robson, William, S.S.C.,Marchholm, 

Gillslaud Road. 
1871.*RoLLO, Right Hon. Lonl, Duncrub 

House, Dunning. 
1872.*RosEBERY, Right Hon. The F:arl of, 
LL.D., Dalmeny Park. 
Ross, Alexander, LkD., Architect, 

Queensgate Chaml>ers, Inverness. 
Ross, Joseph Carne, M.D., 19 Palatine 

Raid, Manchester. 
Ross, Thomas, Architect, 14 Saxe- 
Coburg Place. 
1867.*Ross, Rev. William, Cowcaddens Free 
Cliurch, 42 Windsor Terrace, N., 

1894.*SanDeman, Lieut.-Colonel G. G., of 
Fonab, Port-na-Craig, Moulin. 

1889. Scott, Alexander, Ashbank, New- 
port, Fife. 

1892. Scott, James, J. P., Rock Knowe, 


1895. .Scott, John, C.B., Hawkhill, Urgs, 

1900. ?coTT, Rev. Robert, M.A., Minister 
of Craig, Montrose. 

1898. Scott-Hall, Rev. W. E., of St Man- 
Hall, Staverton Fields, Oxford. 

1S93. ScoTT-MoNCRiEFK, Sir Colin, Under- 
Secretary for S<;otland, 11 Cheyne 
Walk, Chelsea, Loudon. 

1893. ScoTT-MoNCRiEFF, David, W.S., 24 

(ieorge Stpiare. 
1889. ScoTT-MoNCRiEFF, W. G.', Sheriff- 
Substitute, Uiuark. 

1881. Semple, Andrew, M.D., United 

Service Club, Queen Street. 
184S.*Seton, (Jkohge, M.A., Advocate, 
Ayttm House, Al)eniethy, Perthshire. 
lbt)9.*SHAND, Ri^ht Hon. I^rd, 32 Bryanston 
S<iuare, London. 
! 1892. Shiells, Henry K., C.A., 141 George 
I Street. 


1897. Shielus, Robert, Banker, Neenah, 

Wisconsin, U.S. A. 
1879. SiBBALD, Sir John, M.D., 18 Great 

King Street. 
1879. SiBBALD, John Edward, 8 Ettrick 

1871.*SiMP80N, Alex. R, M.D., Professor of 

Midwifer)', University of Edinburgh, 

52 Queen Street. 
1890. Simpson, H. F. Morland, M.A., Rector 

of the Granunar School, 80 Hamilton 

Place, Abenleen. 
1880.*SiMi»8ON, Robert R., W.S., 8 Brunts- 
field Crescent. 
1896. SincLuVIR, John, 11 South Norton 

1876.*Skinner, William, W.S., 35 George 

1877. Skirving, Adam, of Croys, Dalbeattie. 
1879. Smail, James, 7 Bruntstield Crescent. 

1898. Smellie, Thomas, Architect, 12 Port- 

land Place, Kilmarnock. 

1899. Smith, Andrew, of Fuulaws, Broom- 

I>ark, Lanark. 
1898. Smith, David Crawford, 19 Queen 
Street, Perth. 

1892. Smith, G. Gregory, 16 Murrayfield 


1893. Smith, George, S.S.C, 21 St Andrew 

1877. Smith, James T., Dtdoch, Inver- 

1898. Smith, Rev. Jame.s, M.A., B.D., 

Minister of St George '»-in-the- West, 

1874.*Smith, J. Irvine, 20 Great King 


1889. Smith, Robert, Solicitor, 9 Ward 

Road, Dundeo. 

1890. Smith, Thomas Henry, Corrie Lodge, 


1891.*Smith, W, M'Combie, Persie, Blair- 

1892.*Smythe, Ct)lonel David M., Methven 
Castk-, Perth. 

1892. SoMERViLLE, Rcv. J. E., B.D., Villa 
Jeanne, Mentoue, France. 

1882.*S0DTHESK, Right Hon. The >iirl of, K.T. 
LL.D., Kiunuird Cattle, Brechin. 

I 1890.*Sfence, Charles Jambs, South 

I^ston Lodge, North Shields. 
' 1882. Spraqub, Thomas B., M.A., LL.D., 
29 Buckingham Terrace. 
1872. ♦Stair, Right Hon. The Earl of, K.T., 
LL.D., Oxenfoord Castle, Dalkeith. 
. 1875. Starke, James G.H., M.A., Advocate, 
Trotjueer Holm, Dumfries. 
1885. Steedman, Thomas, Clydesdale Bank, 
I Kinross. 

'■ 1874. ♦Steel, Lt.Col. G. Mure, 21 Royal 
' Circus. 

I 1891. Steele, Wiluam, Woodville, Bow- 
' mont Street, Kelso. 

1895. Stevenson, John Horne, M.^V., Advo- 
I cate, 9 Oxford Terrace. 

I 1867. ♦Stevenson, John J., Architect, 4 

Ponlu'stcr Cf aniens, London, W. 
I 1887. Stevenson, Rev. W., M.A., Achtertool 
I Manse, Kirkcaldy. 

1876. Stewart, Rev. Alexander, LL.D., 
Manse of Ballachulish, Nether 
1879. Stewart, C'harles Poyntz, Chasfield 

Park, Stevenage. 
1871.*Stewart, Maj.-Gen. J. H. M. Shaw, 
R.E., 7 Inverness Terrace, London, 
1885. Stewart, Robert King, Murdostoun 

Castle, Newmains, Ijanarkshire. 
1894. Stewart, Walter, 3 Queensferry 

1882. Story, Rev. R. Herbert, D.D., 
LL.D., Princii>al of the University, 
1897. Strachan, Rev. Jamks M., B.D., 

Kilspindie Manse, Errol. 
1889. Stratuern, Robert, W.S., 13 Eglin- 

ton Cres(*ent. 
1867.*.Strathmore, Right Hon. The Earl of, 

Glainis Castle, Forfarshire. 
1»84. Strong, W. R., C.A., 317 Collins 
Street, Mellxmrne. 

1894. Stuart, Ale.\., 11 Coates Ganlens. 

1895. Stuart, The Hon. Morton Gray, 2 

Bellord Park. 
1882. Sturrock, Peter, London Roa<l, Kil- 

1897. Sulley, Philip, Bellbrae, Cupar-Fife. 


1876. Sutherland, Rev. George, The Par- 
sonage, Portsoy. 

1899.*SuTHERLAND, ROBERT M., Wallside, 

1887. Sutherland, J. B., S.S.C., 10 Windsor 

1897. SuTTiR, George C, of Lalathan, Lsa 
Bank, Arkleston Road, Paisley. 

1884. Swallow, Rev. H. J., M.A., 7 The 
Grove, Sunderland. 

1900. SwiNTON. Capt. George S. C, 36 
Pont Street, London. 

1899. Sylve,ster, Rev. Walter, St Cliarles 

College, Notting Hill, London. 

1884. Tait, George, 89 Gilmore Place. 
1892. ♦Taylor, J. Pringlk, W.S., 19 Young 

1900. Taylor, W. Lawrence, Broad Street, 

1884. Temple, Rev. William, M.A., D.D., 

1 Prince Arthur Street, Aberdeen. 
1870.*Tennant, Sir Charles, Bart., The 

Glen, Innerleithen. 

1897. Tennant, John, High Street, Eccle- 

1896. Thin, James, 22 Lauder Road. 
1874.*Thoms, George Hunter MacThomas, 

Advocate, 13 Charlotte Square. 
1900. Thomson, Andrew, Glendinniug Ter- 
race, Galashiels. 
1894. Thomson, Edward Douglas, Chief 

Clerk, General Post Office, 60 Queen 

1896. Thomson, J. Maitland, Advocate, 

Curator of the Historical Department 

H.M. General Register House, 3 

Grosvenor Gardens. 
1867.*Thomson, Lockhart, S.S.C, 114 

George Street. 
1882. "Thomson, Sir Mitchell, Bart., 6 

Charlotte Square. 
1875. "Thomson, Robert, LL.D., 8 Scieunes 


1898. Thorburn, Michael Grieve, of 

Glenorraiston, Innerleithen. 
1893. Thurburn, Lieut-Col. F. A. V., Kirk- 
fell, Highland Road, Ui)per Norwood, 
London, S.E. 

1891. Ttllbrook, Rev. W. J., M.A., Strath 
Tay Parsonage, Grantully, Ballin- 

1896. ToMLiNSON, Charles, South Cottage, 
Healey, Rochdale. 

1898. Tough, AVilliam, M.A., 94 Polwarth 

1877. TUKE, Sir John Batty, M.D., LL.D., 
M.P., 20 Charlotte Square. 

1899. TuLLOCH, Major Gen. Alexander 

Bruce, C.B., C.M.G., Llanwyok, 
Llangattock, Crickhowell, S. Wales. 
1887.*TuRNBULL, William J., 16 Grange 

1880. TuRNKU, Frederick J., Mansfield 

Woodhouse, Mansfield, Notts. 
1865. ♦Turner, Sir W^illiam, M.B., LL.D., 
D.C.Ii., Professor of Anatomy, Uni- 
versity of EiUnburgh, 6 Eton Ter- 

1881. TwEEDDALE, Tlie Most Honourable The 

Marquess of, K.T., Tester House, 

1878.*Urquh.\rt, James, H.M. Register 

1882. ♦Usher, Rev. W. Neville, Wellingore 
Vicarage, Lincoln. 

1895. Vallance, David J., Curator, Museum 
of Science and Art, Chambers 

1862.^Veitch, George Seton, Bank of Scot- 
land, Paisley. 

1874. Walker, Alexander, LL.D., 64 
Hamilton Place, Aljerdeen. 

1884. Walker, R. C, S.S.C, Wingate Place, 
Newport, Fife. 

1879. Wallace, Thomas D., Rector of High 
School, Inverness. 

1876. Waterston, George, 56 Hanover 

1 891 . Watson, Rev. Alex an der Duff, B. D. , 
F.C. Manse, Bourtree Bush, Stone- 

1890.^Watson, D. M., Bullionfield, Dundee. 

1895. ♦Watson, Robert F., Briery Yartls, 


1884. Watson, W. L., Ayton House, Aber- 1895. 
net by, Perthshire. 

1893. \Vats<»n, William. Dep.-SHrgeon- 

(ieiieral, Waverley House. Slate- , 1897. 
1887. Watt, James C'kabb, Advocate, 46 1SS4. 
Heriot Row. , 

1879. Weddekbikn, J. R. M., M.A., W.S.. 1898. 

3 Oleiicairn CresceuV, ' 

1877. Welsh, John, More«l«n. LilH'rton. 1S8S, 

1872.*Wemys8 .vN'D Mauch, Right Hon. 

The KiiA of, 1J>.1>., Oosfonl, Long- 1SS3. 


1880. Wenlky, J AMES Adams. r>I)ninisheuph lv^7.'». 


1884. White, Cecil. 23 Drunimond Place. 1S9-2. 
1869.* White, Col. Thomas Pilkington, 

R.E., 3 Hesketli Crt>s<vnt, Tor- lii^9. 

1885. WHITEL.VW, I>AViD, Ksklull. Inver- I 

esk. 1S89. 

1868.*Whtte, Robert, Procurator- Fiscal » 

Forfar. 1S91. 

1894. Williams, Frederick Bessant, 3 

Essex Grove, Cpinjr Norwootl. 1878. 

Wiluams, Rev. George, Minister of 

Norrieston Free Church, Thombill, 

WiixiAMs. Harry M., Tilehurst, 

Priory Park. Kew, Surrey. 
Williamson. Rev. Alexander, D.D., 

39 Lauder Road. 
Wilson, Rev. John, M.A., Minister of 

WiLs<>N, Rev. W. H., The Parsonage, 

WtH>D. Tiios. A. tK"»rGLAs, Viewforth, 

Brunstune Road, Jopj^a. 
Wot>DBiRN, Sir John. K. C.S.I. 

I>runigr:inge, Patna, Ayr. 
*Wordie. John, 42 Montgomery Drive, 

Wyon, Allan, *2 Langham CTiambcrs, 

Portland Place, London, W. 

YoiNG, HrcH W., of Burghead, 

Tortolla. Nairn. 
YoiNG, WiLUAM Laurkncb, Belvl- 

dere, Auchterarder. 
• YiHNGER, Robert, 15 Carlton Terrace. 




NOVEMBER 30, 1900. 
[According to the Laws, tJic number is limited to twenty-fivk.] 

His Royal Highness Albert Edward, Prince of Wales. 

Right Hon. Lord Avebury, LL.D., D.C.L., Hij,'h Elms, Farnborougli, 

Sir John Evans, K.C.B., D.C.L., LL.D., &c., Nashmills, Ilemel-Hemp- 


Rev. Canon William Green well, M.A., D.C.L., Durham. 

Jt Jhiibwm' BuDOLT Vibghow, M.D., LL.D., Berlin. 



l>r Hans Hildebraxd, Royal Anti«|Uiiry of Sweden. 
Dr Ernest Chaxtbe, Tlie Museum, Lyons, 


Whitley Stokes, LL.D., C.S.I., 15 GnnvilW Place, Cornwall Ganlens, 

rn>fessor Lruu Pigorini, Director of thi- Koyal Arckeological Museum, 

10 Alexandre Bertrand. Conservateur du Mu?<^ de? Antiquite^ Nationales, 

Saint Oormain-on-I*jiyo, Seine et Oi:***, France, 
Pr Henry C Lea, 2tHH> Walnut Siiwt, Philadelphia. 


W. M. Flinders Petrif^ IXC\L., Ll-,1>., Rlwanls Prf^fessor of Egyptology 

in University ColU^\ l^^ndon. 
John Rins, M.A.. l.UR, IVofesss^^r of Celtic, and Principal of Jesus 

CoHoge, Oxfonl. 
Sir Francis* Tress IVvrry, Riri,, M.P., St L*H>nAT\Vs Hill, Windsor, and 

Kfijis Castlo, Keiss. 
\:> l>r St>rHi s Ml LLF.R, Secnnary of the Royal Siviety of Xorthem Anti- 

«juarios and Pinvtor of the National Mns»eum, C<»j>enhagen. 
Pr iVcAR MoNTELtrs, Pix^fessi^r at the National Musieum, Stockholm. 


Kmuk CvKTAn.H.\«.\ Toulouse. 
F. Havkr> un\ M.A., Chust i'hur^li. i>\:oni. 
J. RoTkiniA An.v.N, S i>ix\-^t Ormond Sinvts ly*Muion. 
:^"^ Krv. S, RvRiN*^ iJorn\ Lew Tixnohar^i, Novih IVvon. 
Ror%vRT l>i RNAKix :^ H\ll^lM^^u,ch. Plyiv.vMith. 
Charles W. 1>\momv Hich Wnw, AmMo^iiio, 




NOVEMBER 30, 1900. 
[According to the Laws, the number is limited to twenty-five.] 

Miss C. Mac LAO AN, Kavenscroft, Stirling. 

The Baroness Burdett Coutts. 

The Dowager Lady Dunbar of Northfield, Duff us Ilouse, Elgin. 

Mrs Ramsay, Kildalton, Islay. 

5 The Right Hon. The Countess of Selkirk. 

Mrs P. H. Chalmers of Avochie. 


Mrs Annie Chambers Dowib, Edinburgh. 

Mis.s Emma Swanx, Walton Manor, Oxford. 

Miss II. J. M. Russell of Asbiesteel. 
10 Miss Amy Frances Vdle of Tarradale, Ross-shire. 


Mis8 M. A. Murray, Holmst^, Bushey Heath. 
Mr* EL S. ARMiTAiiE, Westholm, Rawdon, Leeds. 


The Society of Antiquaries of London. 

The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

The Cambrian Archa3ological Awsociation. 

The Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 

The British Archa3ological Association. 

The Society of Architects, London. 

The Architectural, Archaeological, and Historic Society of Chester. 

The Derbyshire Arcliaeological and Natural History Association. 

The Essex Arclueological Society. 

The Kent Archjeological Society. 

The Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. 

The Architectural Society of the Counties of Lincoln and J Nottingham and 

Associated Societies. 
The Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-upon-Tyne. 
The Somersetshire Arclueological and Natural History Society. 
The Surrey Arcliaeological Society. 
The Sussex Arclueological Society. 
The Geological Society of Edinburgh. 
The Berwickshire Naturalists* Club. 
The Anthropolc^cal Institute, London. 
The Wiltsliire Archaeological Society. 
The Royal Irish Academy. 

The Bristol and Gloucestersliire Arclueological Society. 
The Numismatic Society, London. 
The Shropshire Archaeological Society. 
The Dumfriesshire Natural History and Antiquarian Society. 
The Edinburgh Architectural Association. 
The New Spalding Club, Aberdeen. 
The Cambridge Antiquarian Society. 
The Royal Historical Society, London. 
The Literary and Scientific Society, The Museum, Elgin. 



Foreign Societies. 
Tlie Royal Society of Northern Antiquaries, Copenhagen. 
La Soci(5t6 Nationale des Antiquaires de France, Paris. 
Antiquarische Gesellschaft, Zurich. 
Verein von Alterthumafreiuide im Rheinlande, Bonn. 
The Smithsonian Institution, Washington, U.S.A. 
The Canadian Institute, Toronto. 
The Museum, Bergen. 

Foreningen til Norske Fortidsmindesmerkers Bevaring, Christiania. 
The Royal Academy of History and Antiquities, Stockholm. 
The Bureau of Ethnology, Washington. 
The Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A. 
Gesellscliaft f iir Niitzliche Forschungen, Triei*. 
Physic-CEkonomische Gesellschaft, Konigsberg. 
Berliner Gesellschaft fUr Anthropolc^ie, Berlin. 
Anthropologische Gesellschaft, Wien. 
Dei>artment of Mines, Sydney. 
Society D'Archc^'ologie de Bruxelles, Belgium. 
Societe des BoUandists, Bruxelles. 
L'Ecole D' Anthropologic, Paris. 
Societe Archc-ologique de Namur, Namur. 
Reale Academia dei Lincei, Rome. 
Der Alterthmusgesellschaft Prussia, Konigsl>erg. 
Centralblatt fiir Anthropologic, Stettin. 
Soci6te Archeologi(|ue du Midi de la France, Toulouse. 
L' Academic des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres, Paris. 
La Commissione Archeologica Communale di Roma. 
La Societe D' Anthropologic de Paris. 
La Musde Guimet, Paris. 

La Societe^ Archeologique du Depirtment de Constautine, Algeria. 
National Museum of Croatia, Zagreb, Austria-Hungary. 
The Bosniflch-Herzegovinisch Landes-Museum, Sarajevo, Bosnia. 
Bureau des Schweizerisches Landes-Museum, Zurich. 
The Geological Survey Office, Pietermaritzburg, Natal. 

From the Publishers. 
The Antiquary (Elliot Stock), London. 

The Reliquary and Illustrated Arch<tolo<jist (Bemrose & Sons), London. 
UAnthropologie (Massou & C'*'), Paris. 
Uliiter Journal of Archeology (M*Caw, Stevenson & Orr), Belfast. 





Anniversary Mebting, 30^/^ Novsmher 1899. 

REGINALD MACLEOD, Esq., C.15., in the Chair. 

The Rev. Canon Murtloch and Mr James L. Caw were appointed 
Scrutineers of the Ikllot for the election of Office-Beiirers and Council- 

The Bidlot having heen concluded, the Scrutineers found and declared 
the List of the Council for the ensuing ycixr to he iis follows : — 


The Most Hon. the Marquess op Lothian, K.T., LL.D. 

The Hon. .John Abercromby. 
The Hon. Hew Hamilton Dalrymple. 
Reginald Macleod, C.B. 
VOL. xxxiv. A 

-• • • 



Sir Oeorok Ueid, \ ,, 
LL.1)., /'.R.S.A., ( ^"V^"'*"!' 

Sir Arthur MITCHKL^ I "''"'^'"* 
K.C.B.,M.D.,LLD.,) "f^'^'^'^*- 

The Right Hon. Sir Herbert Max- 
well, Rirt., M.P. 

John Horne Stbvenbon, M.A. 
Alexander J. S. Brook. 
Sir James Balfour Paul. 
John Findlay. 
Robert Munro, M.A., M.D. 
W. Rae Macdonald. 


David Christison, M.D. 

J. H. Cunningham. 

Joseph Anderson, LL.D., AsaistatU Secretary, 

Thomas Graves Law, LL.D., 1 Sccretnries for Foreign 

James Macdonald, LL.D., / Corre^fpowltnce, 

John Notman, F.F.A., 28 St Andrew Square. 

Curators of the Museum, 
Robert Carfrae. | Professor Duns, D.D. 

Curator of Coins, 
Adam B. Richardson. 

James Curle, Jun. 

A KiUot having' }ioon taken, tho following gentlemen were Aaif 

(-h'f'UA F«'ll'^»u - : 

Hi*: Hoti. A\mk^ Hozikr, M.P., Maulilslie Ca.<tle, Carlake. 
\r.f/fcK» LASt», I MarlrKfS Koa<l, Kensington, London. 
Vt'nj.iAM I:rhari> Phii.mi'S, Architect, Westboume hoi^g^ 


The Meeting resolved to express their sense of the loss the Society 
had sustained in the deaths of the following Members, deceased since 
last iViinual Meeting : — 

Honorary Members, 

William Frazer, F.R.C.S.I., 20 Harcourt Street, Dublin, . 
Sir Henry Dryden, Bart, Canons Ashby, Northampton, . 


Carrespojuling Member, 
Rev. George Wilson, Free Chm-ch Minister, Glenluce. 


Robert Adam, Earj., 2 Gillsland Road, 

J. Lambert Bailey, Solicitor, Ardrossan, 

Jas. Currie Baxter, S.S.C, 45 Heriot Row, 

Thomas Bonn a r, 58 George Street, . 

David Chalmers, Redliall, Slateford, 

J. G. Sinclair Cckjhill, M.D., Ventuor, Isle of Wight, 

Robert Cox, M.P., 34 Dnimsheugh Gardens, 

James Donaldson, Sunnyside, Fonnby, 

Richard Hewat Dunn, Earlston, .... 

William N. Fraser of Findrack, .... 

Charles Innes, Solicitor, Inverness, .... 

Surgeon-Major-Greneral S. A. Lithoow, M.D., C.B., Superintendent 

of the Royal Infirmary, Edinburgh, .... 
Adam Millar, Yew Bank, Helensburgh, .... 
L.VCHLAN MACKINNON, Jun., Advocatc, Aberdeen, 
His Grace The Duke op Northumberland, Alnwick Castle, 
James C. Roger, Friars Watch, Waltharastow, . 
Sir John Struthers, M.D., LL.D., 15 George Square, 
G. Lawson Tait, M.D., LL.D., Birmingliam, 
Alexander Thomson, Trinity Grove, Trinity Road, . 
William Troup, Eastwell, Bridge of Allan, 
William E. Williams, Architect, Tjeicester Sqiwre, London, 
George Williamson, 37 Newton Street, Greenock, . 
William Yeats of Aquharney, Aberdeenshire, . 




The following Kc|K>rt by Dr Christison, Secretary, of events of interest 
to the Society which have i^ccurre^l during the jiost Se,s^ion, was read : — 

Kepurt ox Evbsts of Last Session, 1899. 

The Council having considered that a statement .of important recent 
occurivnces connectetl with the Six*ieiy and the ^luseum would introduce 
some variety into the meri»ly fi»rmal business of our Annual Meeting, and 
could hanlly fail to interest the Fellows, 1 wa> t^immissioned to draw- 
up such a statement, and this has Kvn dune under the heads of 
Historical or Uusiness and An*haH»higical event«N 

Under the tirst head, one of unusual imin^rtance, has been our 
connectiiui with a Parliamentary Conimitt*v ap)iointed in October of 
last year mainly *' io consider and suggest n^gulations for avoiiling midue 
comitetition Knween mus^ninis sup)^»rt<^l out of public funds in Sct»tland 
ami Ireland on the one hand, and the Uritish Museum on the otlier, 
for the ac^piisition of objtvis of aniitpiarian or hist<»ric inten?st; and for 
ensuring that in the ras*» oi obj»y-ts which fr^»m their origin or associations 
aiv of |M\uliar intenv<t either to S<N*tland ««r Inland, the mus^'um in the 
c»>uutry s*> iuton\Niotl should U- atfordt**! an ojij^frtunitv of purchasing 
them Ivforo ihey an* :uipn"n^l by any otlur institutions sup]K>rted out 
of public funds." 

This intjuiry anvM' fnuu the ]am'bas<- by the llritish Museum of certain 
aniclos found in In^land, which iho Irish authorities demanded should 
W» lriUi>forn^l lo their National Museum. Uut we in Scotland had a 
grievaniH? of our own, which utxvssimly cann- within the sci>pe of the 
impiiry, vif ., the ]Mmhas»> by the Uritish Musinim at a «de in London 
•^f tbo tUcnixon l^hH^^h, iti spiio of nn intimation to their authoritieB 
iVmii Mr i";ufr.^i\ who has long act<\l for us in purrhasing articles offered 
f <r«- III ilu- Metn^i%itlis« thai \h<^ S^icioty dc«iml to acquire lliis Sooltiah 
:trtiole fi<r our National Mu^ouni, a daim whidi on all ] 
had Kvn onirtcously acknowMgdlw^Hiilgf^ 


Tills change of attitude on the part of the British Museum seriously 
nicusieed the prosjwrity of our National Museiun, and a representation, 
warmly supporteil by I-^jrd Lothian, our lV(?sident, was made to the 
Trustees of the British ^Euseum, pointing out the scandalous nature of 
such a competition between two (government institutions supported by 
public funds, and requesting that the Glenlyon Brooch should Ix^ 
transferre*! to the Scottish National Collection. Our representation was 
supporter! by the Board of ^ranufactures and the Secretary for. Scotland, 
and privately by the Duke of Argj'le, Tx)rd Ro8el)ery, and other Scottish 
patriots of influence. The Tnistees replied, however, that they had no 
l)0wer to part with any article once acquired, but offered to have a 
replica of the brooch, Jis well as of another ancient Scottish brooch in 
the British Museum, made for dejKJsit in our Scottish Museum. This 
offer, under the circumstances, was accepted by the Council, but they 
expressed to the Secretary for Scotland a hope that some means might 
be found of preventing such comj)etition in future, and of establishing 
our superior claim to Scottish articles. The Parliamentary inquiry, 
therefore, c^me most opportunely for us, through the pertinacity of the 
Irish Members, who insisted in Parliament upon their national rights 
in a manner which is too rarely followed by the Scottish Members in 
similar questions affecting our own country. 

Tlie Committee consisted of Tx)rd Rathmore, Chainiian ; Sir John 
Lubbock, and Sir John Evans, who might l>e considered as representing 
the British Museum ; Mr Thomas IL (xrattan Ksmonde, and Sir Her})ert 
Maxwell, ds representing Irish and Scottish interests ; lastly, Mr John 
Morley, who as an Englishman, a Scottish M.P., and an Irish sym- 
pathiser, stood in a somewhat different }x)sition from the others. 

The Council were desirous that our evidence should be given either 
by Sir Arthur Mitchell or Dr Joseph Anderson, whose knowledge of the 
affiun of the Society and the Museum has been so long and so intimate, 
bot as both of them were tmalJe to go, the duty devolved on me, 
witii Mr Carfrae, whose evidence regarding the Glenlyon 


My examination ranged over : — 

(1) The modes by which objects were obtained for the Scottish 
National Museum, particularly through the action of * Treasure Trove.' 

(2) The nature of the understanding by means of which comi)etition 
with the British Museum had been avoided prior to the Glenlyon Brooch 

(3) The reason for its breaking down in that case. 

(4) The expediency of relaxing tlie Rules forbidding the parting with 

(5) The means of doing so. 

(6) The means of securing for each Museum the first choice of objects 
appertaining to its own area, and of avoiding the risk of the loss of 
objects through the delay that might thus be caused. 

The examination of Mr Carfrae turned mainly ui)on the sale of the 
Glenlyon Brooch, and his previous experiences with the British Museum. 

Our evidence is printed at full length in the Report now on the table. 

The chief recommendations of the Committee are briefly as follows : — 

That whenever it comes to the knowledge of the officers of any 
one of the National Museums that any object of i)eculiar interest to 
another National area has been offered or is likely to be offered for sale, 
information should be given to the authorities in that area, so that they 
should have the first opportunity of acquiring it, an understanding 
being arrived at as to what constitutes a rejisonable price, and care 
b(»ing taken to prevent the risk of loss of the object through delay. 

That the Regulation prohibiting the Museums from parting with 
objects should be relaxed, but that the conditions would need to l)e 
carefully considered, and should probably be confined to such articles as 
tlie Trustees are willing to transfer l)y exchange or otherwise. 

As to the incident of the (Uenlyon Brooch, the opinion is expressed 
that it was mainly due to a misunderstanding between Mr Re^id of the 
British ^Museum and Mr Carfrae, and that had the Regulations allowed 
it the Brooch would probably have been handed over to the Scottish 
National Museum after its purchase by the British Museum. 


Tin? Kei)ort of tlio Comraittoo may be coiifiidered jus favcmrable on tlie 
whole to our interests. It is true tliat it merely makes recommendations 
and that these have no legislative force, Imt it is not likely that in 
future any action will Ikj tjiken in defiance of these recommenda- 
tions ; and should any such attempt l)e made we can take our stand on 

An event of no less im}K>rtance in our history has l)een the application 
to the Treasury for a renewal of the five-years annual grant of j£200 for 
the purchase of articles for the Museum, of books for the Library, and 
for binding. This grant has proved of the titmost service, as without it 
(the Coin C.ibinet fund fr<mi which we had previously made our 
purchases being exhausted) we should have been reduced for these 
purjKKSc^s Ui an uiniual sum of about £20, derived from the admission 
money on the two days a week when a charge is made at the door. An 
allowance of <£200 a year for the alH>ve-mentit>ne4 imrjwses cannot l>e 
called extravagant, an<l in ItwX it has not hitherto proved sufficient, but 
this may have l)een the result of unusual expenditure on the Librarj', 
which frrmi want of means we had l)een obliged to starve for some years 
>>efore the grant was obtained. 

AVe have also lieen authorise<l to api)roach the Treasury for a sjMicial 
errant for the purchase of objects or collections of olvjects of great 
historical or anti(piarian interest to Scotland, the cost of which could 
not well l>e defniyed out of the annual grant of X200; but there are 
some practical difliculties in the working of this privilege, and we have 
only once l)een al)l(^ to avail oui-selves of it. This was in the purchase 
of the Penicuik * L'lte Celtic' llronzes in 1894, when the Treasury 
sanctioned a s|>ecial grant of £45. 

Passing U) events of arclueological importiuice, the excavation 
undertaken l>y the Society at Camelon deserves the first notice. This, 
as you are no doul>t aware, is in succession to similar work already 
carried out at Birrens, Hirrenswark, and Aitloch. All these undertakings 
form part of a general scheme, adopted by the Council, for investigating 
the Roman remains in Scotland, as far as our funds will admit. It is 


coiiteiuplatcd to clcal first with tln^ stroni^ly fortiliiMl * Stations,' where it 
is to Ini pn»sinn(»(l tliat tlic iK!cnj>atioii l>y tlio Romans was of gn*ater 
duration tlian in the * Camps ' with a comparatively weak fortification. 
Our choice of Canielon was <lecicled hy information fi-om Mr MacLuckie, 
a Fellow of the Society, that one-half of the Station had l)een feued for 
the erection of new foundries, and that the work had already been liegiin 
on the ground. This was in last spring, and we immediately applied to Mr 
Forbes of Callendar, the proprietor, and to the fann tenant for leave to 
excavate, which was readily grantc^d by both. The work, now drawing 
to a close, has been steadily carried on for about six months under the 
general superintendence of ^fr Thomas Ross, and we have l)een singularly 
fortunate in having the regidar and volunttiry services of Mr M. 
lUichanan, Falkirk, a trained dniughtsman and surveyor, who has 
planned everything week by week as the work progressed. "VVe have 
also been much indebted to IVfr MacLuckie for general advice in con- 
ducting our negotiations and operations. "We were fortunate also in 
securing the services of Mr Alexander ^Fackie as Clerk of Works, who 
had already had considerable experience in conducting excavations for us 
at Abornethy Fort and at Birrenswark. 

The Station at Camelon resembles r>irrens in consisting of two rec- 
tangles in apposition, antl we were only able to excavate a jiortion of the 
southern one, as the construction of the new foundries went on rapidly 
during our work, but the northern one, which has not yet been feued for 
Iniilding, has l)een sufficiently excavated to yield as i)erfect a plan of the 
Station as we got either at IJirrens or Jit Ardoch. The finds, also, were 
fully as interesting as those fouiul in our former excavations, except that 
we found no inscriptions to throw light on tlie date of the place, as we 
ilid at Uirrens. I will not anticipate further the full description of the 
excavations, which in tlie course of the session will be communicated 
to the Society. 

Altliough tliis was tbe only work of the kind undertaken by the 
Society last year, the results of several other important excavations were 
laid before it during the session. 


One of these, «)ii the farm of Hyiulfonl near Liiiiark, was luulertjikeii 
by Mr Aiidrciw Smitli, wlio lias since l)ecome a Fellow (»f our Society. 
The site is in a marshy hollow, whieh lM»comes (juite a lake in a rainy 
season, and the remains could only he th«ilt with successfully in summer, 
when dry weather prevailed. As was expected, the place proved to l)e a 
crannoff, and a large number of very interesting relics were discovered, 
which were exhihited when the paper l)y Dr Munro describing the ex- 
cavations w^as read. The occurrence of a considerable number of articles, 
which are characteristic of Roman sites, was specially remarkable, and 
was a warning to antiquarian excavators not to found too hastily upon 
finds alone as j)roof of the origin of ancient remains. 

The restdts of the other excavation, at LhimUick, on the Iwink of the 
Clyde near Dumluirton, were partially communicatexl by Mr John 
Bruce, who in conjunction with another Fellow of the Society, the late 
^fr Adam Millar, and Mr Donelly, the discoverer of the remains, under- 
took the excavation on behalf of the Helensburgh Antiquarian Society. 
The work was mainly done l>y their (nvn hands, notwithstanding its 
anhious nature, owing to the site being only exposed for a few hours at 
low tide. As it was not quite ccmipleted, however, and as the lx)xes 
containing the finds had l)een miscarried by the railway on the evening 
when Mr Bruce read his paper, he luis kindly consented to recjist it for 
the present session, when it will be read and tlie whole of the finds 
exhibited. Some of these, as you are pi*obably aware, are of a jKiculiar 
kind, and have given rise to controversy, their genuineness having been 
strenuously denied. lUit whatever may l)e thought of them, they will 
lie Imnight l)efore the Society by Mr Bruce in a manner, I believe, to 
which no excej)tion ciin be taken. 

Excellent work has also lx»en done by th(i ^Farquis of Bute, fonnerly 
Vice-Presid<mt of our Society, in excavating the foundations or rei)airing 
the fabric of medijEval buildings in various parts of Scotland, and in 
excavating the site of the anci(?nt ecclesiastical settlement at St iilane's, 

Useful excavations have also been earned out bv Sir Francis Tress 


Barry, an Honorary Fellow of the Society, at Keiss, Caithness. Tlie 
results have lK»en witnesse^l from year to year by Dr Joseph 
Amlerson, wlio will communieate them to the SiK'iety in the present 

It is not often that the Society can In* congratulated on the receipt of 
a legacy. I^ast year, however, at the annual meeting, the Council had 
the sjitisfaction of announcing that a former much-esteemed Fellow of 
the Society, the Hon. Mr Bouverie Primrose, had IxKjueathed to us 
unconditionally the sum of £150. This sum the Council have disposed 
of hy adding it to the Rhind Legacy Fund for Excavation, having been 
induced to do so ])y the increasing import^mce attached to this mode of 
promoting the study of archaeology in our own country. It has l)een 
resolved to use the interest oidy of the Khind-Prinu-ose Fund in defray- 
ing the expense of excavations, and as this amounts to little more than 
XI 3, it can suffice for but very limited undertakings. It is to be hoped, 
liowever, that the Fund may prove the nucleus to which additions may 
be made by legacies or gifts from otlier })atriotic archaeologists. 

The Council, in carrying out their scheme for tlie excavation of Roman 
sites in Scotland, have been o])liged to dmw considerably ujxjn the 
Capital Fund of the Society. Ihit expenditure from this source cannot 
l)e prudently carried mucli furtlier, and unle^ss the Excavation Fund 
can be considerably supplemented, large undertakings of this kind 
must be given u]>. This would be a misfortune, not only from the 
archflcological point of view, l>ut for the interests of our Society. In 
these days, when scientific or cjuasi-scientific societies are so niimerous, 
and the comi)etition for menil>ers is so great, we can only continue to 
maintain interest in our work by re^ison of its high character, and one of 
the most eflectual means of doing this is by the systematic prosecution 
of excavation, a kind of research which lies so peculiarly in the domain 
of aR'haeology, and which it is not advisabbj that ])rivate pei*sons who are 
not exixirts should undertake. 

We have reason to l)elieve, indeed, that our excavations have led to 
considerable additions to our Fellowship, and thus the expenditure has 


not l>eeu unproductive from the financial i>oint of view. I need hanlly 
remind you of another gain, in the addition to the National Museum 
of many articles, scmic of them of great money value. 

The Khind Lectureship, for the endowment of whicli the Society is 
indebted to a former Fellow, Mr A. IF. Rhind of Sibster, has supplied 
an annual series of lectiires, open to the public as well as to the Fellows, 
for twenty-two years. During that time many different as[)ects of 
archaeology^ and ethnology (chiefly in their relations to Scotland) have 
Ixjen presented, and perhaps there has })een none more interesting or 
more likely to be generally appreciated than the course for the current 
year to l)C delivered by Mr Thomas Ross on Architecture in Scotland. 
I need hardly remind you of the admirable course on Heraldry of last 
year by the Lyon King-of-Arms. 

We owe to the generosity of a distinguished Fellow, still living, 
another Fund, the Gunning Fellowship, which has proved of great 
service in promoting tlio study of Archaeology. For some years the 
interest accruing, amounting formerly to £40, and of late to about £30, 
has l)een paid to Mr Romilly Allen, for the puqwse of obtaining 
«lrawings and photographs for the great work on the Early Christian 
Monuments of Scotland^ wliich he and Dr Joseph Anderson were 
appointed to edit in 1893, antl which, 1 am glad to Ikj able to say, is 
now approaching completion. 

Last year the Gunning Fellowsliip was conferred on Mr Coles, with 
the view of his investigating and planning the remarkable group of 
Stone Circles near l^mchory. His Report will l)e presented in the 
course of this session, and I shall oidy say of his investigation that in 
one case, by a slight excavation, he discovered that a circle which has 
hitherto been supi>osed to be single, is in reality double. This is an 
apt illustration of the advantage of combining excavation with the ex- 
ternal examination of fiehl remains. How many vain theories have been 
started as to the origin and purjKJse of stone circles from a mere surface 
examination, which might never have been started, or at least would 
have been held in check, by a revelation of what was })elow the surface ! 

12 I'fiorKKi^TNnH ov rrrK kdciety, November so, i899. 

lliTi% iJh'Ii, irt jiiiotln'i' w'uh' field of iii([uirv, by niean.s of pick and 
rt)Mu|e, liitliiMto iiliiioHl* nntoiiclicd. 

hill' wiml, tihnW we Huy of the still vjinter field of tlie Prehistoric Forts, 
ill thn exeuviitioii of wliii'h Hcjiife ji he^^iiiiiinj; lias been nuule, although 
ill no other wjiy eun we urrive iit a knowhMlge of their structure and of 
their phu'e in Sr(»ttiHh hintory? I could almost regret that the Society 
have iinilertukiM) the exeavation of Roman * Camps' in preference to our 
own Native Kortn. The scu'-rets that lie beneath the ruins of the 
CnhiihuHH^ I)iiminnafi^ and hundrotls of other native fortresses, are 
not loKH worthy of being brtMight to light than the relics left be- 
hind by the Koinan^ and I trust, although it may not })e in my day, 
that \\w StHMety will yet be enabltMl to \nidertake this eminently 
|»atriotio and almost unlimited lield of impiivy. 

'V\\\\^ far I have 8|H»kon only of pndiisti»rie nmiains, but what of the 
numebm!* median al ruins of easth^s ehundios, and ablteys or their sites 
that aiv so thieklv soattoi^Hl over our country f Would not our know- 
ledge^ of lheu\ U^ gi'tvdlv pi\>motiHl by excavation f What can be done 
in this way has Uvon shown bv the Mai>piiv< of Bute, and nearer home 
b\ o\n' lVvsi\b^nt, who, bv a v\m>f\d exeavatiou, has as^vrtaine*! the exact 
mAMU^vl plvO\ of the Ab)v\ i'hurv^h at NewKutlo. This kind of work, 
a|'|vux^nth, uu>;\\l U^ let't iv* the lanvb>l prv*[»rietors on \v!i»»ts<* prv^j^erty the 
\vutou> aw fv^uuvU b\U tVw v^f them ha\e fv^Uv»\vt\l Uie twample of the 
iwv^ \ivdslon\en \ havo uam^sl ; and il uuv K* {h;i5 tho ia>k can only 
^v .^vvv^uuvlixh^st wuh iho >;\ysh\tU ^^f tlic r»^»^»r»o^»^>s ^n* aid of our 

V*.l ihi^ v\^iou'l \' vU'Hv' wi'ltov,; t\:^ 
v'\\v^>-0>.^*i- -^ '»^' "^ ^^' '"*' '• ^" ^• 

k i-ul 

^- NN ::u-^ 

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CV-.'M '' 

t \\v' >v':M 

I <r^j>*^* .>f such 

K •>-.(• 

• t r* r ' \-v >' , 

I <•.::• fi>^ {Hre- 

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The most recent addition of importance to the Library is a hirge and 
valuable collection of Bible.H and Testaments, numbering no less than 
124, bequeathed to it by the late Mr John Haxton, Markinch, to whom 
we are all the more indebted, as ho was in nu way connected with our 

As far as our slender means allow, we endeavour to keep imce in the 
Library with the advance of Archaeological Research, but even restricting 
our purchases as we do to works relating directly or indirectly to Scottish 
Arcliaeology, we have been obliged to pass over many that should have 
found a place on our shelves, tuid the; Library is far from lx»ing so well 
supplied as the only Archaeological Library in Scotland ought U) Ikj. 
Many of our Dictionaries and Books of Reference, too, are out of date, 
and it is not too much to say that £1000 could be well spent in gradually 
sui)plying our more pressing wants, but the innnediate exjKjnditure of 
even a fourth of that sum would enable us to till many blanks, the 
existence of which is an actual hindrance to work at the present moment. 
Is it too much to hope that in these (hiys, when the wealthy in Scotland 
are not only more numerous than of old, but are more animated with 
the ixitriotic desire not to allow their country to lag behind others in the 
^ field of science, some one will Ihj found willing to assist a S(x:iety which 
makes known not its own wants so much as those of the imi)ortant 
National Institution that has been ])laced under its charge ? 

Tlie Treasurer submitted a statement of the Society's Funds, which 
was ordered to be printed and circulated among the Fellows. 

The Secretary read the Annual Rejjort to the l>oard of Trustees, as 
follows : — 

Annual Report to the lIonoura])le tlie lioard of Trustees for Manu- 
factures in Scotland l)y tlie Society of Anti(iuari(»s of Scotland, with 
reference to the National ^fuseum of Anti(piities under their charge, 
for the year ending 30th September 1899 : — 

Duiing the past year the Museum has licen open to the public as 


f(jrmerly, and has l)ecii visited by 20,485 persons, of whom 19,110 were 
visitors on free days, and 1375 on pay days. 

The number of objects of antiquity added to the Museum has been 
589 by donation and 1105 by purchase. The number of books and 
pamphlets added to the Library hius been 144 by donation and 131 by 
purchase, and the binding of alK)ut 70 vohimes hiis been proceeded 

Among the more important additions to the Museum are : — a Collec- 
tion of Flint Implements, etc., from Berwick, Roxburgh, and Selkirk 
shires, presented by Mr Thomas Scott, A.R.S.A. ; three Collections by 
the late Mr William Galloway, Corr. Mem. 8. A. Scot., amounting to 
upwards of 800 specimens of Implements of Stone, Bone, and Deer- 
horn, from three shell mounds in Oronsay ; a Bronze Sword and other 
objects found with other swonls already in the Museum in digging the 
foundations of a house in Grosvenor Crescent, Edinburgh, in 1869 ; a 
Collection of objects obtained during the recent excavaticm of a Hill 
Fort on Castle Law, Abernethy ; and another Collection obtained during 
the excavation by the Society of the camps and earthworks on Birrens- 

wark Hill, Dumfriesshire. 

I). CuRiSTisoN, Secretary, 


Monday, llth December 1899. 

The Hon. JOHN ABERCEOMBY, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentlemen were duly elected 
Fellows : — 

Col. James Allardyce, LL.D., of Calquoich, 3 Queen's Terrace, Aberdeen. 
Sir Ralph W. Anstruther, Bart, of Balcaskie, Pittenweem. 
John G. Alexander Baird, Esq., M.P., of Wellwood and Adamton. 
John Christison Oliphant, M.A, 23 Charlotte Square, Edinburgh. 

The following articles, acquired by the Purchase Committee for the 
Museum and Library during the recess, 7tli May to 30th November, 
were exhibited : — 

Small polished Stone Axe, 32 inches in length by 1* inches in width, 
broken on the sides towards the Imtt, found on the north side of Loch 
Tay, near Kenmore. 

Polished Stone Axe, 4 J by 3 inches, the butt broken, found at Easter- 
ton of Gagie, parish of Murroes, Forfarshire. 

Charter by Alexander, Commendator of Culross, to Adam Erskine of 
I^unimarle, of a tenement in Culross, 1582, with seiil. 

Earthenware Jar in which the Grangemouth hoard of silver coins was 
contained. The jar was recovered in fragments, but is now reconstructed. 
It is an ordinary water jar of the middle of the seventeenth century, of a 
greyish clay with a yellowish-green glaze, having a narrow neck and a 
loop handle at one side. It wants the rim and the hantlle, and is 11 J 
inches in height and 9*^* inches in greatest diameter at the shoulder, 
tapering to 4 J inches diameter at the base. It is ornamented on the 
upper part by a band of slightly incised wavy and concentric lines. The 
jar was dug up in July hist in the course of some excavations for the 
Caledonian Railway near the docks at Grangemouth. There seem to 


have been two jars — at letist one piece of tlie bottom of a similar jar 
having been preserved among the pieces of this one. In the jar, or in 
l>otli jars, there was a large hoard of silver coins, of which 1094 were* 
recovered as Treasure Trove. The following is a list of the coins re- 
covered : — 

Elizabeth Shillings, . 


„ Sixpences, . 


James VI. Half-crownip, 

,, Shillings, 


„ Sixpences, 


„ Sixpences (Irish), 


„ Thistle Merks (Scottish), 


„ Quarter Thistle Merk (Scottish), 


Charles I. Half-crowns, 


„ Shillings, 


„ Sixpences, 


Foreign Dollai-s and parts, etc. — 

Spanish, Belgian, German, etc., . . 243 

lletained for the National Museum - 

James VI. Half-crowns, ... 2 

Charles I. Half-crowns, ... 8 

„ Nobles, 2 

Total, . 1094 

As the bulk of the coins are English of the reigns of James VI. and 
Cliarles I., the dei)osit was probably made during the time of the Civil 

Whorl of grey sandstone, 2 inches in diameter, with slightly incised 
lines on one surface, found at Melrose. 

Collection of imj)lements of flint and stone, found on the farms of 
81ij)perrioM ami l^)ch, near West Linton, IVeblesshiro, comprising: — 

Small polislu'd Axe of indurated clay-shite, 21 inches in length by 1 J 
inches in breadth at the cutting edge, somewhat damaged. 

l*olislied Adze of greenstone of i)eculiar form, flat on <jne side and 


swelling from both ends towards the centre on tlie other, tlie sides 
sliglitly incurved longitudinally, the ends alike and neither very sharp, 
the edge being in a plane at right angles to the shaft, tlie whole surface 
much weathered. It measures 6] inches in length hy 2 inches in width, 
and closely resembles in form and character the fine implement of 
polished flint from Ferny Bme, Slains, Al)erdeensliire, figured in the 
ProrePAlings, vol. x. p. 598, and also the adze-like implement from Little 
Barras, Drumlithie, Kincardineshire, figured in vol. xviii. p. 77. Adzes 
of this form are rare in Scotland, those being the only examples known. 

Five Arrow-liea<ls of flint. 

Small Saw of flint formed from a flat flake, 1 \ inches in length. 

Scraper with tang, 2 inches in length by ^ inch in thickness. 

Eight Knives or implements with worked edges, one l)eing triangular 
and worked on all three sides. 

I^rge oval Scrai)er, 2^ by 1| inches in diameter, and five smaller 
Scrapers ; and a number of flakes and partially worked chips of flint. 

Collections of flint implements from Culbin Sands and from Cllenluce 

The following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on 
the table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By the Right lion. Sir Herukrt Maxwell, Bart., M.P., 
F.S.A. Scot. 

Bead of variegated glass (fig. 1), dark blue witli a wavy line of paler 
blue going roimd the middle, and at equal distances 
three projecting knol)S with parallel stripes of red, 
white, and l>lue running in the direction of the pro- 
jection of the knobs, found in a cairn at Kirkchrist, 
AVigtownsliire. A bead precisely similar in pattern, 
Imt with the wavy line white, was found a good *^^rkdiri^ ^)' 
many years ago in lona. 

Spoon of horn, the bowl nearly circular and 2\ inches in diameter, 




the liandle broken, total length of bowl and handle now 5 inches, found 
in the Moss of Kingheel, parish of Mochruni, Wigtownshire. 

Axe-haninier of greenstc^ni;, wedge-shaped and perforated for the 
handle. It measures 8 J inches in length hy 4 J inches in greatest 
breadth and 3 inches in thickness. The shaft-hole is 2 inches in 
diameter. Found at Drumfad, parish of CUasserton, Wigtownshire. 

Axe-hammer of gre(Mistone, wedge-shaped and perfomted for the 
handle. It measures 8 J inches in length ]>y 4 J inches in breadth and 
2 J inches in thickness. Tlie shaft-hole is 2| inches in diameter. The 
implement is somewhat damaged on one side. Found at Mochrum, 

Part of the frontal portion of the skull with one antler attached of 
the Irish Elk (Megaceros hibernicus) found in the river Cree. The 
antler is of tlie right side, and is imperfect ; the beam measuring lOJ 
inches in circumference at the junction with the skull, and 8^ inches at 
the thinnest part before it begins to expand into the palmated portion, 
only a small part of which remains. The whole length of the beam and 
the imperfect palm is now 2 feet 4 inches. 

(2) Bequeathed by the late John Haxton, Markinch. 

A collection of IJibliis, Testaments, and Psalm l>ooks, printed in 
English, 130 volumes. The following descriptive list is compiled 
partly from notes made by the testator himself: — 

1. The Byble. Translated into Englysh by Tlnmias Matthew. 1537. 


This copy lias all the titles, but wants the preliminary matter. There are 
some leaves in facsimile, so that the text is nearly perfect. The disputed text 
in John's First Epistle, Chap. v. 7 : " For ther are thre which beare recorde 
in heaven the father the worde and the wholy goost. And these thre are 
one," is printed within brackets in smaller type. In John xx. the words 
of Thomas, " and put my fingers into the ", are omitted. In the First Epistle 
to the Corifithians xi. the words, " This cup is the New Testament in my 
blood," are also omitted. 


2. The Bible. Translated into Engl3\sho by Richai-d Tavemer. 
1539. Folio. 

Thw copy is very imperfect, but wonderfully clean. It has all the peculiar 
marks of Tavemcr's translation. The first title I had as well as the colophon. 
The word 'peace* is always spelled *peax.' The boards of the book are 
made of beecti — a poor wood to use, so liable to worm. 

3. The Bible in Knglyslie. (Crannier's.) Printed by Edwiirde Whit- 
church. 1541. Folio. 

This is commonly called the Great Bible, and is the edition printed in 
November 1541. 

4. The Byble. (Matthew's Translation.) Imprinted at London by 
Thomas Raynalde and William Hyll. 1549. Folio. 

This copy belonged to Andrew Jervise, and has his autograph. It has very 
peculiar initial letters in Leviticus and Deuteronomy. In Jeremiah viii. 23 
the reading is, "I am heuy and abashed, for there is noo more Treakle at 
Galaad." No other Bible that I know has this spelling. 

5. The Byble. (Matthew's Translation.) Imprinted at London by 
Jolin Daye and William Seres. 1549. Folio. 

This is a good copy, and almost perfect The type is black-letter, anffular 
and wiry. Iii the Book of Revelations there are twenty-two small woodcuts, 
of which the seventh to the last have each a rhyming couplet printed at 
either side. That at the seventeenth figure says : — 

The Romysche marchauntes, the priestes of Bal, 
Do wepe, houle an crye at Babylon's falL 

6. The Byble. (Cranmer's.) Prynted by Edward Whytcluircbe. 
1549. Small folio. 

This edition has been printed apparently at two different times. It is in 
black-letter, and in some parts of the impression the words Lord and God are 
in Roman capitals, while m others they are in the common black-letter type 
without initial capitals. 

7. The Vhole Byble. Translated into Englyshe by Miles Coverdale. 
Prynted for Andrewe Hester. 1550. 4to. 

This copy is imperfect. It was printed in Zurich by Christopher Froschover 
for Andrew Hester " dwellinge in Panics Churchyard at the sygne of the whyte 
horse." It is very scarce. The type is an angular Swiss or German letter. 


S. TL^ PvM-r. <^(.uibrv>.) Imj.nii:*-! .ii L^fl:»*!-ii V-t Tbiotis Petri, 

A tac- >:^>T, imaHt ptHecf. This edilX'Q «-»» pniiK»i br Xxi:^ft& HtH "^ iar 
oeirtaizie b:cie<t« loc^icI>r«. wi>»e names^ '<e -zui-o. their K«^es^ ctf vfcx^ ske 

iiaRueHLj pi^L iiTaKiT :c :c»fr a&zir <*iii^.cts a:^^. T^ji» .rcy ^ik^ l«fm Dale 

tzztesis *: lit ih»t irss i2fcC*if:»r re ^zjj* sreZ-ZiC. All ibe 5^':ij» T^^eorot w- skii 

Tat TzTiiiii*. Tni»:j*. Ttti*:!-?-. 

::. TijT l^ i^. Ai •.;t-tv.. : :^^:.:-: 't K-viLj^i HlH i5-wX. «50l 
':ritt*:!iK*.' TicK A?fr axiLT* ki'i vxci-is. 7!i25 .1:1: y iuj. lijf vx: pienKS Vat 

C:T..»i :T:: 4:. 

ikXii. lilt zzltL-'^mc''. zt Lie "•."L'lTiti ,1: Z2k i-o -i.-*. rxZZ**: Hi*£rj:ic?.'noiL laie- 
r^!fS^i»:ac lito 4i tifcxirkii/r iirtr^i :»:c>': '••.:i :.r L-:ii ":cqd^i:i Tiie.--* 2«:rs- 

_i. _ :•: ^; L-.. :::.•; :.': ■ ^' • . 

. - •:- ♦ 0. 

Tl^ a- ^OteCTi^ • "-;?C-1jJ7i-J?iI«:v"- fcs- -.:«. ' • ^ -"" 

: :■■- - .-. ::■ 

:'~ c ,1. Kkisaip 

-f i * ~i>tis*»:. i-^ «J« ' uu,"*: iiii.v. ■^' ' r I ; 

• -. ■. ^-> .-^ 

* *:»j 0:at:nl 7±i 

a- ilii-:. lT«i^ "-I1: ^"IJ: i -J*: N. * V->.;i... ■ :" 


- i^ •: '..i*t SoJCw*- 

Z;:ii: v-uf zii:a :.".:ri, ■ r-,;:. i :x -i: '». 


■.«? ij,c a 

3l.hCLLi$ It "U-S^ l».ir : !►: .0. Ssv : K ' .:.v ;. 

, ' • i,~i • " 


A -"VU-OduU 4^ -!•: ii-- -k. tv :^».v 1 • ,. .^ •. . 1.. . J^ 


*^^ ^aid charaes of Rychard Cannarden." The first volume is paged in three 
PJ"^^"^* and ends with this tailpiece : " The ende of the Ballet of Ballettes of 
^^^«:non, called in Latyn Canticum Canticorum." 

^ "^^ Tlie Bible. ((Jcnevaii version.) rrinted at (Jeneva by John 

^^^pin. 1569. 4to. 

. *^«i.i8 copy was got in London after much research. It wants the general 
Slj^^ and the dedication to Queen Elizabeth, and a leaf of the curious Almanac. 
J "^? title of the New Testament is dated 1568. The text appears to be all right. 
^ beautifully bound by Riviere. 

lo. The Holie Bible. (Craniner's.) Imprinted l)y Jhou Cawoode. 

^5^9. 4tu. 

This is the last edition of the Great Bible. It appears that there were three 
V^itions of this size in this same year. This is the one that has the birds in the 
^tial letter in Genesis, the others havinjj a centaur. It has a note from a 
Conner owner signed A. E. E., and dated 1831, stating that he found it in 
Vorkshire, and connecting Cawood the printer with the Cawoods of Yorkshire. 

16. Tlie Holi Bible. (Bishops' version.) London, Riehanlc Jugge. 

1569. 4to. 

This is the second edition of the Bishops' Bible, and marks the transition to 
the division of the text into verses, these being numbered in the middle of the 
lines, or as they terminate. It is a thick volume, paged in three parts, the 
pages often wrong numbered, and contains some curious out-of-the-way notes 
about Columbus. 

17. The holie Bi])le. (Bishop.^' version.) Imprinted by Ricbarde 

Jugge. 1572. Folio. 

This is the second edition of the Bishops' Bible in folio, and is known as the 
Leda Bible, the subjects of the initial letters in some of the books being taken 
from Ovid's MftamorphoseA. At the commencement of the Epistle to the 
Hebrews the initial letter is a W(K:>dcut representing Leda and the Swan. The 
type throughout is black-letter, hut the Psalms are given in two versions 
in parallel columns, that of the Great Bible in black-letter, and a new version 
in Roman letter. 

18. The holy r>yble. (Bisli<.ps' version.) Richard Jugj^'e. 1573. 4to. 

Til is copy wants the prelim inarv matter, but luis all the text, and is in good 
condition. The tailpiece at the end of the I>ook of Revelations is an elaborate 
device with a pelican on its nest in the (Centre feeding its yountr with its blood, 
round which is on the inner buixler pko l?:oe kk(}E et greoe and on the 
outer LOVK kkpytii the lawe oukyetii the kynoe and is good to the 
coMMENWELTHE, with figures of Prudence and Justice on either side and the 
monogram of Richard Jugge underneath. 


19. XlitfUn.K'. (bi>li...i^>' version.) Uv Ki. liiinlJugge. 1574. Folio. 

This edition Las at the 24th chapter •>! Joshua a foldiiig map of Canaan, 
dated 1574, which, however, i* from the same block used by Ceverdale in his 
Bible of 1535. This copy wants the title^^ge and some of the preliminary 
mattrr, l<Tit i^ otherwise in Ter^' fair condition. At the end, bound in with the 
Bible, is a part of a work entitled 77i/ Zy-^^ -/ H*>Uf SiiindeSj PropKeies^ 
ratrvirchi^^ dr., by John Mar1i^:k, autih.T of the first Conooidanoe. The 
' lires ' .«re arrang^ in alphabtrtical order, and the part here inserted reaches 
f r».m Aap.-n tu Michol, 5> |.iage& 

20. Tli^ H-ly BiMv. ( Bi<hop:«' v.-rs:«»!i. » L.nd«»n, Ltica^s* Harrison. 


Tliis copy wiint.- all the preliminary matter, al«jut twenty It^ves. The titles of 
the £e<(*na part and cf the New Te-^iament aivr original, the others made up. 
Thry hare a verk- elal-»rate f nine work nith a mermaid gazing into a mirror at 
the ioA of the o«riitrv-pitn.*. Tht* centre-picce in the title of the Xew Testameftit 
has the symlH^ls of the four Evan^irlist* at the four ox.'merp, St Matthew as an 
Angel, St Mark ik? a Livu. St Luke ;is an < >x. and St John as an Eagle. The 
Icxt is full of ern.Ts. Psalm xxxTii. 2i» rvads : **The righteous shall be 
punished,* and the Epistles to the Hebivi»-s and to Titus are both titled 
~ Second Epistle.'' 

21. The h««ly Biblo. (Bishops' voi>:.:i.> I.«'iidon, Richanle Jugge. 

1575. \U\ 

This is the A*\-eiiih iniition i^f tht- Bislu^jV Bible, and a coud oopv, being 
almost txnnplete. The tirsl title is in facsimile : the Calendar and Book of 
Common Prayer are at the be^nning and the device of Richard Jugge at the 

-2. T\w \\\\Ai\ ImpriiUfd at l.i^iuh»n 1 y Chri<i..'..her Biirker. 1576. 

This is rouij^^n's i\'visiv>u of the lienevan version, and the first Geneva Bible 
]»riutod in England. Thi^ oo}\\ wanu^ the litlo, but is full of manuKript notes 
in a i\mtom]vrary hand s^Muetinu^eJ ui Kujjlish and s^>motimes in Latin. At 
the end is the motViv;\l wrsivm of the IValms 1 y Stemhi^ld and HopkuiBi with 
the tuiKvs J^iid an explanatory uotv to the rwdor jjiving the A>l-fa notation. 

*Jo, rh«^ ImMi and llol\ Sivipiuivs couteiiu\l in the C^lde and I^ewe 
rostamrnl, tiau>lalod aiv.M\hn>: to iho Kbtuo and Greke, &c. Printed 
in l'MnilM»i:;h lu^ Aloxanilor Arbulhno^ IVintor to the Kii^gis Mu4 
d\\» Ilin-; al \o Kirk nf foihU 1570* FoWtv 


■'^^^Xewe Testament of Our Lord Jesus Clirist, conferred diligently 
^^'^ the Greke, &c. At Edinburgh, I'rinted by Thomas Bassiindyne. 

^^^ is is the first edition of the Bible printed in Scotland, begun by Thomas 

^^^*>-iidyne and issuwi after his death by Alexander Arbuthnot. It is a reprint 

^ ^^'^e Greneva Bible of 156 J.- At the end of the thirteenth chapter of 

^^^^tion is a note explaining the " number of the Beast" in which is a Greek 

^^.'^^^^ printed in rude Greek letters. This is the first specimen of Greek 

pnrxt; ing in Scotland. The woodcut of the Royal Arms of Scotland is the same 

** ^V^at used, in Bellenden's Cronikli\ printed at Edinburgh by Thomas David- 

^^ Xii 1542, but smaller. This copy is not perfect, wanting the preliminary 

^*^^t;cr and several leaves. The Edinburgh Public Library possesses a good 

'J^'y which I could have got in Manchester. It seems at one time to have 

. ^^g©d to a Patrick Lindsjiy, and what is very curious, this copy, which I got 

^1^ Brechin, lias on the title-jiage of the New Testament the inscription : — 

' t^atrik Lindesay off barnyards, ye first off" — the rest of the date Deing cut 

*^y by the binder. At the commencement of the Apocrypha on a blank 

space is "P. Bamyardis " twice rei)eated. There is little known of the Forfar- 

»*nire family of the Lindsays of Barnyanls, otherwise called The Haugh of 

Tannadice, whose castle of Barnziiird, as it is termed in Monipennie's Briefe 

I^escription of Scotland, stood about two miles north of the castle of Finhaven 

(Laml of the Lindmys, 2nd edition, p. 208). Jervise states tliut they were 

hereditary constables of Finhaven. Patrick Lindsay, * ai)parent ' of Barnyards, is 

mentioned in the llegister of the Great Seal in 1590. In 1592 he had a charter 

from the crown of the lands of Tannadice, Bamyanls, and GlenquiclL This is 

probably the Patrick Lindstiy of Barnyards who possessed the Bible. 

24. The Holy Bi])le. (Bishops' version.) London, by assignment of 

Chr. Barker. 1578. Folio. 

This edition called the Dotted Bible is printed page for page with that of 
1574. This copy wants the title-page. At the commencement of each Gospel 
there is a woodcut of the Evangelist represented as writing his Gospel with his 
symbol beside him ; but for the woodcut of Matthew is substituted that of 
Mark, which is also repeated in its proper place at the commencement of 
Mark's Gospel. 

25. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by 

Christopher Barker. 1579. 4to. 

This copy wants the first title but has all the text, with Tables and supputa- 
tion of years. 

26. The Bible. (Genevan version.) London, Christopher Barker (?). 
1580. 4to. 

Tliis copy having no titles had to l^ exauiined closely to find that it corre- 


sponds to the edition of 1580 in Lea Wilson'tj Catalogue. Tlie supputation gives 
1580. The date 1578 in the address to the Christian Reader continues to be 
given in much later copies and is therefore no criterion. 

27. The Bibk'. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by Chris- 
topher I^irker. 1581. 4 to. 

This copy has all the text and the title to the New Testament, with Tables', 
and John Day's Metrical Psalms, and- i>art of the Prayer Book. 

28. The Bible. ((Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by Chris- 
topher Barker. 1582. 4t(). 

This couy is slightly imiKjrfect and wants the first title but has the title to 
the New Testament, and John Day's Metrical Psalms of 1581. 

29. The Bible. (Genevan vei*sion.) Imprinted at London by Cliris- 
toi)her Biirker. 1583. 4to. 

This copy is imperfect at the beginning, but has at the end " Two right 
profitable and fruitfull concordances, or large and ample Tables Alphabetical!" ; 
and John Daye's Metrical Psalms, 1583. 

30. The Bible. (Genevan vei-siou.) Imprinted at London by Chris- 
topher Barker. 1583. Large folio. 

This is the largest Genevan or * Breeches ' Bible ever its<ue<l. Curiously it 
has Cranmer's prologue. This copy is not quite complete, but is otherwise in 
very good condition. 

31. The Bible. (Uisboj)^' version.) Imprinted at lA)nd«ni by Chris- 
topher Barker. 1584. 4t<). 

This copy wants the preliminaries, but the text is complete and it is other- 
wise in good onler. it is a rather rare edition in the black-letter, with 
numerous mai-ginal references and note's. The title-pa^e of the New Testament 
has the aymlwls of the four Evangelistrf and figures of Faith and Humility. 

32. The Bible, ((tenevan versinn.) Imprinted at Lnii«lnn by Chris- 
tojiher Barker. 1585. 4to. 

The first title is wanting, but the text is c<»mplete. and the coi)y in g<HKl con- 
dition. It has no Metrical Psalms, but at the end the two Tables of Concordance 
of extraordinary length. 


33. Holie Bible. (Bishops' version.) Imprinted at Londuii by Cliris- 
topher Biirker. 1585. Folio. 

This is the fourteenth edition of the Bishop^ Bible, and the most beaiitiful 
[ them all, the typos 
by Koberger, Nuremtj 

of them all, the typoffrai)hy being only excelled by that of the Vulgate printed 

34. The Bible. (Cjlcnevan version.) Imi)rinted at London by Chris- 
topher Barker. 1586. 4to. 

A gorxl copy but .somewhat smoked. It lias not the Metrical Psalms, but at 
the end two Tables of Concordance of great length. 

35. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by Chris- 
topher l^rker. 1587. 4to. 

Tliis is Tomson's revision of the Geneva text. On the fly-leaf l^etween the 
Old and New Testaments there is pasted a small Sabbath School ticket bearing 
a woodcut representation of Joseph's brethren dining with him, and the 
following memorandum in Mr Haxton's hand : — " This S;iy)bath School ticket 
was inserted by me between the beading of the lxx»klK)ard of our seat in l^rk- 
liead Establif^hed Church in the year 1828, and found and taken out by me 64 
years afterwards, on 20th August 1892." 

36. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 
1 )eputies of Christoi>her Barker. 1589. 4to. 

Tliis copy seems t<j be a gathering, as, while the title to the Old Testament 
bears the date 1589, that of the New Testament is dated 1592. The Metrical 
Psalms, also, printed by John Windet, are dated 1592. The Book of Common 
Prayer inserted before tlie Psalms api)ear8 to be of later date. An elaborate 
Table of Genealogies by J. S. inserted at the Ix'ginning ai)pear8 to be also of later 

37. The Bible. ((Jenevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 
Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1593. 4to. 

This is Toms<.>n's revision of the (Jeneva Bible. The first title is wanting. 
The New Testament bears the daUt 1593 and at the end of the tables is 
the date 1594. Bound in with the P>i})le is an interesting copy of ** The CL 
Psalms of David in Scots Meter ; after the forme that they are to bee sung in 
the Kirke of Scotland. Edinlmrgh. Printed ])y the Heires of Andro Hart. 
Anno Dom. 1632." On the back of the title of the New Testament is tlie 
following inscription : — " Ex Libris Alexanderi Nai>er. Alexander Naper est 
mihi nomen. Scriptum per me Alexanderum Naper apud Biichaple nono 
calendas Maij millesimo sexcentesimo nonagesimo tertio." 


38. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London l)y the 
Deputies of Christoplier Barker. 1593. 8vo. 

This copy of a very rare edition was got at Sir George W. Dasent's sale. By 
a note on tne fly-leaf with his autograph it appears that ne bought it in Hohn in 
1844 for tw^elve skil lings or alx)ut fivepence English. So far as I know this is a 
perfect copy but is rebound with the old boards and edges as they were. Save 
an imperfect coj^y in the British Museum from which the real date was ascer- 
tainea I have never heard of another. It closely resembles a Bil)le printed 
at Cambridge by John Legate, 1591, only this edition is paged, and Legate's 
was not 

39. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 
Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1594. 4to. 

This copy wants the first title but has the title to the New Testament. Tlie 
text is in black-letter as most of the Genevans are, but the head-lines and 
marginal notes are in Roman letter. Tlie New Testament has a large numljer 
of iflustrative plates inserted. 

40. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 
Deimties of Christopher Barker. 1594. 4to. 

This is a rather poor copy of a Bible that has given rise to much si)eculation, 
as the New Testament is wrongly dated 1495. 

41. The Bible. (Genevan version.) London, Printed by John Windet, 
for the Assignes of Richard Day. 1594. 4t(). 

This is Tomsc^u's revision and a beautiful copy, clean and perfect, with both 
titles. It has no Psalms. 

42. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imi)rinted at London l)y the 
Dei>uties of Cliristopher Barker. 1596. 4to. 

This copy lias all the text but wants the first title and the other preliminary 
matter, it has at the end the two Tables of Concordance and a description of 
Canaan and the bordering countries. 

43. The Holy Bible. (Bishops* version.) Imprinted at London by 
the Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1595. Folio. 

This is a line copy with all the titles and Ijeautifully bound. It came from 
the collection of Mr Fry, one of our greatest collectors. 


44. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 
Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1597. Small folio. 

This ia Tomson's revision, and is somewhat like the edition of 1562 in 
general appearance. It is in Roman letters and wants the first title, but is 
otherwise a good copy. 

45. Tlie Bi]>le. (Clenevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 
Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1599. 4t(), 

This is a very curious edition of the Geneva Bible in black-letter. Lea 
Wilson does not seem to have had a copy of it, as it differs from all the copies 
of 1599 which he had in his possession, except No. 77 of his Catalogue. It is 
distin^iished as the *Hee' Bible, Ijecause Ruth iii. 15 reads, "and hee went 
into the citie," where all previous editions have either "and shee went into 
the citie," or " and went into the citie." 

46. Tlie Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 
Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1599. 4to. 

This is Tomson's revision and a beautiful copy, liaving a black line printed 
round the i>age, and a number of woodcuts in the text. In the doggerel verses 
at the beginning there is a curious substitution of * de ' for * the,' which suggests 
tliat it may have been printed abroad : — 

" Here is de tree where truth doth grow 
To leade our lives therein ; 
Here is de judge that stints the strife 
\VTien mens' devices faile." 

liev. XX. 12 also reads : "I saw the death, both great and small, stand before 
God." The Metrical Psfidms of Sternhold and Hopkhis at the end are preceded 
by the hymns Veni Creator, The Humble Suit of a Sinner, Venite Exultemus, 
The Song of St Ambrose called Te Deum, The Song of the Three Children, 
The Song of Zacharias, The Son^ of the Blessed Mary called Magnificat, Tlie 
Song of Simeon called Nimc Dimittis, The Symbole or Creed of Athanasius 
called Quicunciue Vult, The Lamentation of a Sinner, The Lord's Prayer or 
Pater Noeter, and The Ten Commandments, with the music for each. 

47. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Iuiprint<Ml at London l)y the 
Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1599. 4t(>. 

This is one of the many editions of Tomson's revision of the Geneva Bible 
printed with this date. It has two first titles, one with the border containing 
woodcuts of the four Evangelists surromided by the twelve tribes of Israel ana 
the twelve Apostles, and the other with a small woodcut of the hraelites cross- 
ing the Red Sea. 


48. The Bible. (Cienevau version.) Tmpriuted at I^ndou by the 

Deputies of Christoplier Barker. 1599. 4to. 

This is another of Tomson's revision. Matthew vii. 17 reads: *'So euery 
good three bringeth foorth good fruite, and a coonipt tree bringeth foorth euill 
fruite." At the end there is bound in with the volume a copy of the Book of 
Common Prayer printed by the printers to the University of Cambridge, 1635. 

49. The Bible, (Cieuevan vei*sion.) Titles wanting, but evidently 

Tomson's revision. 1599. 4 to. 

This is an imi)erfect copy, but it has the curious map showing the forty years' 
wandering of the Israelites in the book of Numbers, and the curious woodcut 
of Ezekiel's vision at the beginning of Ezekiel. 

50. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at Ix)ndon by the 

Deputies of Cliristoi>her Barker. 1599. 4to. 

This is another of the 1599 editions of Tomson's revision. Zechariah iii. 2 
reads : " Is not this a brain taken out of the fire " for Is not this a brand. It has 
on the fly-leaf: "Edinburgh, 21st July 1778. Gifted by the Miss Falls to 
Simon Eraser." 

51. The Bible. ((Jenevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 

Deputies of Chnstoi)lier Barker. 1599. 4to. 

A good copy, comi)lete and well bound. It is No. G of Lea Wilson's Catalogue. 
In Ruth iii. 15 the reading is : "She went into the citie," and in Zecliariah iii. 
2, " Is not this a brain taken out of the fire." 

52. The Bible, ((lenevan version.) lnii)nnted at London by the 
Deimties of Cliristoi>lier Barker. 1599. 4 to. 

This is also a good copy, complete and well bound. Matthew vi. 2 reads : 
" Therefore when thou giuest thme almes, thow shalt make a trumi)et to be 
blowen before thee as the hypocrites do." 

53. Tlie I)iMe. (Genevan version.) Imi»rinte(l at London by the 
Dejnities of Christopher Barker. 1598. 4to. 

This is a ])lack-letter copy, the New Tcstiment l)eiiig dati*d 1581. It is 
slightly damaged at tlie beginning, but is otherwise in fair condition and well 

54. The Bible, ((lenevan version.) Imprinted at London by the 
Deputies of Christo}»her r>arker. 1599. 4to. 

The imprint of the Deputies of Christopher Barker, 1599, is given on the 


titles both of the Old and Xew Testaments, in this copy, and it has the omission 
of the word *not' in Matthew vi. 2, like other copies of the same date. But 
the colophon at the end of the Tables has : " Imprinted at Amsterdam for 
Tlioraas Crafoorth, by John Fredericksz 8tam, dwelling by the South Church 
at the Signe of the Hope, 1633." The Metrical Pwdnis are "Imprinted by I. L. 
for the Company of Stationers, London, 1633." 

55. The Bible. (Cienoviui version.) Imi)riiited at lA>ndon by R()])ert 

Barker. 1600. 4t(». 

This is a black-letter copy and is apparently the first Bible printed by Robert 
Barker, son of Christopher Barker. Ruth iii. 15 reads as in the 1599 black- 
letter copy : " Hee went into the citie," most of the others reading " Shee," or 
" And went into the citie." 

56. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Tonison^s revision. 1600. 4to. 

This copy is iu Roman letter and without date or printer's name. It is 
commonly called the Goose Bible, from the figure of a goose on the title-page of 
the Metrical Psialms, and from which it is supposed to have been printed at 
Dort. The last two leavei* of the Tables Ixjaring the imprint of the Deputies of 
Chri}*tr>pher Barker, I^fjiidon, 1599, appear to be an insertion. 

57. The Bible, ((lenevan version.) Tonison\s revision. Imprintcnl 

at I^:>nd()n by Robert Barker. 1602. Folio. 

Tliis is a l.)eautiful copy in fine binding. It has the two titles and colophon 
dated 1602, but the Metrical Psalms at the end have the imprint of John 
Windet for the Assignesof Richard Day, 1595. At the })eginning is a fine copy 
of the Book of Common Prayer without date, but with a pronision of orna- 
mental initial letters, many of which are evidently representations of classical 
scenes proba])lv from Ovid's Metamorphoses as in tlie Bishoi^s' Bible of 1572. 
The Psalter, wliich also precedes the Bible, l>ears the imprint of Robert Barker, 

58. The Holy Bible. (Bishops' version.) Imprinted at London by 

Robert Ikrkcr. 1602. Folio. 

A black-letter copy with ornamental initial letters. It lias some curious 
readings : Psalm xxvii. 29, " The righteous shal \ye punished " ; Ecclesiastes 
xi. 1, " Lay thy bread upon wet faces, and so slialt thou find it after many 
days" ; Jeremiah viii. 22, "Is there not Triacle at Oilead?" This copy lias 
the old cliain attachttd to the wooden Inxirds by which it had been fastened to a 

59. The Bible. ((Icnevan version.) Imprinted at London by Robert 
Barker. 1603. 4to. 

This must be a rather rare edition, and is a nice copy, excellently printed in 


H/>fnu) letter aiyl ral*H in i^l rr/oud lli*r pa^««. In il»e dr^scripdoo of the 
w'\rk(A fDftn in Job xv. ^ u a cnrioa^ n^syWiij. : *^ h^cAJue he hath covered his 
f^te with hi* Catri«»,and liath cr/lloi«s in hi> liinke.* Alao the woid "world" ia 
omitUsf] in Luke ii. J. At tlie Ijeginnin^ a black-letter copy of the Book of 
r>/fnni<>n I'ravfrr, 163^;, L^ lio»ind in with the T«»lTime. The Sletrical Psalms at 
the end liave the date 1 fSV>. 

60. The iJible. (Genevan version.) Iniprinle*! at London by Robert 
Il^irker. 1005. 4 to. 

Thij! in a very gorjd cony in black-letter of the i»ure CJenevan Bible of 1560. 
It W the Iarg»-' Table? of CV^nrordance, but no Metrical Psalms. On a fly-leaf 
at tlie Ix^nniiitf of the New Testament it is iuBcribed : ** Marie GrifUi her 
booke 1016," and " Roger Weever and Rebeckha Weever there booke 1647." 

01. The Bible. ((Genevan version.) Tomson's revision. Imprinted 
at lyjndon by Koljert Barker. 1600. 4to. 

Tliis is a nicely bound copy, wanting the first title, which is a facsimile, but 
having the original title of the New Testament, which is dated 1606, though the 
ot^lophon at the end lias 1605. It has the Metrical Psalms A 1606, and a copy 
of the Book of Common Prayer of 1680 is bound in at the commencement of 
the volume. 

62. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinteil at London by Robert 
Barker. 1608. 4 to. 

This is a i)Oor copy. It wants the title to the Xew Testament, which is 
8U])plied in facsimile. It has no Metrical Psahus. On the first title is the 
inscription : " Charles Woolnough is y<^ true owner of this Booke." 

63. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by Robert 
Barker. 1608. 8vo. 

Tliis, though rather a poor copy of a somewhat rare edition, is complete. At- 
the beginning is a quaint woodcut of the Temptation in the Garden of Eden witls. 
all the beasts roaming around. 

64. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by Robert 
Barker. 1609. 4 to. 

This is a fair copy with red lines round the page, and has inserted a portraJ.'iK 
of its former possessor, Rev. .loseph lviiii(;y, PortK*a, being a gift to him from \Si'^ 
Chamberlain, an eminent IVijitist missionary. 

05. The Holie Biblo faithfully translated into English out of ttmM 


Authentical Latin <fcc. by the Englisli College of Doway. Printed at 
Doway by Laurence Kellam, at tlio Signe of the Holie Lambe. 1609. 
2 vols. 4to. 

This copy is in fine condition and well bound. This translation of the Old 
Testament is the first English version printed for the use of the Roman 
Catholics The English translation of the New Testament which goes with it 
was first ])rinted at Ilhemes in 1 582. 

66. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Tonison's revision. At Edin- 
burgh, Printed by Andro Hurt, and are to bo sold at his Buith, on the 
north side of the gate, a little beneiitli the Crosse. Anno. Doni. 1610. 

This is the second edition of the Bible printed in Scotland and was highly 
thought of, many subsequent impressions making a merit of beins " conform to 
the ^ition printed by Andro Hart." Yet it is by no means absolutely correct. 
In Exodus XXX. 12 a whole line, or clause, " that there be no plague among 
tbem," has been missed out. Similarly in Deuteronomy xiii. 9 the words " ami 
then the hands of all the people " are likewise wanting. A number of Dutch 
maps inserted in this copy have very quaint and curious vignettes at top and 

67. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Tonison's revision. Imprinted 

at London by Robert Barker. 1610. 4to. 

This copy wants the first title, which is supplied by a facsimile of 1599. It 
has the New Testament title of 1610 and the colophon is dated 1611. At the 
end are The Psalmss of David in Meeter, with the tunes, printed by Andro Hart. 
On the fly-leaf at the begirming is a memorandum : " Robert Watson lx)ught 
this Bible at Berwick in 1670, price 2s. 7d." 

68. The Bi])le. (Genevan version.) Imprinted at London by Robert 
Ikrker. 1611. 4to. 

Tliis copy wants both title-pages, but the colophon gives the date 1611. 
Bound in with it are the Metrical Psalms of Stemhold and Hopkins, printed at 
London for the Company of Stationers, 1610. 

69. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Imprinted at 

Ix)ndon by Robert Barker. 1611. Folio. 

This is the second of two impressions of the Authorised version issued in 
1611, as is indicated by the absence of the large woodcut of the Arms of King 
James, and the presence in its place of the letterpress title to the Genealogies. 
The text is in black-letter with ornamental initials. This copy wants the first 

^ ,,:." "•''>^-'" 

""W <■"•■■''• ■"^'■ 

-^^ '• 

. *«<^ 

, ,.v .VV! '»••'■ "■'■" 

. ••» •-i.i -jaKi "'*' 

•. --it'. 



75. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Imprinte<l at 

London by Bonham Norton and John Bill. 1619. 4to. 

This copy of the Authorised version in Roman letter is not in first-rate 
condition, but the text is complete, and it has prefixed the curious map and 
description of Canaan, which is very often wanting. In 1st John v. 13 there is 
a curious misprint of " the Sion of God " for " the Sonne of God." 

76. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Imprinted at 
London by Bonham Norton and John Bill. 1620. 4to. 

This copy of the Authorised version in black-letter is complete. The 
colophon has the date 1621, and the Tables of Concordance, which *^ will serve 
as well for the translation called Geneva,'' are dated 1622. 

77. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Imprinted at 
London by Bonham Norton and John Bill. 1622. 8vo. 

This is a nice copy of the Royal version in Roman letter, and has the edges 
gilt and finely ornamented, and the text and preliminaries, and the Metrical 
Psalms of Stemhold and Hopkins, all complete. Between the fly-leaves at the 
end is inserted part of a leaf of a manuscript Book of Hours of apparently 
about fourteenth century date. 

78. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Imprinted at 
Loudon by Bonham Norton and John Bill. 1625. 4to. 

A fairlv good copy of this edition of the Royal version in black-letter, with 
Speed's (Genealogies and the map and description of Canaan prefixed, and the 
Metrical Psalms of Stemhold and Hopkins, dated 1626, boimd in at the end. 

79. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Printed at 
London by Robert Barker. 1632. Svo. 

A fine copy of this rather rare edition, in the original stamped Morocco bind- 
ing, but without the clasps. It has all the titles and the Metrical Psalms 
complete. The Book of Common Prayer prefixed wants the title and following 
leaf. A woodcut of the Royal Arms occupies the reverse of the general title. 
No copy of this edition was exhibited at the Caxton Celebration in 1877. It is 
not in Lea Wilson's Catalogue, and only one copy is mentioned by Lowndes. 

80. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Printed by the 
Printers to the King's Most Excellent Majestic. Edinburgh, 1633. 

This is the first edition of the Royal or Authorised version of the Bible 
VOL. xxxiv. c 


Srinted in Scotland. It has no Metrical Psalms, but at the end is A Briefe 
'oncordance, printed by the Assises of Clement Cotton. The first title is set 
in an elaborate border woodcut with the four Evangelists each with his proper 
s3rmbol in the four comers. On the page preceding the title is a quaint wood- 
cut of the Temptation and Fall. 

81. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Edinburgh, 

This copy wants the ilrst title, but has the engraved frontispiece of Adam 
and Eve in the Garden. It also has prefixed a copv of the Book of Common 
Prayer of the same date, and at the end the Metrical Psalms of 1637. 

82. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authoriseii version. Imprinted at 
London by Rolxjrt Barker and the Assignes of John Bill. 1634. 

Another edition of the Authorised version in black-letter with ornamental 
initials. This copy is not in the b^t condition, and wants the first title-page 
and some leaves at the end. 

83. The Holy Bible; faithfully translated into English out of the 
Authentical Latin, &c., with Arguments, Annotations &c. by the English 
CoUedge of Doway. Printed by John Cousturier. 1635. 2 vols. 

This edition of the Douay version of the Bible, printed in Rouen, is in 
Roman letter with ornamental initials. It has only the Old Testament and 

84. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Printed at Lon- 
don by Robert Barker and the Assignes of John Bill. 1637. 8vo. 

This copy has prefixed the Book of Common Prayer (the title of which is 
wanting) and the Genealogies with the description and map of Canaan. At 
the end is a copy of the Metrical Psalms of 1638. 

85. The Bible. (Genevan version.) Tomson's revision. Printed 
by Thomas Staifortl, And are to be sold at his liouse at the signe of the 
flight of Brabant u\Hm the ^lilk Market, over iigiiiiist the Deventer 
Wood-Market. Anistenlam, 1640. Folio. 

This edition is said on the title-page to be "according to the copy printed at 
Edinburgh by Andro Hart, in the year 1610," but it is by no means free from 



printers' blunders. In the text are inserted a number of woodcut maps, among 

w-Iiicli IB one at Numbers xxxiii showing the forty years' wanderings of the 

Israelites, with very curious pictorial representations of the more important 

ev^Gixtim during the ioumey from Egypt to Canaan. At the end are the Metrical 

I*8alEi3s of Stemhold and Hopkins of 1638, without the music. 

36. The Holy Bible. Koyal or Authorised version. Printed at Lon- 

*^^i^ \)y Robert Barker and the Assignee of John Bill. 1642. 8vo. 

Tti-ia copy is complete, but has been very closely cut. It has both the en- 
^.'^'v-^sd titles. At the bc^nning of Genesis there is a vignette of the Tempta- 
^^?*^ in the Garden of Eden, and at the bc^nnin^ of the New Testament a 
7!^S^^x^tte representing the four Evangelists with their symbols. At the end is 
^'^? Oncordance, 1642, followed by the Metrical Psalms of 1643. In Matthew 
^iJ*^- 23 the word "not" is omitted, so that it reads, "Is this the Son of 

^7. Tlie Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Printed by 

^^ger Dainel, printer to the University of Cambridge. 1648. ISmo. 

. * his copy has the engraved title with Moses and Aaron on either side, and 
^^o-w the Koyal Arms a picture of London with old London Bridge in the 
^^^^round. A peculiarity of the text is that in Genesis xix. 4 it reads " y" 

^«n of Sodom," and " y« people," but everywhere else the word * the ' is given 

^ the modern spelling. 

88. The Holy Bible. Printed by John Field, printer to the Parlia- 
ment. London, 1653. 24mo. 

This copy has the engraved title with Moses and King David on either side 
and the four Evangelists with their symbob below. It has no Metrical Psalms. 
The peculiarity of the text is that Ist Timothy iv. 16 has " the doctrine " instead 
of " thy doctrine." 

89. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Printed by 

John Field, printer to the Universitie, Cambridge. 1668. 4to. 

This edition, in very small but clear tyjHj printed on thin paper, has been 
called the Flat Bible or the Preachers' Bible. This copy has the stamp of a 
former possessor, Bindon Blood, with his crest and the date 1795 on the back 
of the first title. 

90. The Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Printed by 

John Baskett, Oxford. 1717. Folio. 

This is the Vinc^r Bible, so-called from an error in the running title at 
Luke XX., where it reads, " The parable of the vinegar," instead of " The j^arable 
of the vineyard." 


91. Tlie Holy Bible. Royal or Authorised version. Printed at the 
Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1801. 4 to. 

This impression has been called " The Murderers' Bible," from the reading in 
Jude, verse 16, " These are murderers," instead of " These are murraurerB." There 
are several other gross printers' blunders in the text. 

92. The Newe Testament translated by M. Wil. Tyndall. 1549. 

A good copy carefully repaired at the beginnuig and wanting two leaves in 
Coruithians. There is no place given in the title, but it is supposed to have 
been printed in Antwerp. In 2nd Corinthians x. 11 there is a curious reading : 
"Let hym that is soche thinke on his wyfe"; and in 1st Peter ii. 13 the 
words " Unto the king as the chief head " are omitted. 

93. The New Testament. Excusum Londini in Officina Thomae 
Gualtier pro J. C. 1550. Bvo. 

A complete copy : the title-page in red and black with engraved border, 
having the monogram of Grafton and AVTiitechurch at the foot. The text is 
in Latin and English in parallel columns, the Latin in Roman letter and the 
English in black-letter. In Romans vi. the present verse 6 is omitted in the 
English though rendered in the Latin opposite. 

94. The Newe Testament. Imprinted at London by Richard Jugge. 
1552. 4to. 

This is Tyndale's vereion, revised, and finely printed in black-letter with 
many woodcuts inserted in the text. The title-page has a portrait of Edward 
VI., and on the reverse is a copy of the " byll " autnorising the printing of the 
edition and the sale of copies at the reasonable and convenient price of " twenty 
and two pens for every boke in papers and unbounde," In the woodcut 
illustration to Matthew xiii. the devil is pictured with a wooden leg, sowing tares 
among the wheat. 

95. The Newe Testament. Printed at Geneva by Conrad Radius. 
1557. 12mo. 

This is the first Testament in English in which the text is divided into 
ninnbered verses. The translation is W illiain Whittingham's, and the version 
differs entirely from the (Genevan. It is printed in Roman type with marginal 
notes and ornamental initial letters at the iHigimiings of the l)ooks. On the last 
leaf is a list of " Fautes conmiitted in the printing.'' 

96. The Newe Testament. London, Richard Jugge. 1566. 4to. 


This edition has the text of that of 1552, and the same woodcuts are used in 
the gospels though differently placed. The woodcuts in the Apocalypse and 
the initial letters are different The headlines of this impression are in Koman 
type, while those of the 1552 edition are Italic. 

97. The Newe Testament. Printed at Geneva by John Crespin. 
1568. 4to. 

This edition lias been supposed to l)e part of the Bible of this date. This 
copy wants the title, but nas a title of the Whole Booke of Psalmes with the 
imprint of 1569 at the end of the volume, though the Psalms themselves are 

98. Tlie Newe Testament. Printed at London by Christopher Barker. 
1575. 12mo. 

This is a good copy of a rather rare edition of the (Genevan version. It bears 
a memorandum : " This was sometime the booke of Abigail, one of the 
daughters of Humfrey Hales esquier, first maried to Captaine Sampson and 
after his decease to Luke Sprakeling gent." On another ]>age is the signature of 
Robert Sprakeling, 1604. 

99. The ^ew Testament. Englished by L. Tomson. Imprinted at 
London by Christopher Barker dwelling in Ponies Churchyeard at the 
signe of the Tigre's Head. 1576. 8vo. 

This is the first edition of Tomson's revision of Beza's translation. The title- 
page has a woodcut of the angel appearing to the shepherds. A copy of the 
Metrical Psalms of 1638 is bound in with the volume. 

100. The New Testament, translated out of the Authentical Latin in 
the English College of Kliemes. Printed at Rhemes by John Fogny. 
1582. 4to. 

This IB the first edition of a translation from the Vulgate, which created some 
controversy. Tlie notes contain many Eastern, Greek and I^atin words, so that 
Fuller called it a translation which needed to be translated. 

101. The Newe Testament. Tomson*s revision of the Geneva 
version. Imprinted at London by Christopher Barker. 1583. 4 to. 

This is the handsomest edition of Beza's version of the New Testament, 
printed in a bold black-letter type, with large ornamental initials at the com- 
mencement of the different books, and smaller ones at the beginnings of the 


102. Tlie Newe Testament. Tomson's revision. Imprinted at Lon- 
don by the Deputies of Christopher Barker. 1596. 4to. 

This is another black-letter copy of Tomaon's revision of Beza's version, very 
similar to the last. On the fly-leaf at the end is inscribed in a contemporary 
hand the couplet : — 

Eyther be as thou semes 

Or seme as thou art. 

Tliis is followed by another stanza in the same hand : — • 

When I lend I am a f rend 
But when I aske I am unkynde 
So oft my f rend I make a fooe 
"Where fore I will no more doe soe. 

103. The New Testament. Translated out of Greke by Theod. Beza 
and Englished by I^ T. Imprinted at London by Robert Barker. 1604. 

A very well used copy of this tuiy edition, almost complete. 

104. The New Testament. Tomson's revision of Beza's translation. 

Imprinted at London by Robert Barker. 1610. 8vo. 

A much used copy, almost complete, and considerably cut down in the 

105. The New Testament. Royal or Authorised version. Imprinted 
at London by Robert Barker. Anno Doni. 1612. 4 to. 

This edition of the Royal version is printed in long lines in a bold black- 
letter type. It follows the text of the Bible of 1611, and in 2nd Timothy iv. 
13 the words " and the books " are omitted. Bound up with it is a copy of the 
Metrical Psalms with the times of 1()21. 

106. The New Testament, faithfully translated into English out of the 

Authentical Latin, with Annotiitiona, in the English College of Rhemes. 

Printed at Antwerp by James Seldenach. 1G21. 12mo. 

This is the third edition of the Rhemish version. The Annotations follow 
the text and exceed it in bulk, the text extending to 285 pages and the Annota- 
tions to 350 pages. 

107. The New Testament. Royal or Authorised version. Printed at 
Cambridge by the Printers to the University. 1628. 32mo. 

A fairly good copy wanting the last leaf. It has been supposed to be the 


first New Testaiuent printed at Cambridge, but tbere were Bibles and Testa- 
ments printed there as early as 1591, though this is probably the first edition 
of the Authorised version issued from Cambridge. 

108. The New Testament. Royal or Authorised version. Imprinted 

at London by Bonham Norton and John Bill. 1628. 32mo. 

This copy is much like the last, but has been more used, and is quite 

109. The New Testament. Royal or Authorised version. London, 
printeii by Rol)ert Barker, and by the Assignes of John Bill. 1631. 

Til is edition is printed in black-letter in long lines with the headings of the 
chapters and the marginal notes in Roman letter. The title has an engraved 
Ijorder, and is disfigured by a misprint, " Chist " for " Christ" 

110. The New Testament, faithfully translated into English out of 

the Authentical I^tin. The Fourth E<lition, enriched with Pictures. 

Printed by John Costurier. [Rouen] 1633. 4to. 

This edition is printed in Roman letter in long lines. The pictures are those 
of the four Evangelists with their symbols, each at the beginnmg of his Gos])el, 
and the Pentecost at the beginning of the Acts of the Apostles. St Paul is at 
the beginning of the Ei)istles, ana St John in Patmos at the beginning of the 

111. The New Testament. Royal or Authorised version. Eilinburgh, 

l*rinted by the printers to the King's Most Excellent Majestic. Anno 

l)om. 1633. 8vo. 

Tliere were two editions of 1633 printed at Edinburgh, one " printed by 
Robert Young," the other as above. Tliis last impression seems to have been 
very limited and copies are seldom met with. Tliis is an interleaved copy and 
quite perfect. 

112. Reprint of Tyudale's edition of the New Testament, first 
published in 1526. Ix)ndon,'5^aniuel Rigster. 1836. 8vo. 

113. The New Testament in English translated ])y John Wycliffe 
circa 1380, now first printed from a contempomry manuscript in the 
Monastery of Sion, Middlesex. Printed at Chiswick by Charles 
Whittingham for William lackering, Picadilly, London. 1848. 4 to. 


114. Reprint of The First New Testament printed in the English 
I>{ingiiage (1525 or 1526), translated from the Greek by William 
Tyndale, reproduced in facsimile with an Introduction hy Francis Fry, 
F.S.A. Bristol, 1862. 8vo. 

115. The New Testament. A Facsimile Reprint of the Genevan 
Testament printed by Conrad Badius, 1557, with the initial and other 
woodcuts. London, Samuel Bagster <fe Sons. 1842. 8vo. 

116. The Psalmcs of Dauid. Trvely opened and explaned by 
Paraphrasis, set foorth in Latine by that excellent learned man Theodore 
Beza and faithfully translated into English by Anthonie Gilbie. At 
London, Printed by John Harrison and Henrie Middleton. 1580. 

117. The whole Booke of Psalmss collected into English meeter, by T. 
Sternhold, I. Hopkins and others, conferred with the Hebrue, with apte 
notes to sing them withal. Imprinted at London by Johne Days. 
1581. 8vo. 

118. The Whole Booke of Psahnes, collected into English Metre by 
Thomas Sternhold, John Hopkins, and others, with apt notes to sing 
them withall. London, Printed by John Windet for the assignes of 
Richard Day. 1601. 12mo. 

119. The Whole Booke of Psalmes, collected into English Meeter by 
Thomas Sternhold and John Hopkins and others, &c. Ix)ndon, Printed 
for the Companie of Stationers. 1617. 12mo. 

120. The Epistles and Gospels, with a brief Postyll upon the same 
from Trinitie sonday tyll Advent, drawen forthe by divers learned men 
for the singuler conmioditie of al good christians and namely of Prestes 
and Curates. Imprinted in London by Rychard Bankes. [1541.] 8vo. 

121. The Paraphrases of Erasmus on the New Testament. Printed at 
London ])y Edwarde Whitchurch. Folio. 1548. 


122. A IMaine Discovery of tlie Whole Revelation of Saint John. 
Set foorth by John Nni>eir L. of Marchistoun younger. Edinburgh, 
Printed })y K«]>ert Waldegrave. 1593. 4to. 

A good wpy of this rare trwitise by John Napier of Merchiston, afterwards 
known as tiie famous mathematician, and the inventor of calculation by 
logarithms. The book is interesting as containing the earliest notice of the 
discovery of a Roman Altar at Musselburgh, which gives the words of the 
inacription : — "and even at Musselburgh, amonff oumlves in Scotland, a 
foundation of a Romane monument lately found (now utterlie demolished) 
bearing this inscription dedicatorie — Apollini Granno Quintiu L%iciu8 
Saiinvinm Proconsul A\ig" 

123. The (Jospel according to Saint Matthew and part of the first 
chapter of the Go8i>el according to Saint Mark translated into English 
from the Greek, with original notes. By Sir John Cheke, Knight, 
Secretary of State to King Edwanl VI. With an Introductory Account, 
by James Goodwin, B.D. Cambridge, 1843. 8vo. 

124. The Prophete Jonas. With an Introduction. By William 
Tyndale. Repro<iuced in Facsimile; to which is added Coverdale's 
version of Jonah. With an Introduction by Francis Fry, F.S.A. 
London, 1863. 8vo. 

Tliere was also Exhibited : — 

(1) By the Right Hon. Sir Herbert Maxwell, Bart., M.P., 
F.S.A. Scot. 

A wooden effigy of an Ecclesiastic 2 feet 8^ inches in height, found 
in a moss near the Priory of Whithorn. The wood seems to be oak 
blackened by long immersion in peat. The figure is vested in ceremonial 
vestments. The arms, which have not been carved out of the block but 
inserted, are gone. The mitre is of the later shape, indicating a period 
probably not earlier than fifteenth century. The effigy is shown in the 
accompanying illustration to a scale of one-fifth. 

Tlie following Communications were retid : — 

Ptoceedin^s of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 





Having at various times visited and made rough plans of nearly all 

forts in this large district, and being privileged to use the plans and 

iptions of the few that I have not seen, but which have already been 

iblished in our Proceedings by Mr Alex. Hutcheson,^ I am thus able 

give a tolerably exhaustive account of the whole. 

The course of my investigations naturally led me to see also a good 
ly of the * Roman Camps ' of the district, and of the obscure field- 
rorks, the precise nature of which cannot be ascertained without ex- 
■rating them — if then. Of the latter, I have attempted to give some 
ecount, and I have referred briefly to others of the same kind that I 
»ve not seen, classing them all in a group by themselves ; but I have 
lofc descril>ed the * Roman Camps,' because the sulvject is so large as to 
Bquire separate treatment. 

The map (Plato I.) shows the general elevation of the land by the 
Ontour lines of 500 and 1000 feet above the sea, and the principal 
beams. To avoid overcrowding with names, the only inhabited places 
ntered are the larger towns and such of the villages, generally of great 
ntiquity, as are near the forts and serve as guides to their position, 
hsides the forts and the obscure field-works noticed in the text, the 
Eoman Camps,' although undescribed for the reason just given, have 
>een introduced on the map to give some additional value to it as a 
ecord of the fortified works of the district. All the works either have 
heir special designation attached, when they have one, or are named 
tfter the hill on which tliey stand, or the nearest inhabited place. Tlie 
iifierent classes are distinguished by tlie marks explained on the map, 

I * " Notes on the Stone Circle near Kenmore, and of some Hill Forts in the neigh- 
Wurhood of Aberfeldy, Perthshire," by Alexander Hutcheson, F.S.A., Architect, 
fBroughty Ferry, /Vo^*. S. A, Hcot., xxiii. 356. 


and lus the objects in each class are taken in the text from the south and 
west north wanl and eastward, their place on the map should be the 
more easily found. Certain oliscure works in Glenlyon, which lie l^eyond 
the map, are given from the Onhiance Survey on a separate little chart 
(tig. 55). 

My plans are orientetl with the north to the top of the Figures, and 
they are on the scale of 120 ft to the inch, unless when otherwise 
stite*i. The protile** are usually on twice that scale. All heights of 
ramparts, etc., are perpendicular heights. 

A few contractions of words that occur frequently are used in the 
text Most of these are easily enough understood, and all that seem to 
require explanation are O.M. for Ordnance Map ; O.S.A. and N.S.A. for 
the Old and Xew Statistii*al Accounts of Scothuid. 

General Description of the District. 

The district dealt with nearly corresponds with the South Pictland 
of Skene, including the vaguely defined Fortrenn, but without Fife, 
which is reluctantly excludeii, as I have no personal knowledge of its 
forts. It is a district well defineii by nature as well as by the isolation 
of its forts from other groujvs. On the east it is bounded by tlie North 
Sea, On the north, a wide elevated tract destitute of forts divides it 
fn>m the AWnleenshire gnnip. On the west, the Gnunpians, also 
entirely without forts, limit the unit^nl grouj^s of Angus and the 
Meiirns, and if in Perthshire the fort.** do creep up tlie Highland glens it 
is only to find tluMusclves cut oflf by a vast sivice from gix^uj^s further west. 
Finally, on the s*nith, a tongue of high tableland pn>jecting from the 
Highland!^ towanU the Ochils op|M»sito (Uoncagles, and the Ochils running 
thence to the Firth of Tay, ft^rni a well markcii Knindary. 

Beside.*? towns oi iniiH^rtance al the present day, or in some instances 
long Wfore it the district contains AUTnithy. Foru»viot, and Sci>ne, the 
now decaye^l capit^ils of tlie l^ct^Ss lvside> Ihnidurn. the proliable chief 
stn^nghold of Fortrenn, als<^ m.vny villai^es wlioso great antiquity is testified 


by the carved stones still existing at them, and although the number of 
forts is comparatively small, there is no other district in Scotland that 
contains so great a proportion of large and im|)ortant examples. 

The country people, particularly of Angus and Mearns, although 
allocated in our military system to Highland regiments, appeared to me 
to be of a marked Liowland type in character, manners, and appearance ; 
and the very small proportion of Highland names on the tombstones in 
the churchyards, even those on the Higldand border, indicates a small 
admixture of blood with the neighbouring Celts. I have been furnished 
by my friend Dr Beddoe with the following note on this sulyect : — 

" Surnames in Laurencekirk Kirkyard, — Every tombstone was counted 
separately, but four or five identical surnames on one tombstone were 
reckoned as only one. 


Surnames: Highland,. 



„ Border or Lothian, 



Doubtful, . 



„ Others, 

. 192 


Some of those stated to be of doubtful origin may have been really 
Highland ones ; the * others ' were of various Lowland Scotch tyj^s, or 
common to England and the Scotch Lowlands. The inference I draw 
is that there has not been much immigration from the Highlands since 
this part of the country was Saxonised, 

In illustration, I may add the following facts extracted from the 
Parish Registers of Muthill in Perthshire : — 

Out of 200 entries of names in the years 1697 to 1700, 83, or 41*5 
per cent, were of Highland type. But in 200 names taken from the 
Registers of the period between 1845 and 1886, only 32, or 16 per cent., 
-were distinctly Highland. In this case the change of i>optdation seems 
to have been due to a current setting in from the Ix)wlands, or perhaps 
partly from the Highland families moving into the large towns." 

The distinction of race is also strongly brought out by the difference 


in tlie colour of hair and eyes, as ascertained by Dr Beddoe in observa- 
tions made in 1898, but not yet published. 


A strictly scientilic or accurate classification of objects that have 
suliered so much from gradual decay, and so much more from the 
ruthless hand of man, and which are often so ovei-grown with turf and 
weeds that without excavation we cannot even he sure whether they 
are of earth or stone, is obviously impossible. The best I can make of it 
is to divide the o])jects under the following chief heads : — 

I. p]arth works and prokable Earthworks. 
II. Stone Forts and probable Stone Forts. 
III. .Sites of Forts with little or no remains. 
IV. Dubious works or sites, marked Fort or Camp on the O.^F. 
V. Dubious works or sit(^s, possil)ly miliUiry, not marked Fort 
or Camp tm the O.^I. 


(a) Earthwork Resembling a Typical Mote. 

1. If division of our .subject be difficult, subdivision is still more so, but it 
may l>e said that only one work can be structurally classed without doubt na 
a SloU*. Tliis is the Cairn Beth of the O.M., the Cairn Ikddie, Caer Bed, 
Ciwr Beth or Macbeth^s Castle of the N.S.A. Tlie true local name appeiirs 
to have l>een Cairn Jieddie, and the Caer Bed or Beth are probably interpreta- 
tions to leiul up to Macbeth's Castle, a title which I cannot trace to an earlier 
source than the N.S.A. Tlie site is 5 m. N.E. of Perth, 7(X) yds. N.W. 
of St Martin's Churcli at the bottom of a gentle hollow, clase to a small rill, 
and 2.")0 ft. alx)ve the s(M. Hie work is niueh ploughed down, but still shows 
the ]>lan (fig. 1) of a typical mote with a squarish 1){1.«h' court snrrouudi»d by a 
trench, the moti^ or mound descending on one side into the trencli. The niotii is 
now only 8 or 10 ft. liigli and tlie trench almost tilled up, but the writ<T in the 
N.S.A. siys that twenty-fourye^ars In-fore he wrote, a great ([uantity (^f eart,h wa.** 
removed, and even after his time the O.M. rejiresents it as well ]>'rve<l, the 
mote having a tlat toj* 50 ft. in diameter, the base court measuring 230 by 
200 ft. insith', and the trench 40 to 45 ft. in width. 


(h) Earthworks with somk Structural Rf>semblanck to Military MoTEii, 
OR WITH Mote or Moat Marked at them ox the O.M. 

I have placed together all the works with tlie term Moat or Mote attached to 
them on tne O.M. Unfortunately the term is there used in various senses, but 
by favour of Colonel D. A. Johnston, R.E., Director of the Survey, I am enabled 
to state in the following paragraphs in which ca.se8 it designates a mound, and 
in which merely a trencii connectwl with a fort. The information, however, 
came too late to enable me to recast this unsatisfactory subdivision. In the 
present revision of the ma|)8, the distinction between Motr, a military, generally 
circular eminence, and iV/oa/, a trench, is to Ijo observed, and neither term is to 
be used for an ordinary mound. It is questionable whether in any case in the 
district the term is traditional and looal, or whether any of these works have 
been military motes. Most of them, as far aw structure goes, have nearly an 
ecjual claim to the title of mote or fort. 

2. Inchbrakii*. — On a level field 2i m. E. of (•rieff, in the gi-ounds of 
Abercaimey, 150 ft. above the sea, is* this puzzling structure. Moiit marked 
on it on the O.M., as shown in fig. 2, signifies the surrounding trench, which 
with its appurtenances is s(» drawn there as to Ik* not quite intelligible ; I 
have therefore, while adopting the form and dimensions of the Ordnance Plan, 
represented the enclosing trench, etc., so as to corres})ond with my section A B, 
which is given on a larger scale. 

In fonu the work is a long, pretty regular oval, rather broader at the E. 
tlian the W. end, and the dimensions over all are nearly 900 by 360 ft. The 
structure rises gradually into a much-flattened dome, not more than 25 ft. 
above the level of the surrounding ])ark, but it is j»retty steeply scarped for a 
perpendicular height of 6 to 8 ft. down to the trench, which is only 3 ft. wide 
ana is l>ounded outside by a mound 18 ft. across and 3 to 4 ft. high above 
both the trench and the field, so that the trench is not a dug out trench as far 
as appearances go. An entrance, much modernised, 30 ft wide, comes in from 
the N. near the W. end, and at that i»art there seems to have l)een some 
levelling of the interior. H(»re and then* a slight indication of a jMirajKit may 
be seen at the top of the scarp. 

Of the * Castle of InchbraKie ' not a trace is to Ixj st^en, but the neglected fine 
old trees and dense imdergi-owth make a i)roi>er examination difficult. On the 
whole it seems not unlikely that this may have been a Mote of unusual form 
and size, on which a mediaeval castle was afterwards l)uilt. 

3. Moiit^ the Law, are the names given on the O.M. to a mound, Ij m. 
S.E. of Dunnichen Church and 600 yds. S. of Idvies House. It is situated 
464 ft. alx)ve the sea, on the summit of a broad flat elevation or ridge, com- 
manding an extensive view. The mound rises 12 to 15 ft. alx)ve the 
field, and is very conspicuous with its steep green sides crowned with trees. It 
has a slightly domed toj> only 18 ft. in diametiT, green like the slopes, but with 
a aniall Yieap of stones on the toj*. The slope falls tm a retaining stone wall 4 
ft. high which girths the foot with a circumference of 280 ft. There is no 
sign of a trench, and the term Mont {nwtt^ was adopted on the Ordnance Plan 
for the very unsatisfactory reason that criminals were said to have been executed 
on it. The small rounded top seems ill adapted to the use of the work as a 
Mote. 300 yds. N.E. of it is the " site of Idvies Church," with no remains. 

y >>"" Sire of 


Inchbrakle Cairlc 


• • • -^*^\n.v,;i;;%fcfsM-,%nwvr;" 


Cairn ..<';'"'•-.., 1 

/ .5." 

Callows Law.Garayrte 3 


Scalf forallrhfPlan^ i<fe- 

Figs. 1 to 11. Earthworks in Perth, ADgus, and Mcarns. 


4. Af'Mit, Gallmrn Ltuv (lig. 3), is the next i'xainnlf, 3 iii. E.N.E. from 
lilt* lajst, \ 111. N. of (Iiuilyiie Castle, J m. S.S.K. ot (lUthrie Church, and 
alK>iit :2U<J ft. aljove the W*a. It is conr^jiicuoiisly jilaatl at the very W. 
ciul of a siiigiiliir, narrow, artilicial-lookiiig lnit natural ridge which runs K. 
and W. on a field Hloi>ing gently from S. to N. This mound rises 
j^^mcltially from the E., with a gently-rounded crest and Bteep sides, 15 to 2ri 
ft. lii^li on the S. and 30 U* 45 on the N. On nearing the W, end, aft4M' 

Fig. 12. Castlchill, Insbewau. 

a tiourse of 70 yds., a trench cuts off the mote, which risi's H ft. above 
the trench, lias a fiat top, 27 hy 18 ft., and falls steeply about 20 feet to the 
S. and 40 to the N., upon the field. The W. fac«* is (luarriinl away (at 
6 on the plan and section) and shows nothing but sand and rollwl i)ebbles from 
U>p to iHjtttnii. Tlie name Gallmcs Law seems n<»t inappnipriatt*, from the 
following abbreviated reference in the O.S. account : " Two artiti(rial conical 
mounds called laxcn exist at Id vie and (iardyne. An old man told Tliomas 


Lyel that he saw two Highlanders taken with stolen cattle, judged, condemned, 
and hanged on the Law of Gardyne" (early in the eighteenth century), but this 
is no reason for calling it also a Moat (Mote), 

5. Passing now to the high tableland upon which the high road from Forfar 
to Brechin runs, we come on the Mote of Melgund of the O.M., the only 
instance, within our review, of the spelling mote in place of moat. The site is 
1| m. N.E. of Aberlemno Church on the broad summit of Angus Hill, 
451 ft. above the sea. It is represented on the O.M. as a very small, shapeless 
mound, and >>tis prol>ably then undergoing a gradual destniction, which seems 
to be now complete, as I could find no trace of it on the site in a field then under 

6. Scarcely 2^ m. E. of this, J m. S.S.E. of Aldhar Castle, and 2 m. 
S.W. of Brechin, Mont is marked on the O.M. on a gently sloping field 316 
ft. above the sea, at a place called Chapel. The term here means a trench, 
but it must have disappeared, and I coula see nothing but a cottage and garden 
beside a square enclosure, fenced by a low mound, on the top of which was a " 
ruined wall, of which the N. side, 104 ft. long, and part of the E. and W. 
sides, 84 and 48 ft., remained. The site seems to have been of some import- 
ance formerly, as on the O.M., besides the names fJhapely and Priest Shed 
(apparently the name of a field close to Moat), there is a Court Law 200 yds. to 
the S. ana Sit^ of Clmrch Barns 400 yds. S.W. I have retained this and the 
preceding No. 5 in this class, l^ecause they are marked * Moat* on the O.M. But 
strictly they should have been relegated to the chiss with no existing remains. 

7. The last occurrence of the word Moat (here signifying trench) on the 
O.M. is at Castlehillj Inshewan (fig. 12), which is situated on the N. kink 
of the South Esk, about 300 ft. above the sea, 2 m. W.S.W. of Tannadice 
Churcli, and 500 yds. W.N.W. of Inshewan House. The river here flows 
l>etween perpendicular clitfs, and the fortress is formed by cutting a deep trench 
landward, where there i.s a bend of the river, the land side of the long oval 
being protected by the trench, and the river side by the cliflf 30 or 40 ft. in 
height, and the foaming river rushing along in its rocky bed below. The 
trench is remarkably deep and steep, and from the configuration of the ground 
the counterscarp is higher than the scarp in the proportion of 25 to 15 ft., 
where highest, about tho middle. Eastward, however, from the natural fall in 
the landward ground, the height of the counterscarp diminislies rapidly as it 
curves towards the river, and the entrance, C, is here, close to the stream. The 
nearly level and pretty regularly oval interior measures alx)ut 150 by 100 ft. 
A slight banking up of the landward edge may be remains of a ramixxrt. There 
are no signs of stone work and no stones lie about. 

(c) Earthworks with Some Resemblance to Military Motes, 
BUT NOT Marked Mote oh Moat on the O.M. 

8. The only earthwork resembling a mote in the Highlands of Perth is on 
the T(yrr UiU,\ m. S.S.W. of Aherfeldy, on the left bank of Moness Bum, 400 
ft. above the sea, within 50 yds. of the i)ublic rojul to Crieflf. Mr Hutcheson, 
from whose mper I take the plan (fig. 13), calls it a very distinct and well- 
marked eartlien fort, measuring internally 154 by 124 ft., rectangular in form. 


^vith. tiv-o trenches ou the slojie, varying from 24 to 36 ft. in width, and rising 
40 to 45 ft. above the surrounding ground. He also states that, on the ascend- 




y. ' 


^tcTionoymil rfi-^ 

Fig. 13. Earthwork, Torr Hill, Aberfeldy. (Mr Hutchesoii.) 

ing s^op® ®^ ^^® ^^ ^^ ^^® ^' °^ ^^ ^^'**'» *'^cre are several otlier wcll-mnrked 
trenches, which may have been thrown up as outworks tr) protect the foit on 
that the most vulnerable side. 



Tliis work seems to Iw altogether of ratlier a Qiiique kind. Tt in so in the 
first place hecause earthen forts are exceedingly rare in the S«'0ttish Highlands ; 
but it is also reniarkahle for its recUingidar form. It will l)e observed from 
Mr Hutcheson's plan that, although the interior is rectangular with rounded 
angles, the trenches assume a more circular form. In these respects it resembles 
the * Roman Post' of Kaim^ Castle between Ardoch and Strageath, and no 
other work with which I am acquainted. On paper the Torhill work is some- 
what su^estive of a terraced mote, and what with that and its position so near 
to a low lying inhabited site, it seems not unlikely that it may ne a work of the 
mote period. 

9. Dundee Law. — This conspicuous green eminence rises on the N.W. side of 
the town of Dundee to a height of 572 ft. above the sea, the last 100 ft being 

d ^ 

3 ; s 


■JMni... .^ 


>. a 1 :* 


very steep 

Fig. 14. Dundee Law. 

very steep all round, but particularly on the X. The summit is nearly level 
but with a gentle incline to the S. and E., and the fort (fig. 14), measuring 
'2()i) by 170 ft. over all, occuj^ies the whole of it. The work is peculiar for a 
hill site, l)eing striclly rectilmear, except for a rounded annex at the N. end, 
which is outside the main rami)art and follows the contour of the hill top there. 
The inner area mejisuros about 140 by 80 ft. ; and the northern jmrt. A, for a 
bre^idth of 30 ft, is very slightly raised al)ove the southern i>art, B, and ha«» a 


11. 1| 111. S.E. of Glamis Church, | m. N.W. of Arniefoul hamlet, in 
Hayston wood (now much cut down), fully 700 ft. above the sea, on the 
top of a lofty ridge commanding a fine view, is this circular little work 
(fig. 5), consisting of a flat-topped mound not more than 5 or 6 ft high, 
i^O ft. in diameter on the toi>, sloping gently to a slight rampjart, if it may 
be so-called, 12 ft. broad ana only a foot or two in height, which environs it 
all round, the over-all diameter being alx)ut 120 ft. Many rounded pebbles 
of considerable size show in chance breaks of the mound, but no stones suitable 
for building. The ground for a great distance round alx)ut has been surface- 
quarried for slate. 

12. At Canterla7id, J m. N.N.W. of the farm of that name, Ij m. E. of 
Marykirk, 4j m. N. of Montrose, 406 ft. above the sea, on the level summit 
of a ridge at the very S.W. end of Garvock Hill, with a commanding view 
to the S. and W., stands a work (fig. 6) closely resembling the last, being 
nearly circular, and having a central mound 6 ft. high but only 20 ft. in 
diameter on the flat top, with sides sloping gently to an encircling mound 
not 2 ft. liigh, which differs from that at Arniefoul in being double with some 
compartments, perliaps changes due to digging. The central mound has also 
been much dug into, revealing the same composition as at Arniefoul. 

(d) Apparent Earthworks that ark probably Forts and not Motes. 

13. Beginning from the south and west, as under the previous head, the 
first in this class is the Fort of the O.M. and Pod of Roy on the Grinnan Hill 
of Keir, — The site is less than J m. S.W. of Ardoch camp, 420 ft above the 
sea, on the edge of a steep descent, 40 to 50 ft high, to Keir Burn, but only 
slightly elevated above the field towards Braco village. It has apparently been 
an earthwork with a scmioval triple line of defence (fig. 15), j)artly ram- 
parted and trenched, jwirtly terraced, the l)road oval being rudely completed by 
the unfortified edge of the steej) Imiik. The entrance, a, is along the narrow 
crest of a ridge, h, from the E., and it in likewise approached by a rude i-oad- 
wav, c, from the burnside lx*low. 

Ro/s i)lan makes the work neiirly complete, but t\w middle half of the lines 
no longer exists. He siiys that it may have lK?en a work of the natives before 
the arrival of the Romans, but calls it a (Roman ?) * post.' There can be no 
doubt that it belongs to a common tyi>e of native fortresses. Its extreme length 
is about 320 ft, and the interior may liave been about 200 by 170. 

14. Uni. E.N.E.of Blackford Church, 180 ydn. N.W. of the ci-oss-rotuls at 
Loaninyhead, opposite the mouth of Gleiieagles, the easiest pass through the 
Ochils from Perth to P'ife, is another Fort (hg. 16), 5i m. nearly due E. of the 
last, which it closely resembles, and marked * Konian (lamp ' on the O.M. The 
site, i m. W.S.W. of Criett' Junction, occupies the whole of an oval eminence, 
620 ft above the sea, rising alM)ut 25 ft above a field on the N.E. side, and only 
8 or 10 al>ove one on tlu* S.W. side. This eminence forms the central jwirt of a 
little ridge, but is a^jpnached from it at each eiul by narr(>\v necks, B and D. 
The entrance, I K, is not from either neck, but from the field U) the S.E. The 
defences at the ends, AB and CD, consist of a steej) scar[> from the interior, 
falling on a trench, beyond which is a i-ami«irt and second trench. The scarp 
and rampart are in some i)laces 9 ft. above the bottom of the ti-enches in their 




fiDiit. Oil the N.E. face, E, F, the trenches jiass into terraces which have no 
iwii-ai>et*5. On the S.W. face, where they are most i^equired, the defences are 
entirt^ly gone. The dimensions of this oval fort are al)OUt 380 hy 200 ft. over 
all, the interior l)eing alxmt 230 by 120.* 

15. On the tnlge of a j*t<K»j) wooded Ivank, (50 ft. high, which falls on a liau^h 
enclosed to the S.E. and W. hy a looj) of the River Almond, 2 m. from its 
mouth, 1 0() ft. above the sea, at JHUairiiffirtni, is this semicircular work (fig. 7), 
the base l>eing formed by the straight and unfortified edge of the bank. To the 
X. the semicircular lines face neiirly level ploughed land and have been a 
good deal destroyed. Whert^ most perfect, in a plantation at the W. end, they 
consist of a scarp 6 ft. high, with two momids 5 and 3 ft. high beyond, on 
a pretty steep sIoih* ; but in the ctiiitre towards the N. there is a terrace 10 ft. 
wide in rear of the outer mound. The inner scai*p is parapetted only at the 
entrance, which is from the N.W. Tlie length of the base over all is 270 ft., 
and the width of the interior, which contains a ixictangular foundation, from N. 
to S. 135. Apparently it is a pure earthwork. 

16. The next on the list, witliin the gi*ounds of Cidtoquey, clo^ to the high 
i-oad, 2 m. N.E. of Crietf, i m. E. of Gilmeiixjn Church, 370 ft. above tlie 
sea, is marked * Roman OutposJ, ' on the O.M., but there can hardly 
Ije a doubt tliat it belongs to a common class of native works, in whicn 
the extn^mity of a ridge or tongue of land, whether on the coast or inland, is 
converted into a fortre&s simply by drawing an intrenchment across the top of 
the ridge, the enceinte elsewhere showing in general no fortification, and having 
iKJcn prolttbly defended by a jwdisade wherever the natural strength was 
insutticient. In this instance the ridge, al)OUt 30 ft. high, rises steeply on the 
N. side, l)Ut the ascent is generally gentler from the S. Tlie intrenclmient 
runs nearly stmight for alwmt 120 Ft. acjross the t<3p of the ridge, and is 
carried j)artially down its slows. It consit^ts of two ramimila or mounds and 
two titmches covering a wiclth of about 60 ft., and is peculiar in this respect, 
that it is apj»arently designed to defend, not the small extivmity of the ridge t<» 
the E., but the main ridge, 2(X) yds. in length, t^) the AV. The easterly mound 
in ])articular is massive, and at one i)oint ris<\*< 9 ft. alcove the trench to the E. 
The straight coui-se of the intrenchment is pn^lwibly the only reason why it 
has l^een ascribed to the Romans. 

17. R'lssing to the north and efist side of the Tay we encounter two 
earthworks on the Sid law Hills. The first is at Erdick, 500 yds. W.S.W. of 
the ruined castle of that name, and 1| m. W. of Kilspindie Church. It is 
reared 2CK) ft. above tlu* old Ccistle and 890 ft. above the seii, on one 
of sevond little rather liat-toi>i>ed eminences which form the tiibleland 
summit of Pole Hill, the highest of which attains 940 ft. The green height 
on which the fort stands is conspicuous from l)elow and looks down upon the 
castle, but the fort is invisible till the hill is climlied, as the works face ^.E. and 
X.W. to the tableland, wheine they ai-e easily accessil)le. In strong contrast to 
the accressibility on that side, the ground falls directly from the fort with 
extreme st^-epness l'CX) ft. U) the S.E., 5(K) It. to the' S., to the ebasm of 

' hy an uulortuiiiite error in the tigurcs of the scale, li«^. 3«^, j). yr>, ol my work on 
fCt/rlt/ Furlijirn Units ill HcofltnKf, this fort and the preceding one, as well as idl tlie 
othei-s in the said ligure, are given only half their proj)er size. 


Pitroilie Burn, and to the S.W. fonuH a deep and steep cleft in the liill, like a 
natural trench. As the position is a cliaracteristic one I have given a general 
]>]an of it (fig. 17), while the fortitications are shown on the UAiial scale in fig. 
1 8. A slight mound at the edge of the steep descents is sufficient protection for the 
:>ides that are so well defended by nature ; but towanls the E., where the ground 
is weakest, a scarj) 7 ft. high falls on a ten-ace, and tliat again upon a second 

''*'''""^^^"4«'am2i& '^"""'■"■'"'"i 

Fig. 17. Position of Evelick Foit on Pole Hill. 

terrace, with a wide Irench and two slight ramixarts or mounds l^yond. To the 
VV. there is a mu(-h longer sciirp 10 ft. high, a single tvrrace 9 ft. wide and a 
trench and ningle mound iH'yond. The change fiom one system to the other 
takes yhu'Xi at what seems to havt* l>een the chief entrance, which passes obliquely 
thniugh the lines, but there wa.s prolwibly another where the lines end ciistward 
at the steep face. The broad i>e;ir-slifii)ed interior mwisures 350 by an avenige 
of 200 ft. on the O.M. and the dimensions over all 460 by :J80. 

18. The eecond of the Sidlaw Hill earthen forts is at the E. end of the little 



hamlet of Rait, § m. N.E. of Kilspindie Cliurch, about 100 ft. above the 
aea, and at the very foot of the Braes of Carse (of Gowrie). This 
fortress (fig. 8) is of the same type as No. 16. A narrow, steep-sided spit of 
land, a sudden contraction of a gently rounded little ridge that nms down to the 
Carse from the steep braes, is cut off by three slighUy curved and massive 

very steep dcsceaC,^ 

Fig. 18. Earthwork, Evelick. 

mounds, 30 to 40 ft. wide and rising 7 to 8 ft. a])0ve the two intervening 
trenches. A ramp-entrance crosses the lines obliquely. The length of the cut- 
off spit is alx)ut .500 ft., its height 25 to 30 ft., and it ends uy an abrupt 
descent to the highway at the very edge of the Carse. Its naturally scanty 
width has been much narrowed by the quarrying of sand and gravel from 


its western face, so that in some places the top is now a mere crest a few 
feet wide. 

19. Pastsing into the county of Forfar, we do not meet with any unequivoiiil 
earthen fort in the interior, but on the coast there are thn»e which are little 
rock fastnesses, so strong by nature as to require but little aid from art. They 
ai^ all of the 'cut-off promontory' type. The first is Maiden Castle (fig. 
and sketcli, fig. 19), IJ m. E.N.E. of Arbroath at the S. end of Carling- 
heugh Bay. A Hat-U)pi)ed, narrow point al)out 80 ft. high is protected by a 
mural precipia* all round, except where it approaches the land on the N. 

Fi<;. 19. Maiden Ca.stle, near Arbroath. 

(where the precipice is reulaced by a very steep grassy slope), and on the land 
side itself, from which it nas been cut off Ijy a deep trench, alx)ve which towers 
a lofty, massive ram]>art of earth, rising about 21 ft. above the trench and 14 
above* the interior. This mound, as shown in the sketch, fig. 19, taken from 
the S., is very conspicuous on a coast where the land seems as if it had Ijeen 
close-shaven by the wind. 

20. IJ m. to the N.E., further along the coast, and h m. S. of Auch- 
iiiithie, is IauI Castle (tig. 10 and sketch, fig. 20), forniing the S. point 
of Castlesea Bay, 100 ft. high, girt with red pi-ecipices, excejjt towards 
the land, where it has a broad, straight gnissy front, whidi, falling steeply 40 or 
50 ft, contracts to a narrow neck joniing it to the mainland. This neck is pre- 
cipitous on the N. side, and slopes steeply to the rocky sea, so that the 
access to the fort is difficult and even dangerous. Not content with this, the 
defenders have reared a massive mound, 5 ft. in height aljove the interior, from 
precipice to precipice at the top of the 8lopt\ The present jvith skirts oblicpiely 
up the sloiKi to the S. end of the rami>art. Prolwibly this was the original 
access, as there are some signs of a passage cut through the rampart here. The 
interior is at first of full breadth in rear of the rampart, but (piickly contracts 
to a narrow passage leading to a small level s<piare at the far end, the highest 



point. The sketch (tig. 20) shows the precjipitoiis N. side of the neck, and the 
perfectly inaccessible N". side of the fortress. 

Fig. 20. Lud Castle, Auchmithie. 

21. Facing the pictiircs<[ue but decaying fishing vilhige of Auchmithie 
(the Mussclcraig of The Antiqiuiry), from a distance of a few hundred yards, 
is 6W^ ii^ocA; (fig. 11), a level- topi^ed, square i)rojection, measuring about 100 
ft. each side, and about 100 ft. high. 1 hree sides are of i)eri>endicular riick, 
and the fourth is cut otl* from the mainland 1)y a curved double mound with 
two trenches. The profile of tliose is very slight, but they stretch from edge to 
edge of the precipice and their combined width is 00 ft., so that there can be 
little doubt that tlie place has l>een a fortress. 

22. In the interior of the Mearns there is no certain example of a coast rock- 
fortress, although BomJum^ near Stonehaven, may lay some claim to the title, 
and in the interior there are but two forts of the earthen type, one of which 
is now Ijarely recognisable. This is Castle IHkeSj of the O.M., h ni. E. of Arbuth- 
not Church, 150 ft. al>ove the sea, on a flat promontory in the angle of junction 
of the steep little Chapel Den with the Bervie Water, raised about 60 ft. alK)Ve 
the latter, with jiretty steep slojxjs to the E., N., and S. A distinct enough, 
wide and straight undulation ot the ground, 350 ft. long, croj>sing the flat and 
cutting oil the promontory, is all that can Ije seen, but it corresponds in jKwition 
with the rampart, 30 ft. wide, and trench on its W. side marked on the O.M. ; 
and reasoning from analogy, there can Ikj little doul:>t that this was a * cut-oil'' 
fort with an earthen ramj>art now nearly i)louglied down, the interior space 
iHiing about 350 by 250 ft. 

23. The (►tlicr Mearns fort of the earthen class is 2 m. N.N.E. of Fetterc-airn 
Church, jl 111. N.W. of Pliesdu ll()ns<», and alnnit a mile from the site of 
ancient Kincardine Utwn and the remains of the castle. It is the remarkably 
strong (rrcen Castle (tig. 21) of the O.M. (although I could not find that it was 
known by that name locidly). The site is a strong one, 400 ft. above the sea, 

VC>UT«, 'camps/ etc., of PEKTII, FORKAK, ANT) KINC^ARPINE. 61 

,j^^ j^ liig^^ lH>iiit of laud overlf>okiiig tlie Ferdun Water, and it in fortified by a 
rtiTig^*^ r5Uui)art of earth 8 or J) ft. }»ro;ul on the top, rising a8 much a])ove the 
iiitAfTior, and falling stet'ply 20 to 30 ft. in iK'rr)endi(Uilar height niion a wide 
t,reno\\ >vith a coimtei'8oar]> 3 to 8 ft. high. The height of the rani|>iirt al)Ove 



SO o so looyf 

Fig. 21. Green Castle, nenr Kincarrlino Castlo, Fettercairn. 

the interior is a peculiar character, and bIiows that it must luive lx;en defended 
from the broad top, prolwibly from behind a ywilisade. The dimensions over 
all on the O.M. plan are about 400 ft. by 3(K) at the bi-oad and :200 at the 
narrow end of the iwar-shaiHKl structure. Tlie interior within the rami)art i.s 
220 by 120 and 50 ft 



The Stone Forts of the district iiumlx;r twenty-two ; not many for so large an 
area, but several of them are among the largest and most interesting in Scot- 
land. They are so distributed as to be conveniently divisible into groui>8, 
situated in certain mountainous or hilly districts. 

(a) Stone Forts in the Highlands of Perth. 

Tlie stone forts in the Higlilands of Perth are seven in numl)er, of which six 
are in the basin of the Tay. The solitary one in the west of the county, or in 
the Ixasin of the Forth, was prol)ably outside the Pictish kingdom, but it is 
noticed here, as it completes the list of Perthshire forts. 

24. Diimnore on Ben Ledi, a two miles* walk from Callander, 1100 yards W. 
by S. of Bochastle Farm, and 350 N. of Tnmndoun, lurched upon a prominent 
knoll alx)ut 400 ft. al)Ove the high road and Loch Venachar, and 600 above the 
sea, is a fine example of the type in which a semioval front of fortification 
defends the accessible side of a fort, the other side or Ijase resting on the edge of 
a precipitous bank (fig. 22). In this case the bank, which is on the east side, 
is about 150 ft. high, and is broken by rocky faces, and, although it can Ik* 
climl)ed, is impracticable to an attacking force. To the west and north the 
ground falls pretty steeply from the interior for al)out a height of 25 ft., below 
which there is on the north a small enclosed but not fortihed plateau, and on 
the west a quite gentle descent. On the steep part four parallel abrupt green 
mounds circle round, but large stones are everywhere eml)edded in them, and 
there can l)e no doubt, as Miss Maclagan ^ points out, that they are really stom* 
walls overgrown with turf. These walls l)emg built on a steep slope were much 
higher on the outt»r than the inner side, and must have had much the character 
of revetements with .stone toi)s or ixaraiKits. The top of the inner wall is now 
only faintly indicated. The height ot the mounds varies from 6 or 7 to 10 ft. 
on an average, but in one place is a.s much as 13 ft. The second and the third 
mounds unite as they circle to the north, and there the front of fortification 
Incomes straight. The flank of the wall here is the wefikest part of the fort, 
as the ends of the lower walls are raisetl only a few feet alx>ve the moderately 
easy ascent from the east, and their front rises from the level plateau. 

At the south end there is a smaller plateau before the entrance, which passes 
only through the fii-st mound, and is continued by a footpath \vhich jwvsses over 
rather than through the other mounds, and is proUibly modern. 

The entrance to the north platiyui, at the S. end of its W. side, is api)roached 
by something like a roivdway in front of the fortitied lines. The inner area 
iiieasures alx>ut 180 ft. froniN. to S. by 150 from E. to W., but a part of the 
latter measurement, 60 feet wide at the broadest part, is a rather awkward dope 
to the precipitous edge. A deep hollow in the inU'rior, moist at the bottom, 
pi-obably marks a partially filled in well or cistern. 

The ground plan is foimded on that of the O.M., with which my tape- 
measurements of some of the chief dimensions substantially agreed. 

• ///// Forts (did SUmr Circhs of Scothnid^ Miss ('hristiiia Maclagan, p. .'iS ; and 
Proc. .S. A. Srot., ix. 3G. 


':> PI 

S ^ '^th 


^ ^ the r 







Fig. 22. Danniore, Bochastle, Ben Ledi. 





^^JB ^ 




/111 u 


Explanation of the Plan, Fio. 23. 

North Sif/e of thr Fort, 

A Ci'ivered way. ascending from the plain. 
B X Earthen (?) mound. 

K First plateau, with levelled space, 1). 
F G First wall entirely thrown down, like all the rest, with entrance at F. 

H Advanced mound, at foot of rocky ridge on which F G stood. 

I Second plateau, a rough hollow. 
K L Its nortn wall continued, rising abruj)tly fmm L, to the third plateau. 

N Its south wall, near the f K)t of the precipice, cutting off a possible but 
difficult ascent to the top. 

O Third plateau, 50 ft. above the second. 

M Its west wall, the second line of defence. 

P End of its north wall at edge of southern precipice. 

Q Third wall of defence, running from south ])recipice edge up a steep slo]>e 
and above a rocky bluff to foot of a cliff near the top. 

T Level top 60 to 70 ft diameter, defended by little cliffs joined by walls. 

Wed Side of III,' Fort, 

S First wall, about half-way up, drawn along ed;<e of a steep rocky sloiie from 
top of south to top of north preci])ice. A narrow passage runs in its 
rear, from which rises the rocky ascent to the second wall. Near 
the north end is an entrance, approached by a path u}) the hill from 
the plain. 

R Second wall, on edge of steep rocky slope, drawn from precipice to preci- 
pice, and very near the top. 

25. Dundum, — Elsewhere ^ I have given a full dej?criptioii of this interesting 
hill-fortress, and I shall quote here merely the chief points, elucidating them 
by a plan and two views taken from photographs (figs. 23, 24, 25). The name 
of the hill on the O.M. is Dunifillan, and it i^ not marked as having a fort. 
But I found that the recognised name of the hill on the spot is Dunum, and 
that it was occupied by an undou])ted fort. It is therefore in all probability 
the Duitiduim, identifie<l by Skene'- as the priucipil stronghold of Fortrenn, 
althoa^h he does not seem to have l^een aware that any remains of a fortress 
still existed on the hill. Tliat distinguished authority points out that Dundiiru 
is twice mentioned by the early annalists as the seat of historic events : — (1 ) 
A.D. 6d3, Obsessio Dninatt et Duinduirn ; (2) a.d. 878-9, when mrrrtuiLS est in 
Duwleorn is recorded of King Girig ; and Dr Skene holds that the identity of 
the place is proved by the lines of St IJerchan (Uth century) — 

" By him shall be attacked the powerful house. 
Ah, my heart ! on the Umks of the Earn 
Red sliall be the colour of the house Ijefore him, 
He shall fall by the men of Fortrenn." 

The site is on an abrupt, craggy, isolated hill, rLsiiig almost to a point, and the 
walls of the fort have l^een built from crag to crag, or along the edges of precijiices 
^ Efirlif Fo^rtifiw^ivns in HcoHnnd, 1898. 
'^ CrZtic Scotland, i. pp. 261, 330. 



' i 



I ^ 


and steep descents, just as the nature of the ground dictated. The hill rise8 to a 
height ot 500 ft. above the sea, and 200 above the haugli of the Earn, a mile 
below its exit from Locheam, in the midst of one of the most charming scenes 
in Scotland. Its form is somewhat triangular (fig. 23), the southern side rising 
by a nearly inaccessible precipitous face from the Alt logain, the western by a 
very abrupt ascent, bi-oken by steeply sloping ice-smoothed rock-faces and little 
cliffs, while the northern, rising abruptly at first, eases off suddenly into three 
rough irregular plateaux, E, 1, O, raiseii one above the other from W. to E., 
and lioimded on the S. by a mural j>recipice, X N, which rises to the toj) of 
the hill, completely cutting off the two lower plateaux from the top, but 
leaving a difficult access from the third along the edge of the southern precipice. 

The view from the N.W. (fig. 24) shows the defences on the nortnem 
side. Above the group of trees on the left is the outer moimd (B X on the plan). 
Above the next three trees is the mound, H, in Jidvan(!e of the first wall of de- 
fence. Tlie next two trees stand on the debris from the N. wall of the second 
plateau. Then comes the continuation of this wall up the sloj)e to the third 
plateau. This plateau lies too high to show much, but its N. wall is seen 
running above the steep tree-covered slope to the sky-line, and the great debris 
mass ofits W. wall, the second wall of defence, is conspicuous running to the 
foot of a rock, above which is the third wall of defence, with a tree and bush 
on the sky-line. Highest of all is the debris from the wall round the summit. 
Strictly speaking, the building of the walls is only inferred, as none is visible, 
but there can hardly be a doubt that the masses of debris conceal the bases of 
regular walls. 

All these ijoints can be made out in fig. 25, taken from the W. (some trees 
are omitted), the N. ends of the two walls of the western side being also 

The fort is about 600 ft. in length by an average width of 450, without 
reckoning the first plateau, E, which perlia{)6 was not intended to be seriously 
defended. The contained area, therefore, is very large for a Highland fort, but 
the liabitable sj^ace is limited to the hollow of tlie second plateau, to the third 
plateau (much curtailed by rocks), and to the summit, with some tolerably level 
ground at the foot of its little cliffs on the E. and S. 

26. Two * Forta ' are marked on the O.M. in Glenalmond before it ojxins up 
on the lowlands of Pertli, both of which I liave seen. One of these, however, 
at South TtUchan does not seem to me to bear any resemblance to a fort, and 
I have placed it in the class of dubious remains. The other is Ihin Marcy 6 m. 
N.N.E. of Crieff. On the N. side of * the Sma* Glen,' on the top of a heathery 
hill, 1520 ft. above the sea, with a steep descent of 850 ft. to the Almond River 
on the S.W., and with short, steep, rocky descents elsewhere, except eastwards, 
where the approach is nearly level, but by a narrow neck. The enclosed, irregu- 
larly oval top is almost level, and is girdled by an overthrown stone wall, 
resting with its inner side on the very edge of the slope and the outer one 
several feet lower, with rudely built portions still standing, but no well- 
built face remaining. Many of the stones are large. Tlie cross diameters 
cjf tbe interior are 150 and 90 ft, and the thickness of the wall was prob- 
ably 8 to 10 ft. Annexed t^) tbe E. and most accessible side is a crescentic 
\\ork with a greatest inttM-ior width of 30 ft. and enclosed l>y a wall 300 ft. 
long, similar in size and condition to that of the main work. I have given no 



■:M ■: 

^ &•.,:.. .^:,.v:. 

1 :••%:' 




plan of this work, as Mr Hutchesoii's plan of Caisteal I>ubh^ No. 30, might 
aJmoet stand for it, although the latter is niucli larger. 

27. Passing now to the valley of the Tay and its upper trilmtaries, the most 
remote work is Dun Gedl, on Creag a' Chabteal, 90() f r. above the sea, ^ ni. N.E. 
of Fortingall, Qlenlyon. It has been well noticed by Mies Maclagan, as well as 
by Mr Hutcheson, who describes it as standing on the summit of a hill with a 
considerable extent of easy sloping ground around it ; circular in form, 58 

Fig. 26. Dun Mac Tual. (Mr Hutcheson.) 

ft. in diameter within the wall, which averages 10 ft. in thickness, showing 
the outside and inside faces intact in several places ; the masonry very massive, 
being erected almost wholly of stones separated either naturally or by art from 
the hill, and splitting easily into cubes. 

28. The fort highest up the Tay proper is the very intei-esting * Fort' of the 
O.M., Caisteal Mac Tuathal of Mr Hutcheson, or hun Mac Tiud, 2J m. E. 



of Fortiiigall, 1000 yds. N.W. of Tayniouth Castle, 900 ft. above the sea, on one 
of the eastern spurs of Dniminond Hill. The chief facts in Mr Hiitcheson's 
very full and accurate account, which I give, will \ye clearly understood from 
his reproduced plan (fig. 26). The fort occupies the summit of a bold projecting 
rocky knoll witti precipitous slopes to the S. and E., but descending less steeply 
on the other sides. The walls follow the contour of the hill to suit the exigen- 
cies of the site, and thus form a very irregular somewhat st^uare figure, the 
inner area measuring about 300 by 210 ft A B on the plan is a short wall 
branching off to include a natural platform. The curved wall at the N.E. 
angle encloses a space about 165 ft. long, where there is a spur rising towards 
the summit. On the W., the most vulnerable side, two additional walls have 
been thrown up on the side of a hollow, some 25 ft deep, that separates the 
fort from the ascending slope of Drummond Hill. At the bottom of this 
hollow is a spring of water. The main wall of the fort is nmch broken down, but 
in places the outer and inner faces still stand, and I give a sketch (fig. 27), which 



Y\<r. 27. Roiuaiiis of Wall, Dun Mac Tiial. 

I took many years ago, of a portion of the outer face, where it is best preserved. 
Mr HutchesoH judgt's from the ([uantity of stones lying below this face that the 
original heiglit must have Immmi 12 to 15 ft. The width here at the base is 
some 9 ft. ; the (»ut<jr face is almost iH!rpendicular, but the inner slopes con- 
siderably. Mr Huteheson st'ites that tht^ name is attributed to Tuathal, son 
of Ai-gutso, Al>lx)t of l)unk<'l(l, uientioned in the Annals o/ Ulster as having 
died in a.d. Hd.'). 

29. The Don^ Tijiulnn, 1 m. S.S.K. of Al)erfeldy, oecupies the summit 
of a commanding height, 1100 ft. al>ove the sea, and is described by Mr 
Ilutcheson as being an almost couii)lete circle, 110 ft in diameter inside the 
wall, which is from 14 to 15 ft. thick. It is almost entirely destroyed, but 
the outside and inside faces am be clearly seen to liave been formed of un- 


dressed blocks, from 2 to 4 ft. long, closely set. There are appearances of a 
narrow entrance on the W. side. Three trenches or earth worts, 150 ft. long 
and 12 to 15 wide, give additional protection to the most vulnerable side,' which 
is on the S.W. 

30. Cofitle Dow^ most unaccoimtably called " site of a supposed Pictish fort " 
on the O.M., and with no remains marked at it, is shown by Mr Hutcheson to 
be an undoubted fort (fig. 28). It is situated 2^ m. W. by S. of Logierait 

Fig. 28. Calsteal Dubh, near Aherfeldy. (Mr Hutcheson.) 

Cliurch, but on the opposite side of tho Tay, 1050 ft. above the fien, on the top of 
an isolated height overlooking the valley of the Tay from Al>erfeldy to Dal- 
gniae. It is an oval of 300 l)y 213 ft., somewhat sinuous on the E. The 
wall is much destroyed, but on the S.W. side there is a length of about 50 
ft. tolerably well preserved, showing that the masonry resembled that of Dun 
Mac Tual. The wall is thicker, however, ranging from 14 to 16 ft. . It is 
faced outside and in with large blocks. A crescentic annex, exactly as at Dun 
More (No. 26), strengthens the most vulnerable side : it projects about 80 ft. 


and is 240 ft. long. This side is further strengthened by a trench. The 
entrance to tlie main fort was apparently about the middle of the W. side, and 
the lunette contains remains of a circular structure 15 ft. in diameter. In this 
fort and in others, as at Dim Mac Tual, Mr Hutcheaon noticed evidence of 
banking up \nth earth at the bick of the wall. 

(6) Stoxe Forts on the North Slope of the Ochils. 

31. For a stretch of 12 m. from the W. end of the Ocliils eastv^'ard the 
northeni slojie of the chain is destitute of forts, and the first to occur, errone- 
ously marked 'Roman Outi)ost' on the O.M., is 3 m. N.E. of Gleneagles, 
on the top of Ogle Hill, 1 j m. E.S.E. of Auchterarder Church, 800 ft. above 
the sea, and 600 above the Ruthven Water to the X. A ridge descending 
gently northwards from Coul Hill (1006 ft.) and the main chain of the 
Ocliils rises but a few yai-ds to form Ogle Hill Ixifoie falling abruptly to the 
valley of Ruthven Water. An apparently natural trench-like hollow, 75 ft. 
wide (B, fig. 29), sepirates the ridge from the site of the fort, A, which occupies 
the whole of the little summit of Ogle Hill, and is defended towards the ridge, 
reckoning from the interior, first by a scarp (section A B), 9 ft. high, without 
a parapet, but covered with louse stones, probably the remains of a wall fallen 
from tlie top ; secondly, by a low rammrt, at the foot of the scarp, falling on 
a terrace, which with a "small trencii forms an outer line of defence. The 
termce lias a rampart, T) E, at the E. end only. These lines ai-e much nijured, 
and the only signs of defence on the flanks of the site is a doubtfid cfouble 
terracing. The interior may be alx)ut loO ft. in length. 

32. Theiiext, also erroneously called 'Roman Outpost' on the O.M., is 5 m. 
E. of the last, on the top oitkn Effenj (1200 ft.). This hill lies between 
the deep and steep glen of the Painiey Burn on the AV. and the smaller ravine 
of Green's Burn on the E., which at tludr junction are 600 ft Wow its top. 
From this direction Ben Effery luis a remarkably l)old, sharp, coniail apixyir- 
ance, and the fort on the top is very strong by nature on three sides, pailicu- 
larly on the W., where it stands on the edge of a umral precipice (E, ng. 30), 
but'the access is easy from the ridge descending ui)on it from the S., and it is 
overlooked from the sununit, D, of a little elevation on the ridge, 250 ft. 
from the interior of the fort. The S. end, therefore, was defended by three 
parallel drystone walls, B C, now cast down, 12 ft. apart, occupying a width 
of 00 It., which run straight from the pivcipice euge for 70 ft., and then 
curve for alx)Ut 50 ft. more to the angle of the E. face. The entrance is 
through this curved jxirt. The steep faces of the E. side and N. end show 
traces of three or four terraces in continuation of the defences, till no longer 
neede<l on once more touching the jirecipicv. edge. 

33. \\ m. further N.M, and 3 m. E. of Auchterarder, is a fort on 
liossie Jjitir, 1061 ft. above the si'a and 900 above the valley. A single oval 
'Ring,' alx.ut 6<)0 by 50() ft. on the O.M., surrounds the top (fig. 31). 
The actual top is a level, dry, grassy, jjleasjuit space. A, of about 270 by 150 
ft. The ring appro;iches it on the S. within about 30 ft., and at a lower 
level of 10 ft., but separates from it on the X. till it is 300 ft. distant and 
about 70 ft. lower. The approaches are long and ditlicidt, usually st^'e^K'st on 
reacliing the ring, when they ease off to the top. Fi-oni the W. and S. the 




Ogle HiU 



U , I ^i^^' 





Figs. 29, 30, 31. Forts on the Ochils, near Aucliterardcr. 

7-1 TKiU KKl»INi;s OK TllK sOi'IKTY, l»EOKMBER 11, 1899. 

ili'sivui,* ai\' nnkv ;uhl alnuvl iiuuros^iMo. It is i»nlv for a small spicc on the 
K \\\.\l I ho .i^'j-iwuh i? i^'iulo. On iho K. rtn«l X. the '.It-iVow remaining is a 
k:i;wv\ .imi >;»>n\ ni»'V.ii.l, !."» it. hri\i«l ai ilu- cntnnoe, which is fn-m tlie E. 
1 .oul.l mv no msMMin. hiu in ono pviit. tVr .i streli'h i-f aN»ut !>>» IL, there 
i!* ,» i\'w oi hj>;\* stoui'-, 1* Xo :\ ft. in hr.cih. ]>I:ic«rd at li.t- lower til je of the 
>!on\ uiimii.l. :\vA T 11. U'!.»w it> :.^i» i^iUv.uion and 5ei::ion. D\ ]«rnjiit5 the 
I V ».M» \^t . i !\mi ; u- r w ,i 1 1 1 ' ",; i I ! . : i S : lo 5I^^^ >«\ -V w- rv ' \ w -:oce lies 1 1 nco ve nril 
\\ \W x'VM.wwv Or. ::;o iv.\. ^vs^iMo S. ir. i W. ji ies :::erv i* no monml •>r wall, 
'*u; i\u".v*\ .\ to: vivo V. :*-.o ^^iJ^' of '/iiv usovr.: : .in.i ::.vrv :- no ^iim of an inner 
»;»';ov.,v :.r :'..i- *.. \^' :ov. 

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Sections ABiTD 

Fig. 82. Caatle Law, Forgandenny. 


I'lMUKKIMNtJS OF rilK SfiriETY, DECEMBER 11, 1899. 

hilling Mil II nil I'M iw iiim-ihy h|i;i('(*, V, willi a Kliirlit diM-Hiie \vct«twanl, on the S. 
I'hli- III wlih-li riHi-N till* iwit^ nf tli«; 1iil1-r;iii^^. This slight mound is prolong 
mplwiinl nil iiM tn iMii'liiM* the irrtaiigular iiiai-shy flat, e, at the foot of the W. 
• ikI itl llii' Imi liiiglit. Kri>iii tliu W. lioinufarv of this apparent reservoir 
iiiMH I In* |ii'Mliiiigiiiiiiii (if till' raiigc, and from Uu^ N. Itoundary the ground falls 
In llii- |iliiiii iiiM» II. U'l»»w. Tin' Hp;u-e8 /and h unite eiistwani in a wide, 
iiniily lliil iri|i|aimili*, /, wliich is nnfciictfl, bo tliat the eastern flank of /and h 
nil* i|Uilr «t)irii alllioiigh tlio S. I'nmt is ftirlituHl. 

i'^^'^'^jiiliir^ '^t^^*^^ 





^t ^ 









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'"T 5 


from the W. by a narrow neck. As will be seen from the plana (figs. 34, 35), 
a wall lias \yeeu drawn across the neck, connected by a short branch with the 
inner and pro[)er wall of the fort, and parting gradually from it as it crosses 
the neck and descends towards a daiauied-up little loch and niai*sli in an 
elevated flat or recess of the (fig. 34). This wall, although com- 
pletely concealed before excavation, was still stjinding under the debriit and 
earth accumulation to a height of from (5 to 10 ft., and was 18 ft. wide at 
the base, faced with excellent masonry. 

The wall proper of the fort, also showing no sign of its existence on the level 
top of the site oefore excavation, completely enclosed the oval interior, which 

Fig. 36. Outer Face of inner wall, west end, Abernetliy Fort. (Mr F. R. Coles.) 

measured 136 by 51 ft., and, as in many other Scottish forts, was built with 
its inner face at the very edge of the slope, and the outer one some feet, in one 
place as much as 9 ft., perjyendicular, down the .slo]>e Ixjlow. The width of 
this inner wall was no less than from 18 to :25 ft., and it was still 7 ft. high 
in one place. As at Castle Law (Xo. 34), timber had l>een used in the construc- 
tion, but to a much larger extent, as wherever both the outer and inner walls 
were examined, squared channels, in a double row (wherever the wall still stood 
high enough to show the upi)er one), were found running in from the outer face 
for about 8 or 10 ft. The regular loop-hole appearance of the openings of 
tliese channels and the general character of the masonrv are well shown in the 
measured drawing taken by Mr F. R. Coles (fig. 36). On dissecting a part of 
the inner wall, longitudinal channels for timber were also found. Full details 
of this very interesting fort will Ihj found in Proc, S. A, Scot, 1898-99, 
vol. xxxiii. pp. 13-33. 

(r) Stoxk Forts on Moncrkiffe Hill, Perth. 

3G. The isolated Hill of Monrreiffe, 725 ft. above the sea, 3 m. S.K. of Peith, 
rises from the N. with a moderate 8loi>e to the edge of a precipice, from 


which a veir steep wooded descent, 600 ft. high, falls towards MoncreiffE 
House aiid the valley of the Earn. On the edge of this moral precipioe twc 
forts have l)een perched, the first of which, coming along the rioge Irom the 


' '^ 

1^- T^ '^ '^-^TSr... *••.;••■..,' --^^^'-^v^^A ^— 

\V.. ,- »>♦■' i: :iS'\c l-hr y.';i, ajk; -.> *^^'^ ^.-ATwly ns"**viiis:.'''.h . The 0,li 


37. i m, eastward, about 120 ft. higlier, and on the very summit of the 
liill, is a comparatively well-preserved fort, marked Carruic on the O.M., which 
gived tlie title of Moredun Top to the summit of the hill. Perhaps this is 
an error suggested by the fort, i.e., * big Fort,' l)ecau8e J m. N.E. there is a house 
marked not Moredun but Mai-eden. The fort (fig. 37), perched on the precipice 
edge, is quite inaccessible on the S., and on the N. has the protection of a long 
descent, but from the E. and W. is approjiched by short slopes. 

The remains are so dilapidated and overgrown that it is difficult to plan 
them. The main wall is apiwrently double, except towards the precipice, wnere 
it is single, and built not on the edge, but retired about 20 it. at the top of 
a dangeroiLs slope" down to it. The toUil width of the wall-mass is about 
40 ft., and it stands up nowhere more than 3 or 4 ft. No building was 
visible in the wall, but at a point on the W. four carefully laid stones in a row 
look like the Uise of the outer face. At the W. end, another strong wall 
.*iprings from the fort close to the precipice edge, and circles at a somewhat 
lower level three-fourths of the way round the inner wall, nearly enclosing a 
considerable crescentic space on the W. and X., but no connection with the 
inner w.all at the E. end can now be ma<le out. On this wall also there are 
traces of a facing. Still further out to the \V., at the edge of a very steep short 
slope, I found remains of audther less substantial wall, but it could not be traced 
far. Separated from the fort, by a slight hollow to the N.E., is another little 
.<4tony, flat-topped eminence, not much lower than the fort, with a steep descent 
to the X. ana X.E. Tlie site was much obscured by weeds, but seemed to be 
oval, about 220 ft. long, and to be surrounded by the remains of a strong wall. 
This is l)eyond my plan. 

The fort j)roper measures over all alxnit 210 by 180 ft. On the X. and E. 
sides, in direct connection with the wall all along, and extending 40 to 60 ft. 
into the interior, is a mass of overgrovni del)ris 3 to 5 ft. high. The 
only entrance to the fort is at tlie E. end, piercing the double wall and 
mass of ruins obliquely from the N.E. In the raised mass near the entrance 
and on the X. side of the fort is a circular 8[)ace, 21 ft. in diameter, sur- 
rounded by a moiuid-wall 3 ft. wide. Two others of about the same size are 
near it, one of them touching it. Further W. are several small, round, saucer- 
bliajjetl hollows. On the S. side of the entrance the raised mass contains 
eight or nine similar *. saucers,' in two irregular rows. The rest of the interior 
is vacant, except for another circular enclosure, measuring 35 by 20 ft., which 
touches the wall on the S. side. 

{d) Stone F(jrts on thk Sidl.vw Hillk. 

We have seen that on the extensive Sidhw range there are but two earthen 
Torts, both on the eastern side ; one, Evelick, on a high site, the other. Rait, 
low dovni at the very margin of the Carse of Gowrie. The number of stone 
forts on the E. is the name, but there are also i)rol)ably two on the W. side, 
although one of the latter is not clearly provtKl to l)e of stone. 

38. On the E. side of the Sidlawy, on the gently rounded top of J)ron Hill, 
f;S4 ft. al)Ove the sea, h m. W.S.W. of Dron Farm, and IJ m. N.W. of 
Loiigforgan Church, is a foit which on the O.M. looks like two ovals inter- 
secting each other longitudinally (fig. 38). But on the ground it is pretty 

VOL. xxxiv. F 


evident that it is really an oval work, with one small crescentic annex on the 
N. and another large one on the S., springing from the same points of the oval. 
The fort proper measures 330 by 250 ft. over all. The greatly dilapidated 
waU is generally grass-covered, and only rises a foot or two above the surface. 
A wall 1 believe, however, it has been, as on the W. side a row of large 
stones, extending about 100 ft. southwara and closely set, can hardly be any- 
thing else than the base of an outer casing, and a less complete row shows the 
position of the inner face, giving a width for the wall of from 9 to 11 ft. 
There are 1)a8al stones, also, here and there along the S. face, where the 

.'if'- >^v<s VI' V--. 

.v#^- '-^ S>,% 





Fig. 38. Fort on Dron Hill, LoDgforgan. 

mound is 27 ft. wide, perhaps from digging operations to remove the stones ; 
and some very large stones have been torn from their plac^ and taken a short 
distance as if for wirting away. The N. and E. sides have been almost 
completely destroyed, and are merely traceable. The enclosing mounds of the 
annexes are not defensive ; they are very low, only 6 or 7 ft. wide, and are 
probably ruined walls. 

39. The Laws, on the Laws Hill^ Drumsturdy, an outlying eminence rather 
than a part of the Sidlaws proper, is situated" 1| in. N."^ by W. of Monifieth 
Church, 431 ft. above the sea. The site is on a small isolated height, partly 


Precipitous, the easiest access being at its E. end, and the fort occupied the 
mole of the nearly level top. 

rhis fort, not so long ago perhaps the best preserved in Scotland, has been so 

ADocked about, and the records of it are so confused and contradictory, that to 

«>nn any intelligible idea of it, difficult enough at the best, is impossible with- 

2?^ soiiie reference to its modern hirttory. The earliest notice, published in the 

jS^^\ -ft. Soc. of Lit. in a j)aper dated 1827, but from observations made about 

'90, is \^y j)j. John Jamieson, who described an outer wall, 500 paces in circum- 

erence, near the bottom of the hill on the E., slanting gradually up the southern 

. ?P^ t.ill half-way between the summit and the brink of the precipice on that 

wli ^^^^ continuing to ascend as it circled round till it reached the N.E. comer 

l}^^^^ ^^^ entrance was, another being apparently at the W. end. It is strange 

ux^ V^^ ^°® ^^ seems to have noticed this low-level outer wall, but perhaps it 

jj^5^ ^>^^ve been covered by the operations to be described immediately. The 

g^ ^'^ Ai^'all, according to Dr Jamieson, surrounded the summit at a distance of 

-yj.^^"^^!. paces from the outer one, but varying according to the nature of the 

Qjj^^^^^l. He also mentions two or three other snort walls running from the outer 

J ^"^^ the brink of the precipice. 
f^^ ^^ X859 Mr Neish, at that time the proprietor, excavated the site, and the 
j^^^*-"^^"^ are recorded, with additional notes by John Stuart, in vol. iii. of our 
-^ *^*^-> pp. 440-/)4. Mr Neish states that before 1834 great quantities of stones 
g^ ^^^ <iarried off for fann purposes, and Mr Stuart estimates, on the authority of 
£^^^^^^^1. who took part in the spoliation, that IKiOO cartloads were removed in the 
;i^^ AJvinters ending 1818. Tlic author of the ^statistical Ac/:ou7it of the Parish, 
X\^ ^ confirms this by the statement that persons then alive remembered when 

^J'Vinis were 5 ft. higher than when he wrote. 
^e ^- ** Neish also states that in 1834 the whole surface was levelled and portions 
1^5^^^^ wall thrown over near the E. end. Finally came his own excavations in 
?^^, the discharge of the rublnsh from which seems to have been down the hill 
5i^ S.E. comer. 

^ liave found it impossible to form a connected idea of the disposition 

^ J^^ nature of the fortifications from Mr Neish's account of his excavations and 

tu^ very sketchy j>lan.* But for the difliculties and anomalies suggested by 

Vj^^se, and if I had trusted to my own observations on the spot alone, I should have 

^^ no hesitation in pronouncing the work to liave been an ordinary stone fort 

^j^ excellent dry maisonry with a duplication of the wall at each end if not at the 

^idesand without reckoning the no longer visible outer wall of Dr Jamieson. 

The only part that I hacf time to study and measure with some care was the 
-fe. end, where Mr Neish's excavations were either most thorough, or are best 
Preserved. As shown in my plan and section (fig. 39), the first tiling met with 
from the outside is a terrace, D, 15 ft. wide, at the edge of the descent. Mr 
Keish explains that this was formed by the rubbish thrown out in the levelling 
operations of 1834 and in his own work. I may add that a pleasant terrace 
Walk mns all round outside the wall, and probably is everywhere due to the 
Bame cause. 

* A main difficulty in understanding Mr Neish's description arises from his treating 
the place as an area divided into irregular spaces by wall faces (instead of as a 
fortification surrounded by walls. 



Within this terrace, and standing, no doubt, on the edge of the original 
descent, comes a wall, C, 8 ft wide, with good facings, exposed for 3 ft. of height 
outside and 5 or 6 inside. The rubble, which doubtless exists between the 
facings, was jierhaps not laid bare by Mr Neish, and now is hidden by green 
turf. Then follows an interval, B, lietween this wall and a second wider one, A, 
which has ite outer face, like the inner one of the first, excavated to Uie full 
depth, in one place 7 ft., and the inner face only sufficiently cleared to show that it 
is there. Tins I take to l^ the wall of the fort, going all round. The outer wall, 
on the other hand, diverges from the inner one eastward, so that the interval 
between them increases from 8 to 12 ft., and is probably 14 or 15, at the far end. 
Thus, as at Al^eniethy, the outer wall is aj)parently detached from the main 

A B C D 

Fijr. 39. East end of the Laws Fort, Monifieth. 

wall of the fort at one end at least, although it may have run down the sloi)e 
to join Dr Jamicson's problematical outer wall. It could not be that wall, as 
he says that the out<*r wall wa.s at the foot of the hill at this end. The excava- 
tion of these walls has l)een a good j)iece of work, and they are still well seen, C 
for U)() and A for 180 ft. of lenj.'th. 

Tlie wall of enceinte, A. as I took it to Ik*, is exposed at intervals all round, 
and the W. end, nioi-e lully oi^ned up, .seeiiiKl U) have an additional wall, 
although not distinctly shown. 

In Mr Xeish's excavations givat quiintities of rubbish testified to the fonner ex- 
istence of extensive building in the interior, but the only structure of consHjuence 
remaining was the foundation of a cinular tower with a wall a few feet high and 
18 ft. thick and a jwived area .3G ft. in diameter, according to the plan. It 
was of broch dimensions, therefore, but there was no oi)ening in the wall, save 


'«e narrow entrance, and no evidence of a stair, so that it cannot be proved to be 
« ^roch. 

J'^ttrijadum. — There is the usual too common contradictory evidence on this 

P^int. Jamieson makes the startling stfitements that " This fort consists of two 

^Ms of vitrified matter, whicli surround tlie hill " ; and " all the buildings are 

n. '^^^^''^y vitrified as the walls " ; also " the vitrifaction is as jnirfect as that of 

^oe Fort of Finhaven." Mr Neish, on the other han<l, declares that vitrified 

'"**5ses -were indeed found all through the ruins, and often as if used for backing 

op tbe walls (and here I may explain that what he calls the walls are really 

^^"^11 faces, so tliat he ap^Kiars to mean that the vitrified masses were used 

jn tlxe rubble Ijetween the faces), but never as if the walls (i.e., wall faces) had 

i«eix vitrified. There can l)e little doubt that we should prefer Mr Neish's state- 

mentw^ as they resulted from a careful excavation, while Dr Jamieson relied on 

8urfa<i^ observations ; and we need have the less hesitation, as it seems extremely 

^"^^^^ly that anyone would remove 9600 cartloads of such useless building 

™^^^^ial as vitrified masses must be. Moreover, I saw no vitrifaction on the 

^^ixsive wall faces now visible, and as far as my observations go, vitrifaction 

^ i^^>r«r foimd uniting the blocks of a handsomely built wall face. It is 

P?f®^^le, however, that a vitrified fort existed here previously, from which the 

V^'^^^ed masses used in the rul)ble work of the present ruins may have Ijeen 

c,.**^» Ih^ndnvaUy the first of the two stone forts on the N.W. side of the 
v>^ ^^ seems to be one of the very few primitive Scottish fortresses mentioned 
y ^l:ie early annalists ; at least there is no other existing claimant for the 
^^c^xir of Ixjing the Dunsinoen of the tragedy which led to the murder of 
^^txxi€th. King of Allmn, in 995,> at Fettercaim. 

-. ^*^ modem times the first to notice the place was Sir John Sinclair, who in 

-li ,^> when he can liave been only eighteen years of age, gathered its local tra- 

^^^iotM.2 These were of little consequence, but at the very end of that 

^^tury, James Playfair, D.D., then minister of Meigle, afterwards Princi- 

^^ of St Andrews University, made some excavations, which were recorded 

*^^«t in a work not generally accessible,^ and again (very briefly in both in- 

^taixces) in a work of his own,* twenty years later. Chalmers^ makes some 

^^if«ible remarks about the place, and James Knox sums up the information 

^own about it down to 1831, besides giving his own impressions from a per- 

^al visit.^^ 

^ A.D. 995. ** Cinaeth MacMalcolaim Ri Alban a suis occisus est. Tigh. (per 
<ioIiim, Ann. Ult)." ** Interfectus est a suis homiiiibus in Fotherken per perfidium 
Finyelae filiae Cunchar comitis de Engus, cujus Finvelae unicum filium predictus 
Kyneth interfecit apud DuusinoeD.'* Cknm. Fids and Scots, 175, 287 (Skene's 
CeUic Scotland). 

^ Beauties of Scotland, Forsyth, iv. 319-21. 

^ General View of the Afp'ieulturc of the County of Perth, James Robertson, D.D., 
1799, i. 880. 

* Dencriptiott of Scotland, 1819, i. 488, James Playfair, D.D. 

* Caledonia, i. 503. 

* 77m: Tojxxfraphi/ of ilyc Basin of the Tay, 192-202, 1831. 

.: y!!V N ';rrrV. DErEMBKR 11, 1S09. 

- wiif I MH-oini aru'iiij»t w;ls math' U) reveal the n-.4f:rr'rt.ikoiJ l-y Mr Xainn-, tlie ]>r«>jnieUir at :Li: 

V . nnf'iiifii l»yl)r 'J'. A. \Vi>e.' l.'nfuituuattly, :..■ 

•■^iihj n?it u.» tlie wfjiks, ??'» llmt he was Inl in:o 

-. ./iM- I" '.'ornM.-t from my nwn ol>si!rvaii<'U aiii 

-ii./'i' MS. n.-'unl rif ilui excavations, kept l»y the 

■:-»!-;i. '."'■•lla'i-, wlio tof.»k jxjirt in tin- rxravati-iiL-, 

■ :.;iri: U' lii.-s lieirs, tlimugh the kiiidiies.s of the 

. . » T.-r (linnh Minister of ( ^irgill. Tlu- la*: 



'ti»i^'\n\»n'(i».'>- ^ ^.v 

I :-. 4'\ OuiiMnniui. ,Mi' iliit*lu»s..ii. 

rhe Rev. Tlio:n;u^ l»n.»wn, (\.IIkv, whiJi, huwevor, ^ 
.-It -iriitige. 

^ ;iA-.'iint I shall in.ik.- ii<<- • { i!! ih^... <,.urvV--; of irii.>r:i^ .. ., 
.,,, rr:v serious niu^. : a ;•::.•::> t.' u' s. nii' ..f 

> .;;-.:>! rating the i\-. ■^>"' ■ 
.^ ; i-lortaken ti^» »'-^:" -^ : ■ t' 

,. s I. the place \w.v • > -. 


S. J. Sr-f.. 11. •' ' >»■ 

.;.'ix. ;^7^. i>-o "-. - 

'•■■ ' oi I ■:•■■% iiii; j.-v. 

^ Mr 


Baxter, who assisted me in taking a roii^li plan, corrected afterwards by aid of 
Mr Hitcbie, factor on the estate ; but this has l>een 8U})er8eded by the plan and 
sections (figs. 39 and 40) placed at my disposal by the kindness of Mr Alexander 
Mutcheaon, architect, F.S.A.Scot., who generously waived his intention of 
writing a special article on Dunsinnan, when he heard that I wjis engaged on 
the present work. 

18' 28' 

















>s^ "m 








30' 6' 









Fig. 41. Profiles of Dunsinnan. (Mr Hutcheson.) 

The Site.— The hill on which Dunsinnan stands, 7^ m. N.E. of Perth, is 
part of a ridge of the Sidlaws, running parallel with, and on the N.W. side 
of, the main chain, but not inferior to it in height, and is well isolated from the 
other summits on the continuation of the ridge to the X.E. and S.W. The 
ascent from the N.W. is gradual, but is steep and difficult in other directions, 
and the flat-topped fort is perched, 1012 ft. above the sea level, on a little green 
knoll which crowns the narrow summit. 



The name, therefore, corresponds well with the site, if we accept the deriva- 
tion from Dun and «n«, 'nipple,' as the fort stands on *the nipple' of a swell- 
ing hill top ; but those who aesire a more romantic origin will no doubt prefer 
the derivation, which has also l:>oen suggested, from shanqan, *ants,* because 
" Macbeth's men swarmed up and down like ants when buildling the castle." 

Present Aspect of the Fortifications, — Tlie nearly level top dishes down 
about 3 fr.. to the middle, as ascertained for me by Mr Baxter, and the only 
suggestion of fortification round the area is a slight ridging at the edge, 6 to 12 
ft. wide, not always perceptible to the eye, but made out by measurement. 
On the steep short slopes of * the nipple ' are a series of narrow terraces, some- 
times level, sometimes higher towaras the outer edge, sometimes becoming veri- 
tiible trenches, as shown in Mr Hutcheson's plan ana sections (figs. 40, 41). The 
trenched character is most marked on the >*., i)articularly on the line A A, but 

Fig. 42. Duiisiiinan. (TIk* late Mr A. Stewart, Collace.) 

even there the depth of the deejxist and lowest trench is only 3 ft. The numln^r 
of these terraces and trenches varies from three on the X.K. to one on the S., 
where, however, another may have di^iiUH-ared owing to the steepness of the 
Bloj)e. At the extreme E. end, the slojHi ends so soon on a jjrecipice that there 
is little room for terraces, and 1 coiil<l not make out more tlian one. Mr 
Stewart's plan (tig. 42) gives a very <Tami>ed representation of them and names 
them * Ramjjarts,' ])ut this seems a very inai)pro[)riate title for them. Neither 
is there the slightest sign of a lower wall hinted at by him. 

Plateaux hdow the Fort. — Innnediately in front of the lowest trench on the 
N. there is a little level sjvice, )»ut a much larger plateau, oiH) by 200 ft. on 
the O.M., internipts the steep soutliern <lescent, about luo ft. below the fort, 
and if there was a town as well as a (Ja.stle of Dunsinnan, the site would 
naturally be on these plateaux and some neighlx)uring e«'isy s1ojk*s. The track 



of an ancient wall round the edge of the large plateau is marked on the O.M., 
l)ut I could see no sign of it, looKing down from the fort. 

General IHmeimons, — Tlie upper area, from crest to crest of the slight ridging 
at the edge, measures about 185 ft. in length by 105 in greatest breadth, 
^hich is towards the W. end of the oval sjiace. At the corresponding jMirt of 
the E. end the width narrows to 65 ft. Measured over all, *the nipple' 
^th its terraced or trenched sides comes out 325 l)y 240 ft. on the plan. 

Hie Fortifications as revealM by Excnmtion. — As we have sliown, the green 
top and sides give no clear indication of a rampart, but shortly before 1799, 
Dr Playfair, digging in from the outer slope horizontally through 21 ft. of ruins, 
came upon a part of what he, without hesitation, calls "Macbeth's strong 
rampart of stone," " cemented with red mortar"; "as entire as when it was 
originally constructed, founded on the rock, and neatly built of large stones." 

Passing to the excavation by Mr Nairne about sixty years later, it is amaz- 
ing, after Dr Playfair's experiences, to find Dr Wise describing and figuring the 
fortification of the top as an earthen vallum, 20 ft. broad at the base and 
tapering to a height of 10 or 12 ft. (fig. 43). 

Fig. 43. Sectional View of Dnnsinnan. (Dr Wise.) 

But however this error arose, it may be confidently asserted that no such 
rampart ever existed, and Mr Stewart's MS. account of the 1854 excavations 
amply confirms Dr Playfair's description in all resi>ects but one. Mr Stewart 
relates that the workmen, going in from the outside, cut through a mass 21 ft. 
thick, finding a wall "strongly built of large stones, ix)th inside and out, while 
the filling in is a mass of loose stones, entirely without manipulation or mortar." 
We may dismiss as fanciful, therefore, the * red mortar ' ot Playfair, who was 
probably misled, as will afterwards appear, by finding red clay among the ruins. 
Thus the wall of Dunsinnan falls into line with the well ascertained walls of 
the other Scottish stone forts that have been proj)erly investigated. Mr Stewart 
gives no section along with his plan (given in outline, fig. 42), but I have con- 
Btnicted a section (fig. 44) from his very clear description which will aid the 
reader, as we proceed, in understanding the j)ositi()n of the wall antl interior 
buildings. I need only point out just now the position of ihe wall at E. 

EiUrance. — At present there is a very distinct entrance at the N.E. corner, 
penetrating oblic^uely through the defences to the central area, and this entrance is 
distinctly mentioned in the <M StdJidicitl Account of 1798. It must have 
existed, therefore, at the time of Naime's excavation, and a statement by Mr 
Stewart that the wall was traced all round without finding an entrance, must Ikj 
intended to apply only to the stone wall. This is cjuite likely, as there was 
certainlv no entrance through the inner stone walls, at least near their base, at 
Forgandenny and Abemethy forts. 

Interior BniUlimjs. — Dr Playfair states that, " having diligently explored the 


area, now 3 ft. below the surface, and cut a deep trench across it," he found 
no vestige of building, but he cannot have gone deep enough, as the excava- 
tions of 1854 revealed much building at the E. ena of the area. 

Here again Dr Wise, misled by his imaginary vallum, regarded the chambers 
found as underground, i.e., beneath the original floor of the fort ; but Mr Stewart 
shows in the clearest manner that they stood on the floor. Reverting to my 
section (fig. 44), constructed from his description, the rock floor, D D, is seen slop- 
ing up gradually to the centre of the fort : on this stands the wall of fortification, 
E, ana within it the chambers, F F, and a passage, H, between them and the wall, 
besides the " Queni Chamber," G, the whole enveloped in a mass of ruins and 
covered by accumulated earth, etc., under the grassy surface, ABC. Unfortu- 
nately, the construction of these chambers remains quite doubtful. The plans 
(figs. 42 and 43) of Dr Wise and Mr Stewart are utterly irreconcilable, and equally 
so are their descriptions, Dr Wise giving them a roimded figure with converg- 
ing walls and no mortar, while ^ir Stewart declares that they are all square, 
with perpendicular walls, and that, although the fort wall had no mortar, "yet 
all the square buildings contain considerable quantities of red mortar." His 

Fig. 44. Excavated Wall and Builtliiigs, Duiisiunaii (from Mr Stewart's description). 

expressions on this point are rather obscure, as if he had not seen this mortar 
actually joining the stones, but only lying about, and he probably really means 
clay, as he uses the term mortar very loosely, in another sentence speaking of 
" an adniLxture of decomposed bones and charcoal of wood "as "a compound 

It will be observed that Mr Stewart gives on his plan several remains of build- 
ings not noticed in Dr Wise's accoimt. A mass of ruin on the S. he considered 
on very slender grounds to have l>een a tower, and two passages leading to it he 
regarded as the only e^rly British works, because they alone had converj^ng 
walls. He also says that " within one-half of a large circular opening towards 
the west of the area, which seems to have been an open court," foundation walls 
still stood a foot high, but that the other lialf contained none. 

Vitrifaction. — Dr Playfair makers no mention of vitrifaction, and Williams, 
the original discoverer of vitrified forts, and Knox declare there was none ; but 
Wise found some deej) in the excavations of the chambers ; Laing also dug out 
several pieces, and Stewart asserts, not only tliat the whole ruins on the top 
were full of vitrified stones, but that many stones of the wall were fused with 
trap rock, sandstone, and quartz into one lump. This reads as if vitrified blocks 


rere used in the masonry, and not as meaning that the wall was vitrified. On 
tie whole there can hardly be a doubt that the wall was not vitrified, although 
itrified blocks, either brought from a distance or taken from an older fort on 
lie same site, may have been used as building material. 

JVater Hupply. — The excavators found no trace of any within the fort, but 
priiigs exist not far off down the hill, and Stewart speaks of a *Flatt' im- 
lediately below the rampart wall to the S., covered by a " body of red mortar " 
jlay ?) " which may have been a water tank." 

77j^ Finds consisted of (1) a quern in a fixed position in one of the chambers. 
2) A spiral bronze finger ring, described by the Rev. Thomas Brown as of most 
erfect workmanship, m the form of a serpent, the eyes and scales on the back 
arved regularly and very minutely. It was kept by Mr Naime, but in a year 
ras lost. (3) And, on the authority of Mr Robert Chambers, two round taolets 
f metal resembling brass, one of them engraved with the legend : " The sconce 
f kingdom come until sylphs in air carry me again to Bethel" ^ 

Corndimons. — It is much to be regretted that the excavations were so imper- 
3ct and so unscientifically conducted and reported ; but on the whole we may 
onclude that Dimsiiman was defended round the top by a dry stone wall of the 
rdinary fort type and on the slopes by additional works, now assuming the aspect 
f slightly trenched or level terraces, the true character of which has still to be 
scertained. Also, that it contained much building, the ruins of which, with 
tie accumulated soil of centuries, favoured by burnt timber, of which many 
races remained, brought the top to a nearly uniform level, completely burying 
oth wall and l^uiidings : that trie evidence as to the form and structure of the 
uildings is contradictory and cjuite unreliable : that the same may be said as 
) the presence of mortar, by which probably clay was meant : that the few relics 
1st no clear light on the origin of the building : and finally that there is 
othing to separate Dunsinnan from the class of ordinary Scottish forts of dry 

41. Denoan Late. — The work here is a somewliat questionable example of a 
»ne fort, as I could only see faint evidence of rubble work rather than building 
1 the very few breaks in the massive green rampart. But Dr Playfair and Mr 
Inox both state distinctly that the wall was built of stone without cement, and 
le absence of trenches, trie presence of a stone threshold at the entrance, as well 
i the whole aspect of the enceinte, is that of a stone rather than an earthen 

The position is on tlie VV. side of Denoon Glen, here a broad open valley, 
ut at some distance from the stream, 2^ m. S.W. of Glamis Church, and 
39 ft. above the sea. 

The Law stands up conspicuously from every near point of view, being quite 
olated and 100 ft. in heiglit. The sides are steep, and the south-eastern ascent 
ids in a line of precipice, on the edge of which the fort stands (fig. 45). The 
rea of the fort occupies the whole of the level top, and hence has a squarish 
ral form, and is girt by a single mound, massive and lofty at the end 
id on the N.W. face, where for a considerable stretch it is no less than 10 to 
i ft. high inside, a very unusual elevation, the base here, however, being 
robably natural. But even ^^teyorecipice edge on the S.E. the rampart is 

1 Picture of Ji^^^Mfc rt Chambers, 1828. 



6 to 7 ft high. Near the S.W. angle, however, the moimcl seems to liave been 
altogether removed, and at the S.W. end it is only 4 ft. high, although the 



Fif^. 45. Denoon Law Fort, Glamis. 

necessity for defence is greater there, and it is almost gone at the N.W. angle. 
Thus it would seem to have been much injured at the S.W. end of the fort. 
There seems to have been an entrance at the much injured N.W. angle, but 


the only difltinct entrance now is near the S. angle of the N.E. end. It is 
7 ft. wide, has a stone threshold, and passes l^etween the massive ends of the ram- 
partj of which that on the N. side has a broad platform in its rear, while the 
other has a short terrace, an arrangement which flanks and defends the entrance 
inside. The top of the rampart is a mere crest on the N.W. face, is somewhat 
broader, and has two or three little *eaucer' hollows on the top on the S.E. 
face, but is as much as 6 to 10 ft. broad at the N.E. end, the short part on the 
S. side of the entrance l)eing pitted with several * saucer ' cavities. 

In the area of the interior there are some inequalities of the surface, particu- 
larly a wide shallow circular hollow at the N. side, and a large irregular mound, 
perhaps a rubbish heap, near where the rampart is wanting at the S.W. angle ; 
these are probably modem interferences. 

The dimensions of the interior from crest to crest are about 380 by an average 
of 230 ft. It is difficult to give the measurement over all, as the position 
where the rampart merges in the sloi>e is unknown, but it must be about 430 by 
280 ft. 

On the outer slope at the N. angle and thence to near the entrance in one 
direction, and half-way along the N.W. face in the other, are two terraces, with 
a third below them for a short distance near the entrance ; the middle one and 
the short one are subdivided by compartments, hi a manner difficult to describe, 
but shown in the plan. Possibly these sjmces were levelled and subdivided 
as sites for houses. Three shoi-t parallel terraces are also faintly visible on the 
S. side of the entrance. The terraces at Denoon Law are noticed by Alex- 
ander Gordon, who compares them to those of Romanno. They are also noticed 
but not described by Knox.^ In planning these difficult objects and the fort 
generally I had the benefit of help from the Rev. Dr John Stevenson of Glamis, 
and my nephew Mr Arthur Cassels Brown. 

(c) Isolated Fort near Alytii. 

42. Barra Hill (or Barryhill) Fort is situated 1^ m. N.E. of Alyth Church, on 
a spur of Alyth Hill. Tins long ridge, after rising from the W. to two summits, 
966 and 871 ft. above the sea, falls on the E. to a neck about 500 ft. above the 
sea, over which passes the high road up Gleniala, and to the E. of the road the 
ridge again rises abruptlv 150 ft. to a little eminence, 680 ft. above the sea, 
conspicuous from l>einc thus thrust into the valley of the Isla. Here stands 
the fort with steep rocky descents on all sides. 

The earliest notice of Barra Hill is by Dr Playfair, who saw it probably at 
the end of the eighteenth century,^ and it has also been descril)ed by Sir George 
Mackenzie, whose visit must have been early in the nineteenth century.^ 

The fortress consists of a regular oval work (fig. 46), measuring on the O.M. 
200 by 120 ft., occupying the level summit, and various appurtenances, which 
can only be understood by reference to the plan, founded on that of the O.M., 
but with considerable additions, and with sections by myself. Approaching, 
as a visitor would naturally do, Sfroni the W., we first meet a trifhng moiuid- 

* Topography of the Basin of th'. Taij, p. 172, James Knox, 1831. 
^ Description of Scotland, i. 485, James Playfair, D.D., 1819. 
^ ArduBol. Scot,j iv. 184. 





-— ^<*'"' 


/ "/ 


fence, A A, at the edge of the steep ascent, bounding a plateau at the foot of 
the fort on which is the *well,' B, a circular grassy hollow, stony at the 
bottom, 3 ft deep, about 50 diameter, and quite dry at my visit. 

Looking up from this plateau to the N. we see a steep ascent to another 
plateau, C, 25 ft. higher, partially enclosed by a low mound, D D, and domi- 
nated by the main work ; looking now from the first plateau to the E., another 
ascent, E E, is seen, at first gentle, then steeper, interrupted by the wide 
terrace, F, and leading directly to the rampart of the fort proper. 

Q is another rough plateau, unfencea, higher than C, and very slightly 
dominated by the main work. At H the hill descends direct from the rampart 
of the fort, but beyond that a terrace, I, runs round eastward and southward as 
far as J, where there is a fall of 2 or 3 ft. to the trench, N. 

Tlie mound, K, about 50 ft wide on the top, is probably natural, but 
carved into shape. It bears a little mound. A:, at the N\ end, and southward 
l^radually narrows to join the very regular, evidently artificial, mound, L, the 
crest of which is 5 or 6 ft. wide, and which has in it« rear a wide terrace, M 

Fig. 47. Profile at Barra Hill. (Sir G. Mackenzie.) 

(which may be regarded as continuous with the terrace, IJ), rising only a 
couple of feet above the 6 ft. wide trench, N, from which it is fenced oflp by a 
low moimd only at the E. end, 0. Beyond L there is a little, perhaps 
natural, sharp-cut trench, T, shown only in my section, having on the further 
side a narrow, rou^h ridge, U, beyond which is the steep descent of the hill. 
This ridge would torm a good natural first line of defence on the S. side of 
the fort 

Finally, with a bold command all round, except towards the plateau, G, and 
mound-head, K, where it is but slight, is the rampart, P Q R S, of the fort 
proper. Dr Playfair describes this as a mound of earth 6 to 8 ft. high, on 
which a wall of freestone was built without cement, of which the foundation of 
rough granite remained, 10 to 12 ft wide, the same width as the top of the 
moimd. I cannot help thinking, however, that he was mistaken, as there is no 
evidence now of such a wall, and the aspect of the mound is exactly that of the 
ordinary ruined and partially grass-grown walls of Scottish forts. Neither do 
I know any example amone them of a wall constructed on the top of an arti- 
ficial moimd. Sir George Mackenzie tells us that the stones of the rampart are 
a red conglomerate from the hill, but does not mention any masonry, and I 
could see none. 

Vitrifaction. — Dr Playfair and Sir G. Mackenzie saw only a few vitrified 
masses in the ruins of the rampart, and I noticed none amidst the great masses 
of stones that Ue on its outer and inner slopes. Dr Playfair, however, describes 


a thoroughly vitrified * bridge,' 18 ft. long, only 2 broad in the middle, but 
widening to both ends, and covered with gravel, as crossing the trench (at the 
point J in my plan). But Sir G. Mackenzie, while confirminj^ the vitrifaction, 
says and shows by a section (fig. 47) that this bears no resemblance to a bridge, 
and I can amply confirm him, in regard to its present state, as there is now 
nothing but a slight descent at J to the trench, N. Possibly a rough and pitted 
irregularity of the terrace or flat-bottomed trench, I, near J, now visible, may 
have suggested the idea of a northern side to this * bridge,' which, unless it was 
purposely greatly reduced between Dr Plav fair's and Sir George Mackenzie's 
visits, was so low that it cannot have been of any use as a bridge. 

Dr Play fair calls this the only vitrified mrt of the fort, but Sir Gteorge, 
having found more vitrifaction at the ]>oint, 1, makes the extraordinary sugges- 
tion, that if the turf were removtHl, a vitrified wall would be found all the way 
round from I to X. At the same time he confesses that he caimot account for 
a vitrified wall being found in so extraordinary a situation as the bottom of a 

No entrance through the ramj)art is marked on the O.M., although Dr Play- 
fair sj)eak8 of one, apjwinmtly at the E. end, secured by a bulwark of stona I 
could see neither the one nor the other. 

(/) Forts on High Ridges between Forfar and Brechin. 

A few miles N.E. of Forfar two narrow j)arallel ridges, their crests from a 
mile to a mile and a half apart, run north-eastward, between the broad fertile 
valley of the South Esk on the one side, and llescobie Loch and the paFS through 
which road and rail escape fi-om Strathmore en route for the Meams on the 
other. These ridges rise l>oldly to a height of 750 ft. al)Ove the sea, and 500 
above the low ground to N. and S., but the hollow l)etween them is only 
300 ft. deep, and is continuous with the table-land which carries one of the 
roads from Forfar to Brechin. Where the hollow debouches on the table-land 
is Alxirlemno, celebrat^jd for its large assemblage of early Christian monu- 
ments. The furthest north of these ridges is 5 m. long, beginning at Carse 
Gray on the W. and ending at Finavon Hill. Tlie other, beginning near 
Luilanhead and Pitscandlie, is 3 m. long, and imds at Turin Hill. A large 
fort occupies each of these ridges at or near their highest points, and there is 
also a small work of a doubtful character towards the W. end of the Turin 
Hill ridge. 

43. Turhi J fill Fori^ the iAunp or Kemp CaMlc of the Statistical Accounts 
and of Mr A. J. Wardens Aiujus^ is a very remarkable work of almost 
uni(|ue character and extent, and has hitherto escajx»d description, beyond the 
brief notices in the authorities mentioned above. It is 1| ni. S.S.W. of Aber- 
lemno Church and 8(K) ft. above the s<.*a. Tlie summit of Turin Hill is a 
pculiarly narrow level ridge which runs E. and W. and is HKX) ft. in length 
by only about 100 in breadth. The foi t with its apjiurtenanccs occupies all this 
space, and runs besides some distance down the gentle descent to the N., so that 
the total occui)ied area is about IfJoo )>y 400 ft. The descents from the narrow 
K. and W. points of the .summit are stiej), and to the S. the fort looks down 
from the edge of a low but nmral clitr on a steei) descent to Rescobie Loch 500 
ft. below. As it is on the dominatiug point of the two ridges, which, as I have 


exi»laiutsd, are interpoeed here between the Qrampions and the low coast range, 
it commands a most extensive and Ijeautifiil view, and has a position of strat- 
egical importance. Its proximity to the very ancient Aherlemno may also Ije 

The works will Ixi best de8cril)ed from the west, whence the visitor is led by a 
farm roar] gradually skirting up the hill side from Clocksbriggs Station nearly 
to tlie summit^ when it turns northwards through a little pass to the Al^erlemno 
road. A short but steep ascent from this jioss leads to the sharp-jiointid W. 

r D 


H % 




^J^% \ %,^^^^^' 


Scale for the Plan (Sections double) 

I. ...I.. 

100 50 100 zoo 300 600 500 F^ 

Fig. 48. Fort on Turin Hill. 

end of the summit. Here (A, fig. 48) is a double row of cup or saucer shapetl 
hollows, possibly foundations for hut circles. 

Fifty vards further on is an oval work, B, 130 by 108 ft. over all, covering 
the whole width of the ton, and environed by a mound 24 ft. wide and 2 or 3 
l^ig^' grassy but With small stones visibl(\ it \\i\A eiitranceH from the K. and 
W., and the whole interior is irregularly cupixxl and mounded. 

Nearly 100 yds. further, after crossing a wide mound, C, which we disi-egard in 
tlie meantime, we come to another mound, D, encircling the long oval space £, 



rtl)ont 500 by 180 ft. over all, the sides Uring not far from straight, the ends 
rounded. The enclosing mound is grass-grown, but shows small stones, and is no 
less than 35 ft. broad and G high on tlu* outer side at the W. entrance. On the 
X. side it is nearly gone, but is distinct, though much ruined, on the precipice 
edge on tlie S. side, and is again well ])n*Herved at the E. end, where the 
entrance has tho |)eculiar form shown in the plan, and lias behind the ramjiart 
on the S. side a smce. of about 70 by 35 ft., enclo8e<l by a low straight mound, 
and divided into lour or live compartments. 

Within the o\'al, much nearer the W. tlian the E. end, and touching the 
N. side, is the nearly circular * citadel,' F. A mass of rubble all round, 
with many fine facing stones at the l)ase, proves it to have l)een alwut 90 ft. 
diameter, inside a wall from 12 to 14 ft. thick, and the fine quality of the drv 
masonry is testified by a j^art of the outer face, 8 ft. long and Sh high, stifl 
standing (fig. 49). Many of the facing stones are 2^ to 3 ft. long. 

Fig. 49. Masonry of Turin Hill Fort. 

Fifty yards further E. is another nearly circular work, G, 140 by 130 ft. 
over ail, the low grassy and stony encircling mound being alwut 15 ft. wide, 
with an entrance to the S.W. Within it is a second encircling mound 10 ft. 
wide, the inner area of all being about 50 ft. in diameter. 

Al>out 100 yds. further we come to a massive mound, H, alx)ut 30 to 40 ft. 
wide, at the edge of the eastern descent. On the S. side of the entrance it 
mnidly diminishes in bulk, and soon reaches the precipitous edge, but on the 
other side it continues for a considerable distance curving round the N. side 
down the hill, and can l)e traced, more often as a ternice, all the way till it j<»ins 
the mound, (.', near the W. end of the site, where it runs out on the prticipice 
cKlge ; a very large semi-oval sjjace (if alnnit 11 (Kj l>y 370 ft., enclosing the 
inner oval and citiidel, is thus shut i]i. On the S. side of the entrance a 
second mound, 1, 7(> ft. outside the tirst and lower down the hill, circles round 
with it. At first it is 30 ft. wifle, but soon becomes a terrace, and I ci^dtl not 
trace it more tlian half way rouncl. 

44. Finaron. — The ridge of Fimtron, Fiiunm, or Fttulhacen, ruiming 
I^arallel with the last, after attaining its full height of 751 ft. above the sea, 


gradually falls north-eastward to the 500 contour line, where a winding road 
passes over it from N. to S. The ridge then rises acain steeply 100 ft almost 
uuinediately to a little level summit^ on which stanos the fort, a mile due W. 
of Aberlemno Church in the plain below. This summit is approached by a 
long moderate ascent from the N., and by a short but narrow one from the E., 
but it has a very steep fall to the S., beginning at a well-defined precipitous 



■ 'I ': >h? 



Fig. 50. Finavon, near Aberlemno. 

edge. The fort^ curiously enough, is not at this edge, butjis withdrawn from 50 
to 100 ft. from it, and it is also slightly withdrawn from the steep ascent at the 

'rhe plan (fig. 50) is very simple. Two long straight sides face N. and S., and 
tlie two ends are well rounder. According to the O.M. the dimensions from 
crest to crest are 500 ft. by 125 near the W. end, contractinc to 110 at the 
E. end. It is therefore a peculiarly narrow fort. The mound rampart, even 


on tho Hide towards tlie steep descent, is in some places as much as 7 ft. high 
and 30 bnxul, and on the N., where its outer Ibnit is not so easily made out, 
it is at least 40 ft. wide where my section was taken. At the W. end, on the 
other hand, which is not naturally strontr, it is singidarly weak^ being narrow 
and only 3 ft. above a little plateau which comes right up to it At the K end 
it is coniuvUKl by an earthen mnip, F, with a ])erluips natural mound nmning 
jvirallel with that end, but exUmding in an irrogidar manner to within 40 ft. 
of the steep (k»8cent on the S. and Honie 100 ft down the slope to the N. 
Ascending from the N. the visitor i» deceived into the belief tnat the space 
Wtween tiiis mound and the minpart must lead to the entrance, but finds him- 
A'lf in a i'lil ih- mc. At i>re8ent a cart road, A, winds up the hill from the N., 
]vismi«s close lH*ni*ath the rain])art from K. to W., crosses the fort obliquely, and 
goes down the vXA'^i^y dem^'nt to the S. 'I1ius the only two existing entrances 
an' formeil. it is nomewhat i*emarkable that the flat space on the S., which 
is aUnit (K» ft. wide at tbe W. end and 100 at the K end, and is on the same 
lowl as the inti^rior, is neither fortified at the edgi» nor on its flanks. 

The interior, k\» nhown in my section, ha$, near the K. end, a shallow^ pit, 
If, 45 ft. wide, and at the extreme W. end a very deep one, H, shaped like an 
invorteil iiuie, with grassy sidi*s, desivnding directly from the slight rampart 
iherv to a depth of 30 ft ' 

Accimliug t<> Williams, Or J. Jamie^ku, the Statistical Account^andthe O.M. 
this fv>rt is vitritletl. .lamiestni^ liad the opportimity of investigating it when 
the tenant was eU«aring away jvirt of the wall, but unfortunately his descrip- 
tion ut alnuv^t inoompreheiuiible. He says tluit after piercing throosh 8 or 10 
tt of rubbish the vilritiiil wall was found regularly built ami stanaing from 
10 to I ( tt in height and :!0 to 3i) brvxul at tlK' base. But the wall was not 
.ill vlt^itu^l« a.« he sap that )virt« fnnn top to U^tom afforded no vefltiges of 
tire, although v^thew wen* innupleloly bumevl. Apparently, also, it was not the 
built wall lirnt wjis vitritunl, lor he siU->? "ihe irregidar ciMicrete mass formed a 
bultr\>ss \»u «xuh sUle <" fAr i-c'.'iir c- r- . -''ui.*'- "m//.' He al$o says that the 
'iUMiv^ weiv bi\mght li\MU various oiurtors : in one small heap he found seven or 
eighl vbtteivut kuuls ot sti^ie : ana iIva: a great viuontity of ashes of burnt wood 
\\:is uu\v\l with the suuies, The ramp&rc is now mucfi overgrown, but a oon- 
^^l^'r:4Me |vui ot it> nIojhxji axv Iviiw At.vl wberv\-er that was tbe case I found the ^ 
>iouv> unu h Unvuvl uyvsUer with a vlul^ Ctv,^. J^h-like suUstance,so that the fort -3 
xvMu lo bavv AS o^^f * title to ;hv tuv.iw ' v'.:ritleLi* as meet «.<her9. The onlyv 
•,iv:e *;l.iv<\ ousy \ pK m\1 y,v was '>:v^ vr. :h.e surface inside the fort, ajod ha2^ 
";vUkl»l\ Ivor, vl.;^ uv tx'.^ *\ >«.*r.;< rcvvr:: explorer. 

^ ^ S-v^W t\*';^.N .'\ ■ :. ;:. : vN " vN ' .. '■^-.AW- F*. SL-ESt oK AXOC^ 

' ^ ^' ' \ '"^ '•T'sv" 'h: c.-rns ct :hie Grampia^i::^ 

'. \*-.:.' .•:•. i . \. • i x \ ^•■.' ! ^TLiC'" '>"<:r«e ^.T •> m. 

>" A - • -> ' - V ■ .• L- -.>e ^^^iphrie B mi 

" \^ ' ^^ ^- -i ■ •• :->-.. .w<erly coci 

V t * « . *v.> i . '■;*'< -iVscwuid I 


FOUTS, * camps/ etc., OF PEKTIf, FOPFAH, ANI» KIXOAKinNE. 101 


t .! : X 
















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work," and proV>ably he is not responsible for tlie extraordinary development 
and fomi given to it in the engraving (section C). 

On conii>aring section D with E, taken respectively on the N.K. and 
S.W. faces of the work, differences come out, ]>robably due to the compara- 
tive gentleness* of the sloi)e on the N.E. face, llere it is neither so long nor 
so high as in D ;'it is interrupted al^out the middle by a level space, g, 7 ft. 
wide, and the whole surface is thickly covered with debris, instead of having 
the grassy interval of the S.£. section. The trench is again quite distinct, 
but it has no outer mound. 

It is impossible from these surface characteristics to understand the original 
structure, but I V)elieve that excavation would reveal remains of masonry re- 
presenting a wall poesiblv 30 to 40 ft. thick. Whether the pitting on the ton 
IS due to mere searching for stones, or had a structural origin, is a question whicn 
also could only l)e solved by excavation. Poe8il)ly there were really two con- 
centric walls, the intersj^ace ijeing filled up with cellular Imilding of some kind 
or another ; and there may have been another and slighter wall situated at the 
foot of the slope on the edge of the trench. The division of the debris on the 
alope into an ui)|jer and lower strip, as shown in section D, favours this supposi- 

It remains to s])eak of the outer line of defence. Roy calls it '*a double in- 
trenchment," ana his section C, fig. 100, represents two mounds, /i, », with a 
trench between. Where my section (D) was taken, however, I found nothing 
but a trench, k, with a 15-ft.-wide level terrace, I, in its rear, and this con- 
tinued to l)e the case along a great part of the N.E. face, although towards 
the two ends there was a slight mounding liotli inside and outside the trench. 
The total dimensions of the White Caterthun are 1300 V)y 840 ft. and the area 
of the citadel is 470 by 210 ft. 

It seems as if there had been but one entrance, situated at the E. end, where 
now a mere footj>ath passes over a hollow in the stony debris. At the opposite 
end are two similar paths, and it is possible that one of them indicates the 
position of a second entrance, but neither of them |>aBses through a well-marked 
nollow like the path at the E. end. 

46. The Brown Caterthun (fig. 52), j m. N.E. of the last, is descril)ed l)y 
Roy as lieing " fortified by several sliglit earthen intrenchments." Their present 
slight character may be partly due to the lx>ggy nature of a gn»at portion of the 
ground. The inner ring (fig. 52, and m, section B, fig. 53), now scarcely trace- 
able in some jarta, is so trifling where preserved tluit it is questionable if it was 
intended for defence. It encloses the level Hummit, a sjmce of al)Out 280 by 
190 ft ; but a little way down is a second much stronger ring, n, a mound 8 
or 9 ft high outside, which proltfibly, as Miss Maclagan thinks, conceals a stone 
wall, and appears to have been the main defence. It encloses a sj^ace of 610 by 
480 ft. The next ring is a trench, represented i\8 i)erfect by Roy and the 
O.M. ; but I found no remains of it in some stretches, although to the N.E. it 
was not only well seen, but liad slight mounds in front and rear. About 120 
ft farther down is the fourth riiig, p, a mound measuring about 30 ft across 
and 5 or 6 in height to the outside, Al)OUt 30 ft. lower is the fifth or outer 
ring, q, consisting of a slighter mound towarrls 20 ft wide and rising only 4 or 
5 above a narrow trench, which is bounded outside by a very trifling mound 6 
or 8 ft in width. The total dimensions are 1120 by 1010 ft 


The eiitmnces throiigli all these rings are numerous. Perhap some of them 
arc modern breaches, but as they are simply ojienings and nothing more, the 
\ioiut cannot be determined without excavation. Roy seems to liave thought 
most of them genuine, as he says " the second or strongest [ring] has no less 
than seven gates." 


1. Craig OJmey, 2J m. S. by W. of Dunkeld, 1323 ft above the sea, is marked 
l)y a dotted circle, 120 ft. diameter, as the site of a fort. I have no informa- 
tion about it. 

2. Jackshairs^ li m. E.S.E. of Forteviof, 339 ft. above the sea, on the 
highest point of a little wooded ridge on the skirts of the Ochils. The O.M. 
represents two, i)erhaps three, concentric rings round an area of 180 by 150 
ft. with an inner ring of 80 by 60 ft., the whole measuring 350 by 250 ft. 
I could only tind three faintly marked trenches on one side. 

3. Auchterhoicse Hill. — This well wooded and finely shaped summit of the 

J^ ico' 

Fig. 54 Piotiles of site of Fort, Auchterhouse II ill. 

Sidlaws, G m. X.X.W. of Dundee, 1400 ft. above the sea, U m. N.E. of the 
Parish Church of Auchterhouse, has 'site of fort ' marked on the O.M. on 
its very top. A century ago, Dr Playfair saw only faint traces of a fort. All 
that I found were a few stones suitable for building at the edce of a steep 
sloix* of 30 ft., on which were two concentric, low, artificial looKing mounds 
which could not be traced far. This was the natural boundary to the S.E. 
On the N.W. the hill slope from the blunt conical site is continuous, and offers 
no natural limit. To the S.W. the descent is very abrupt, and to the N.E. it 
falls on a considerable plateiiu. The general nature of the site will be under- 
stood from the rough sections (fig. 54). The interior of the fort was probal)ly 
circular, and may have mea.sured about 200 ft. diameter. 

4. DumlHirrov\ at Kirkton Fanii, 2 J m. E. by S. of Dunnichen Church. 
A single oval ring of 120 by 100 ft. is"marked on the O.M. on the top of a 
knoll 544 ft. above the sea, rising but little above the high and pretty level land 
to the S., but with a descent of 300 ft. to the low country on the N. The sit^ 
is nuich overgrown with brushwood, and I could see nothing but a few large 
stones lying about. 


FOJJTS, * camps/ etc., OF PERTH, FOllFAR, AND KINCARDINE. 107 


^ i- /^outh Tulchan. — A fort is marked here on the O.M., 2 m. N.N.E. of 

^OMrlis Wester, 1 m. S. of the Almond, 60() ft. above the sea, in a field sloping 

^oi-tli'^^a^ to a small burn. The green elevation, 5 to 9 ft. high ana 80 

^fx>e», shows natuFGd rock cropping out on the top. Breaks reveal quantities 

.V ^^r^e and small stones, and tnere is something like a circle of stones under 

d V? ^^^ ^ about a foot high, round the foot of the mound. This puzzling place 

^^ ^i^ot seem to me to fiear any resemblance to a fort. 
j\^^ ^Juncan^s Campj on Bimam Hill, 600 ft. above the sea, and 2 m. S.S.E. of 
, ***^fc:^ld Church, is drawn on the O.M. as a low, flat-topped elevation, triangu- 
^» '^^ith rounded angles, measuring al>out 180 by 1(K) ft. I have not 
^?^ i t and have no information about it. 

g^^^ ^ZJaledonian Camp, — This pretentious name is given on the O.M. to an 
j^£^^^*==^-^ive enclosure, 3 m. W.N.W. of Blairgowrie, on Lornty Bum, Qomiack 
jj-^^?K^« An irregular rectangular space of about 4000 by 2000 ft. is enclosed 
I fe^?^^^ * Buzzart Dykes,' described to Dr Joseph Anderson by some natives as 
nj^^^^ ^ikes.' It is on irregular ground, 600 to 850 ft. above the sea, and a great 
^T^^^^ cairns are marked on the O.M. lx)th inside and on the muir beyond. 
nj^^;^^--3ider8on saw some of them, and thought they were not sepulchral, but 

,^?*^^^ be remains of shielings. 

th^ "^ ^-fiofe'g Reed, — This is the peculiar title of a work also marked * fort ' on 

of ^fc-^ ^ ^-^.M., but which seems to me to be a dubious fort. It is 1 J m. W. by N. 

ri^3i^^r^^«5ot)ie Church on an irregular plateau not quite on the summit of the 

vr^-^^^^ here about 550 ft. above the sea, that runs on to Turin Hill fort. The 

vrVi^^'^ has no natural strength, and has an inner circular area 65 ft. diameter, 

lO ^^^^ ^li falls from 3 to 5 ft. below the level of the exterior, except to the W. 

ai^ ^^^ enclosed by a low mound, 18 ft. wide and only Ij high, of small stones, 

i^^^^^P^^T as can be seen, with a few large flat ones not of the kind commonly used 

es.«^«rt wall-faces. 

Vx^~^^ Druid! 8 Camvy dte ofy is marked on the O.M. 3 J m. S.S.W. of Stone- 

^-^^^•^n on high table-land 480 ft. above the sea. There seem to be no remains, 

^ ^^ I could get no information alx)ut the place or the origin of the name, but 

^ V^d not go to the spot 

^, Campj MontgoUirum. — Near the farm-house of that name, on the top of the 

T^^ gentle yet prominent * Camp Hill ' of the O.M., 450 ft. above the sea, 2 m. 

^.«^. of Arbuthnott Church, is an irregularly circular mass of stones about 60 ft. 

^^meter, the outer edge of which is marked iri-egularly by some large rough 

^^nes not suitable for building. One huge block, apparently pulled from ite 

'place and blown up, must have been 6 ft. square when entire. But the mass 

insists of smallish water-worn stones, such as are abundantly ploughed up in 

the adjoining field. Mr F. R. Coles, after making a careful examination and 

taking a plan, l)elieves that this is a ruined (aim. A number of large stones lie 

scattered to the N.E., which he thinks are the remains of a second cairD. 

7. BlacUll Camp.—Th& site indicated on the O.M., J in. N.N.W. of Dun- 
nottar Ca«<tle, \ m. S. of Stonehaven harlK)ur, I found to Ije a space enclosed 
on the S.E. by a precipice rising from the head of Strathlethan Bay, on the 


N.W. by a atraight mound only 2 ft. high and 6 wide, on tlie S.W. l)y a 
branch at right angles to the last ; and it is not enclosed on the N.£. Tlie first- 
named mound is on the summit., 250 ft above the sea, of the enclosed area, which 
slopes so steeply to the precipice tliat the work cannot have lieen a fortress of 
any kind, more particularly an the moimd is so trifling. 


1. Dunnichen, — On the top of this detached height 764 ft. above the sea, ^ m. 
N. of Dunnichen Church, overlooking the supxKwed scene of Ecgfrid, King of 
Northumbrians defeat in 685, the remains of a fort were visible according to 
Knox, op, nt.y p. 118. I have not Ijeen there, but nothing is marked on the 

2. Green CairUy Ij m. W.S.W. of Fettercairn, 2CH) yds. S. of Caimton 
cottage on the high it>ad, is the name of a little eminence, measuring about 200 
by 140 ft. on the O.M. My notes of it have been lost, but my recollection is 
that it was raised about 20 ft. alx)ve a level field, tliat it liad an irregularly fiat 
top, rough with many closely aggregated indefinite little mounds and frag- 
mentary hut circles (?), but with no clear signs of fortification. 

3. Intrenchment is the name on the O.M. of a straight mound about 450 ft. 
long in Dnmisleed Wood, I m. S.E. of Fordoun, 300 ft. above the sea, running 
parallel with and a little withdrawn from the edge of a steep descent, on an 
elevated flat. The mrisli minister, the Rev. J. Menzies, pointed out to me that 
st^veral other mounds run oflf at right angles from the main one, but they are 
little more tlian broad undulations of the ground, whereas the *Intrenchment' 
is substantial in height and width. The remains arc puzzling but not sugi^- 
tive to me of fortifications Knox says that the country people call the place 
* The Scotch Camp.' 

4. The LaWy Tumulus, are the titles given on the O.M. to a mound 1^ m. 
W.N.W. of Kinneff Church, and 300 yds. N. of Largie Castle site. An ex- 
tensive cutting on the W. side shows sandv soil and a few rounded stones. The 
flat top measures 75 by 33 ft. Tt may fiave served as a simple mote or for- 
tress, but it is, I should think, of natural formation, tis is a similar mound, with 
its long axis in the opjK)site direction, however, about 100 yds. to the N. 

5. Cdstle Hilly 1000 yds. S. by W. of Kinneflf Church, on the edge of a sea 
cliff, is represented as a strongly marked artificial mound on the O.M. I found 
it, however, to l)e quite inconspicuous an<l entirely without remains of building 
or fortification. 

0. Malcohn's Moinity 2 m. W.N.W. of Stonehaven, ^ m. N.E. of Fetter- 
e&so Church, 150 ft. alx)ve the sea. (Growing crops prevented me from getting up 
to it, but it looked on a near view as if a natural mound rose to an artificial 
one. Taking the enclosed and nlantiid top as the artificial part, it is a regular 
circle KX) ft. diameter as marked on the O.M. 

7. lieinains of Ram part is the title on the O.M. of a mound, only a foot or two 
high and G wide, that cuts oft* the i>romontory called Th^ lUwdunHy ^ m. S.E. 
of Stonehaven liarlx)ur, on the N. side of the Castle Bay of Dunnottar. This 
precipice-girt point consists on the landwanl side of a squarish flat of 500 ft. 



*00 fx^ above the sea, and of another flat beyond it at the extreme point about 

^ ftw lower, of about half the extent At the neck a narrow gto cuts in from 

J^ ^•^ and at its head, nearly on a level with the Hat, a ravine begins which 

p'^^^'t^^ly descends to the sea on the N.E. The artificial mound also starts 

o/^*?^ tihe head of the gto and^runs down ih^ hottam of the ravine to the rocks 

^^^wduns at the sea. Thus, although it cuts across the neck, from its 
^^*^\•^i^5n and trilling dimensions it can hardly be considered defensive. A 
^S^^^^r mound in its rear courses along the top of the ravine, but this, like the 

'^^ *^^ seemed to me to be &fefice rather than a defence. 
jj^ ^ Oircular Stone Structures in Upper Gleiilyon. — In this remote locality, 16 
^y^V^ "^^twve the sufficiently remote Fortincall with its sauare fort in the flat 
jg^^'^ ^HlDim Qcal overlooking it from the hill, it is remarkable to find, within the 
^^.^J^ t^ of a mile, the poor remains of four circular stnietures, too large for 
- ^^-•-'^^^ary hut circles, but apparently not sufficiently strong or well built to have 
»- fortified towers, l^esiaes being on indefensible sites in the level l)Ottoni of 

Chart of Rums 'n Upper Ctrnlyon 

C«rsrr«) 4 

Fig. 66. Chart of ruined ••Towers," Upiier Glenlyon. 

^^^f2 valley. Towers, however, they are called on the O.M., and the (Jaels call 
y«icm "Caisteal," as shown in the chart (fig. 55) reduced from the f»-inch 
^.M. These names are also recognised by Mr Duncan Campbell in his Uook of 
^^nrth and Fortinyall. Miss Maclagan, Tlie Hill Fortx, <Cr., of Ancient Scotlandy 
P» 85, calls them circular buildings, and describes and figures three of them, 
One of which seems to have a single row of stones, set on end, and therefore 
Hot very suitable for the foundations of the outer and inner facing of a broad 
t^ibble wall. 

Mr Cimpl)ell alw finds no less than seven MotrJu'Us in (Jlenlyon, l>ut they do 
not seem to U' known as such by the people, and the O.M. does not notice them 
either by name or drawing, excej)t the Sithmn (\imslai, 17 m. above Fortin- 
gall, which is drawn on the O.M. as a triangular, flat topped, low mound 
with a tower on it, but is not marked MoUhill. The t<^>wer apiHiars to be a mis- 
take, as Dr Joseph Anderson informs me it is a small green mound. One 
might wish, however, to know more of the Tom na Ciuiirteig^ "directly above the 


Kemiclacli round fort, which, Mr Campbell says, *put« the Tinwald of Man to 
ojwn shame/ " 

Circular Stone Structures in Strathardle,— A large number of *hut circles' 
and other circular structures of larger size in a veir ruinous state have been de- 
scribed by Dr John Stuart at J>alnal)othj and by Miss Maclagan, who also gives 
plans of them, as well as of others at GUnderhy^ Strathardle, and I have seen 
similar remains near the 'Roman Camp' of Raedykes, near Stonehaven. 
Doubtless they occur elsewhere in our district. They are always of an obscare, 
little understood character, and fall very doubtfully if at all under the head 
of fortifications. 


I. Class op Kauth works. 

(a) Possible Motes. 

Nuuilkcr, — About hiilf of the twenty-live earthworks (including two 
in the 1 Postscript) have some claim, on structural grounds, although 
generally a feeble one, to the title of Mote, With one exception, the 
most that can be said is that they are, on the whole, more like motes 
than forts. 

Heitjht above the Sea. — Like the other earthworks, they contrast 
stn)ngly with the stone forU in this resi>ect, as their elevation is quite 
motlerate. The only two that climb abive the 500 contour line arc 
Anu'c/uJ, 700 ft., and Dundee Lair, 572 ft., and only four others 
reach the 600 contour. 

Sifrs. As a rule thev are not on positions of natural strength — the 
exceptions being No. 8, the Torr , No. 9, Dundee Laic — the last ofZl 
which lias perhaps tin* feebh'st claim of all to 1h? called a mote. 

r/(Vfs. N<». 1, Cairn IhlJi, the best claimant, appears to have l)cen « 

tyjueal mote with a Inise court. No. 11, Arniefuty,\m\ No. 12, Caniei 

laud^ are simple moated moumls on paper, but the resemblance is not f^^ 
salisfactorv in tht^ liehl. No. 8, The Torr, is by no means unlike 
lerraeed mote. .\s {i^ }\i). 'J, In''hbrah'i>\ if not a mote, it is certaiiw. "^ 
(lillicnli tt» call it anythini; e]s«'. It ha^j the iiitiund, the surroundL -:^^ 
lieinb. ;»im1 .111 niiiiM" rMiiipait, bill its imu>ua] si/e and tlie feebleness of t ^j 
lampMit ;irf loni ra iiulii Mti«»ns. No. 10, Ca^Uftuu, ixwA No. W, Dur^cM^ 
l.nii\ .lie po-,,iMr examples .«i" tlie s.pKiie type (»f mote, ramparted ^tu/ 


trenched. The four remaining wore possibly motes of the simpk»st type, 

mere artificial mounds witliout rampart or trend i, always of necessity an 

uncertain class. 

T}i£ Nam^ Mote in thn OUtrv-t. — It is very tloubtful if the name has 

iKjeu applied locally to any of these works, even to Xos. 3, 4, and 5, and 
I failed to get any evi<lence of it in the neighlxmrhood. In tlu* Regitf- 
trum Magim t>i(jlllx 1 have only noticed one reference to a mote in 
the three counties — a.d. 1546, "lie Moit de Errole." 1 do not know if 
there are any remains of it, hut none are marked on the ().!M. Three 
' niotehills ' in Perth and two in ^Learns are also mentioned, hut the 
signilication is probably different from that of * mote/ 

(b) KaHlien Forts. 

NumJper, — The toUd number of ai>j)arently earthen /c/r/^f in the district 
is thirteen, including two described in the po8tscri|)t. 

Elecaiion above the Sea, — As with the motes, the elevation is very 
moderate, with the exception of No. 17, JCvdirJc, which attiiins 890 ft., 
a very unusual height for an earthwork. It is, however, not a deeply 
trenched but rather a terraced fort. The next highest barely passes the 
500 contour line, and oidy two others reach the 400 contour. 

Sitett, — It is one distinguishing fcMiture between this sulnlivision and 
the motes that, whereas all i\m most j»robal)lc mot(»s are on weak sites, 
the forts without exception are j>lac(Ml where they derive considerable 
strength from the nature of the ground. 

Plans. — Where the constructors had a free hand, the form ai>i)roaches 
that of the oval, but only in a single instance is the oval enceinte of 
fc»rtitication comidete. The position being genc^rally at the straight edg(; 
of a steep bank, which was Irft unfortified, compelled the form to 
assum<» a somewhat semi-oval figure. In the case <»f f(»rtified promont(>ries, 
inland or on the coast, where the fortilieati<ni is confined to the ntu-k, the 
fonu of the fort depends entirely (Ui that of the cut-oil' point. 

The only comjdete fortified enceinte is at (r/'cen (-axflr^ No. 23. It is 
single, consistijig of a rampart and trench, of uniform strength all round, 



anil this assimilates it to the stone forts. But T could see no sign of 
stone about it, and the fine broad rampart was amply accounted for by 
the deep and wide trench from which it was no dou])t taken. In three 
instances, all of cut-off pt)ints, the fortified line was only single, but in 
the other examples of that type, and in all the ordinary forts with incom- 
[>lete semi-oval fortifications, the lines were dou])le or treble. Terraced 
fortification seems only to have l)een employed at Evelick, Xo. 17. 

Water Supply. — Most of the earthen forts, a,s well as the motes, had 
a pretty direct access to streams runnijig close under their sites, but 
whether they had springs or cisterns inside is uncertain, as not a single 
native earthen fortress in the tlistrict has l)een excavated. 

Relics. — For the reason just given, we are equally ignorant of the 
relics they may contain. 

Import of Uie Distinctions between tJie Eartlien and the Stone Forts, — 
Although the earthen differ from the stone fortresses in the lowness of 
their situation, their structure, and their generally incomplete enceintes 
of . fortification, it would l>e rash to conclude that these distinctions 
depend on a difterence of date or of race in the builders. They can all 
be explained Ijy the differences natural to sites on the hills or in the 
valleys, and l)y the Ciise with which stoneworks can be thrown up on the 
former, and Ciirthworks in the latter. 

11. Stone Forts. 

Numher. — The number of stone forts reckoning as such all that have 
the (ritatlel of stone, whatever the nature of the outer defences may be, 
is twenty-three — lnit few for so large a district. 

Elevation abore tlui Sea. — The great coni|)arative elevation of stone 
forts is shown by the facts that only one of the twenty-two comes down to 
the 500 eontour, whereas in\\y four of the twenty-fiv(» (earthworks come 
up to it ; and lluit n^au* of tht? latter come within 100 ft. of the 1000 
contour, while six of the stone forts are above it, and live more within 
100 ft. of reaching it. The highest of all, Dun More, Glenalmondy is 
no less than 1520 ft. al»ove the sea. 


Sites. — With the exception of No. 27, Dun GecUy wliich, although on 
a height, is approachable by easy slopes all round, all the stone forts arc 
strongly protected on one or more sides l)y precipices, ravines, or steep 

Platis, — The great majority are oval in form, although in some the 
oval is so broad as to approach the circle. Only in a few, which are 
chiefly tower-like structures, is the form circular or very nearly so. 

In seventeen of tlie twenty-three stone forts the artificial zone of 
fortification is a complete one of uninterrupted stone wall, often with 
little or no diminution of its thickness wliere tlie natural defence is 
strong, greatly contrasting in these respects witli the earthen forts. In 
one, Xo. 25, Dundurn, the enceinte is also complete, but this is effected 
by drawing a series of stone walls irregularly from one inaccessible 
precipice to another. In No. 31, Ogle Hill, and No. 33, Rossie Law, the 
fortified zone is also complete, l)ut a great part seems to have consisted 
not of stone walling, but of terracing. In No. 32, Ben Effery, tlie 
same double system appears to have been used, but one side, a straight 
precipice edge, was unfortified, and this with No. 24, Dunvwre, which 
has a semi-oval front of fortification from edge to edge of an in- 
accessible bank, are the only instances of an incomi»lete artificial enceinte 
in the twenty-three, with tlie jiossi])le exception of No. 36, which is 
so dilapidated that no opinion can be formed al^nit it. 

Development of the Fortification, — In four, Nos. 27, 29, 33, and 41, the 
enceinte is single and simple. No. 44, Finavon, has in addition a mound 
at one end, doubtfully artificial, but connected by an earthen ramp with 
the main work. In three, Nos. 26, 30, and 35, there is an annex at one 
end. In No. 37, Camac, the annex goes so far round as almost to form 
a second enceint<% and in 28, Dun MacTual, a second enceinte is also 
nearly completed by an annex at one end, and advanced stone walls at 
tlie other. In Dron, No. 38, two large annexes give a false appenirance 
of a double enceinte, but they are merely slightly fenced. In the 
remaining eleven, excluding the too dilaindated No. 36, the enceinte is 
either double or treble, sometinuis i)artially (piadruple. 



Structure of Hie Walls, — This hiis been determiniMl with or without 
excavation in ten of the twenty-two, and in all these it is of the same tyin*, 
the faces l)eing of well-built dry masonry, and tlie core of rudely built 
rubble work. Two — No. 34, Castle Lawy and No. 35, Abemethy — Imve 
had wooden ]>eams in addition. As in all the Scottish stone forts that 
have been investig-ated, there appears to Ikj no prejiared foundation, and 
when the wall, sis genenilly happens, stands on the edge of a descent, 
the outer fjice is lower — sometimes much lower — than the inner, one. 
There seems little reason to doubt that the walls of the other stone forts 
of the district are simply burie<l under the ruins of their upper part or 
under the accumulated overgrowth of soil and vegetation of centuries. 
Finavon, No. 44, as a much vitrified work, is a j)08sible exception, 
although Dr G. A. Jamieson, who saw sections made through the 
enceinte, declares in his rather incomprehensible do^ription that it was 
a built wall buttre^ed with vitrifaction. 

Water Supply, — From their gcjiieral sites on i^iinted heights at con- 
siderable elevations th(i stone forts have not the rwuly access to streams 
which the earthen forts often possess. Nt^ither are springs generally 
found near them at present on th(» hillsides. Abermthyy No. 35, has 
an exceptionally good, ready sui)ply in the dammed-up loch close below 
it, and also had a large rock-cut cistern inside. Hollows in the interior 
of several, as at Denoon, No. 41, Barra, No. 42, Finavou, No. 44, and 
the White Caterthuji^ No 45, may indicate the existence of old wells 
or cisterns, but in most of the aretus there is nothing of the kind. 

Relics, — The numl)er of relics found has l)een remarkably small, but 
only two of the forts have l)eeu scientifically excavatiHl. The result, 
as far lus it goes, is that the finals are com])atible with the existence of 
the forts al)Out the Roman peri(Ml, but n(»t iHM*pssarily earlier, and 
the range is c(»nsid<Tal>ly into UHMlianal tim<'s. 

BrocJis, — S('v<'ral circular foundations of liroch size remain, but it is 
very doubtful if any really were l^rochs. One that 1 have seen, Robs 
Reedy has been included in my class of dubious works, and it is 
not constructed of the regular masonry required for a Broch ; the 


'*vim^* may be said, I think, of the 'Towers' in Glenlyon, as figured 
/>V ^IViit4S Maclagan, and described to me by I)r Joseph Anderson. 
T/ic3 ^_5ircular work at Tyndun^ No. 29, is too large for a Broch, and 
if t>J^i£^ is a less difficulty with Dun Geal, No. 27, the width of 
its -%^!^i.xJJ is scarcely sufficient. In all respects the most likely Broch 
foimxAc^lxi't^ion is the excavated circular wall 18 ft. broad, with an areii of 
36 ±"-f>- enclosed, at The LqwSj No. 39, but in the absence of evidence 
of ii. <:s€->iitainQd stair or chambers it cannot bo proved to be the wall 
of aj^ ^-3i"<Dcli. 

T^^^^-^'^fied Forts.— It cannot be said that the authorities for vitrified 

f ort:-€* i x]i. the district have done anything to clear up the obscurities that 

havxix-t^ tills class of objects. Rather have they done much to illustrate 

tlici €3 :>CL tix^dordinary discrepancies as to mere facts that meet the inquirer 

luU^ t>lic3ir history at every turn. Take The Laws, No. 39, and we find 

^ *^ ^">1aii Jamieson describing the two walls and all the immense mass 

^ -•^-^^^^liiig within as thoroughly vitrified, whereas Mr Neish asserts there 

''^^^ vitrification in the wall faces, the absence of which I verified, 

^^•^ vitrified masses were only found in the backing or rubble of the 

* ." C^iT take Dunsinnan, No. 40, where Playfair makes no mention of 

^ ^^^ion, while Stewart asserts that the whole interior buildings were 

^ ^ ^> and that it was also used on the wall face. 

^^^irt best entitled to be called vitrified is Finavon. No. 44, but only 

. , ^^^ond degree. It cannot be compared with Carradaley in Argyle, 

,. , ^^ #0 ft. of continuous vitrif action standing up as a wall, still less 

-V ^^ *'*i-^ Arisaig fort on EUean nan GobJiar, recently verified by Dr 

. ^lunro to be, to a height in one place of 9 ft., a continuous 

^^ wall wherever it is visible, and comparatively little of it is 

^tro^vn. Finavan rather ranks with Tap o* JVoth, Aberdeen, where 

^^ much vitrifaction, l)ut an the late Mr Macdonald, Huntly Farm, 

^» ^>earing but a small proportion to the unvitrified stone, and where 

I ^^^ ^^ ^>f his two complete sections no vitrifaction was found from top 

\ ^ ^^ttom. This was also proved to be the case by sections at Ftnavon. 

\^ \ ^^ two forts differ, however, in the position of the vitrifaction, which 


was certainly at and near the top at Tap & Nothj whereas, if we may 
believe Dr Jamieson, it buttressed a built wall. 

Lastly, it may be suggested under this head that the quantities of loose 
blocks of vitrifaction apparently found at The Laws and Dunsinnan may 
have been got from vitrified walls which preceded, on the same site, the 
unvitrified walls now existing. 

Distinction bbtwebn the Forts of this and other Districts 
IN Scotland. 

It would take too long to make a comparison with all the other groups 
in Scotland, but confining the comparison to Argyle, the differences are 
very marked — perhaps more so than in any other case. One manifest dis- 
tinction is that one-half of the forts in our district are of earth, while it 
is doubtful if a single earthen fort exists in Argyle. Tliis may be 
partially due to the abundance of stone everywhere, in high or low 
ground, in Argyle, together with the rarity of deep soil suitable for mak- 
ing entrenched works. But more marked distinctions are the large 
number and small size of the forts in Argyle, and the small num})er and 
large size of the forts in our district. When it is considered that vast 
tracts in Argyle are destitute of forts, 171 seems a large numl>er for the 
occu[)ied tracts, as compared with the 45 scattered pretty generally over 
Pertli, Angus, and Mearns. But the difference in size is even more 
striking. Adopting the stjxndards used in my work on Early Fortifica- 
tions in Scotland, it conies out that of 164 measurable forts in Argyle, 81 
are very small, 72 small, 10 considerable, and only 1 large, whereas in 
our tliree counties, of 44 measurable, 5 are very small, 13 small, 19 con- 
siderable and 7 large ; or, dividing them into two classes as large and 
small, 76 per cent, in the throe counties and only 8 per cent, in Argyle 
are large, and 92 per cent, in Argyh^ and only 24 per cent, in the three 
counties are small. 

These contrasts derive some interest from the fact that tlu^ one set an* 
in the land first occupied in Scotland by the Scots, and the other in the 
scixt of the chief power of the Picts. If we cannot positively affirm that 







V.*"""'" . „, .. '^t:i:.:''^t.T:'-^' 


*\ ^^^^^ 





the interior has a coinmainl iiDrthwanl of c)uly a few feet, but eastward 
the exterior gnmnd falls away, ami the slope from the interior is steej), 
-md here only the upper scarj) (1) and its trencdi (2), much reduced in 
size, are met with. At the eastern sharply -pointed end of the fort, where 
the narrow front could only hold a few defenders, the first mound (3), 
^nd its trench (4), again appear, in front of (1) and (2), to strengthen 
this weaker point. 

< )n continuing the transverse section through the inner area, two small 

*ix?nehe^, a and b, about 18 in. deep, were discovered, curving round 

l>a.Tallel with the earthworks, one al)out 10 ft. in rear of the top of the 

**<^«rp, the other from about 12 to 18 ft, in rear of the first. They con- 

"•^ii-ined flat stones or flags, generally disarranged, but in some places still 

**t.«ncling on end, so as to line the sides of the trenches, e in the enlarged 

*^^5<iti(>n, leaving a space about 8 in. wide, which was filled with earth, 

^-ontaining decayed or charred wood in small fragments but in large 

^Xviantity. It seems a fair conjecture that these trenches held palisades, 

*^ind that the stone linings were intended to assist in supporting and 

'^i:>dng them. In some places, the same woody earth was found beneath 

^V^e stones, as if the ends of the palisades had been fixed into a founda- 


No. 48, KempUy Gask. — This fort, much levelled by the plough, so 

^^Xosely resembles the last that it is unnecessary to give a plan of it. 

I^he position is li m. W. by N. of Findogask Church, 200 ft. above sea, 

'^xi Kempy Knoll, from which there is a steep descent eastward to a rill, 

^^butary of Cowgask Burn. This naturally stnjng side is unfortified, 

^>ut a semi-oval double entrenchuKait, with a single small * i)alisade trench,' 

♦Exactly like those on No. 47, protects the N.W. front, which is accessible 

^»y a gentle ascent. The S.W, end is ai>proached by a narrow ridge, 

nearly on a level with the interior, and here the abrupt end of the 

trenches, before reaching the edge of the descent to the rill, shows 

where the entrance had l>een. The dimensions over all are 385 by 215 

ft., and of the interior 250 by 165 ft. The inner trench is alx)ut 15 ft. 

wi«lo and 7 deep, and the outer one 8 ft. wide an<l 3 to 4 deep ; but 


these (limi'iisions wonM !>« greater \v\um the ])loughed-duwn ram|)art, now 
17 ft. wide on the top, retained its full height. The front of fortification 
is 48 ft, broad, including tlie * palisade trench,' but narrows to 34 ft. at 
the entrance. The * palisade trench ' is there carried further than the 
defensive trenches, and it contains stones set on edge, charred wood, and 
bliick mould, like the similar trenches of No. 47. 

As palisade trenches have not been previously noticed in Scotland, 1 
am fortunate in being able to conclude my account of the forts of South 
Pictland with a reconl of so interesting and novel an ol)8ervation ; in 
forts, moreover, which have been rediscovered, after escaping notice for 
more than a century. No pottery or other relics of any kind were 
found in either of them. 




Anrieiif Interment at The Lettkies, —A high tide? which lately washed 
away the lower part of a grassy slope* adjoining the Ixuich in a small Kay 
a short distance to tlu; E. of North Berwick exposed a l)ank of water- 
worn stones, from wliich, at a distiUico of 4 ft. or thereby from the sur- 
face, some liuman bones were observed j)rotruding. On removmg the 
sand and stones forming the bank a skeleton was found, placed at 
full length on its back, lying somewhat N.E. by S.W., with the 
head to tlu^ N. The arms were folded across the chest with the 
hands resting on the shoulders. The body had be(*n laid simj)ly among 
the stones, and was not encased in anything restanbling a cist. No 
articles of any kind were found l>uried along with it. The bones were 
in a very brittle condition, and, as far as could ])e judged, from the shape 
of the lower jaw and the condition t»f the teetli, were those of an adult 
of middle age. The teeth were eomjilete in number, with the excei)tion 


of a caniue tooth which liad l)eeulost during life, and Inith the canine 
and incisors were mucli woni down, presenting a Hat surface and exj^os- 
ing the dentine. From the jMilvis Iwing hroken up it was impossible to 
determine the sex. There was noticeahle a marked flattening of the upper 
i>art of the shaft of the femur and a small indented facet on the anterior 
edge of the articular surface at the lower end of the tibia, — a condition of 
these bono« found among existing races, or members of them, who jirac- 
tise a squatting posture. There were no evidences of other interments at 
this 8iK>t, whereiis, a^ ^ distance of 4 m. further K, in a liank of sand 
similarly situateil, cisted burials arc pretty numerous, also lying N. and 
S., but in this case the IxKlies have not Iwen laid at fidl length. 

Kitrh£n Mulden at the IViodet* Link^. — In one of the bunkers recently 
forme<l in the Rhodes Links, when laid out a few ye^irs ago as a golf 
course, several pieces of old pott(»ry were recently i)icked up which had 
been exposed by the drifting of the sand. On digging in this bunker 
there was found, at a distance of .3 ft. beneiith the surface of the Links, 
an area of fine black earth al^out 5 yds. wide by 3 in breadth. This 
mould rested on sand, and wivs 2 ft. thick in the centn*, thinning off 
gradually to the edges. A well-marked stratum of shells nui through it, 
and pieces of ])roken pottery, fmgments of Ixjnes, wcmhI ashes, etc., were 
found scattered throughout its suKstance. The whole area was dug over, 
and each siKwleful of earth can»fully examined. This re^sulted in secur- 
ing a considerable quantity of pieces of earthenware, varying in quality 
and colour, including a fine Iniff-coloured ware : a red kind covered with 
a greenish glaze ; and a very coarse grey variety. Some of the ware was 
glazeil on l)oth sides, some on one side or the other, and many of the 
pieces were coated with soot on the outer surface. It wjis found possible 
|)artially to reconstruct an oval-shaped vessel (fig. 1)7 ins. in height by 
11 ins. in its longe^st diameter. This vessel was ghized internally over 
the bottom and hml a well-ilefined rim. Its outer surface was thickly 
coated with a layer of soot, and Inire no evidence of having had handles 
attached to it. !Much of the iK)ttery was undoubtedly sui)erior t<^ any of 
the mediaeval ware hitherto » found in the district There were, at least. 



twenty diirereiit i)atterns of rims. Tlu* l)ed of shells was wiuiK)se<l 
mainly of those of the limpet and ^wriwinkle, together with a few oyster 
shells and claws of the cnlihle cni]». Tlie l)ones were those of the ox, 
sheep, and pig, with some tish and ))inl ]x>nes. There was also the 
greater part of a human (»ccipital lK)ne, hut no vestige of any other por- 
tion of the skeleton. Two pieces of flint, appearing to have l)een flakeil, 
and several goo<l-sized lumps of slag completed the fin<l. 

Fig. 1. Oval vessel of glazed jwttery, found in the kitchen midden on 
the Rhmles Links. 

Cp*t near the Wo4 Linhti. — Whilr digging a drain in a field which 
slopes down to tin* golf links at North Berwick, the workmen came \\\\Ci\\ 
a cist measuring .3 ft. l>y 2 ft. at a distance of U ft. below the sur- 
face. This cist contained a skeleton in a bent postin-e, with the skull 
lying beside the legs. It was evid(?ntly that t>f a young jieison, as the 

NOTES OX AN AscnoiT iximumtT, wc 


«>|ii|ihji«e@ \4 die lon^ hcmm w«r^ tiiit in^ifi^Hli mwX l\w tts^ii Im^lli vmifi 
very ^liglilly MiinU'^U Tli*^ K*»t»i4 w»*r^ in n (airly Mriii '^liihs A I M^^^uH' 
of Um skplvUm whv thi' frihgineut^ nf at) iiru (li^^. d)^ uiifiiihiiuMiU^ih In^vkiHi 
when the cist was* oiM?iml The tikb mi wlurli IIh* \m\ \%m IjluiJ lui^l 
l>een lUasolvetl away, (nwiuhly hy iln tmutt^utK, whh^ti i*i^i^ihihI, h^m\ i{ 
doposit, to have }>eeii uf a fatly imttin^ Kutt^nuilly i*u4 hih^iuilly ihw 
clay of which the urn \vm mmh hml Iwmmi HiimtitKiHl l*y M*** Itaml nv l\v 
soTnn sjkituliite Lnstriimeut,, aiul Uk^ih^ won' lui nuirki +if \Uo |Mttli^r*x whof^li 





One regretft that the author of the interesting paper on this famil}' ^ 
did not, besides those he refers to, consult these other authorities below,- 
for he would have made it much more complete. As I have had tc» 
examine their liistory in editing these calendars, I can say this with 
some confidence. 

There is no evidence that tlie family came from Nonnandy with Duke 
William ; the roll of T^ittle Ab]>ey is of very little authority, and it has 
l>een thought by some — the late ^Tr John (Jough Nichols for one* — that 
they came from (Jascony, their arms (mascles) representing a kind of flint 
found there. Tlie first of them who appears in the English Pipe Rolls is 
Saber de Quency, in 1157, in Northamptonshire, receiving a remission 
of 25s. on his land. Tlis son Robert, as stated, acquired Leuchars and 
other lands in Scotland, by marriage witli tlie daugliter of Nes, son of 
William ; but her name was ( )r{d)ilis or Orabla, not P>a, and she herself 
(not a sister) was the widow of an Earl of Mar."* This Robert was at 
Jerusalem in 1192-93, and died before 1197-98, when his son Saher is 
found in possession of lUik])y, liis grand fatlu^r's land in Northampton 
(Pipe Rolls). The Ro])ert whose widow Eva granted the ^Telrose charter 
is proba])ly the younger lirother of Earl Saher, and man-ied Hawyse or 
Havoise, eixsily read " Eva,"^ one of the four co-lieiresses of Chester, who 
survived liim. As for the date of Saber's earldom, he is styled by King 

* Procei'dimjs, vol. xxxii. pp. 275-94, by W. W. Ireland, M.D. 

- Burke's Extimt Vreraqc ; the CompkU' JWragc of **G. E. C"; the CliartuJanj 
of St Andrews ; Skene's Cdtic Scot land ; Hid. MSS, Commission^ 4 th Report, 
p. 460, on the De Quency Charters in Magdalene College, and the four vols, of 
Cnhndars of SmttUih IkH-iivxnits edited by myself. 

=* Winchester volume of the Archavlogival Insiifutr^ 1845. 

* Celtic Scotland, iii. 68 ; Magd. Coll, Charters ; Chart. St Andrews ; and Mr 
Burnett, Lyon Herald, on the Earls of Mar, Ocncalorrisf, Oct. 1887, p. 179. 

* Scottish Calendar, No. 555. 


John an "Earl" on 28th April 1209, when giving him leave to bring a 
sliip from Leuchars to Lynn.* On 20th Decemljer 1218, he was fitting 
out a ship in Galloway to touch at Bristol for arms, etc., for his intended 
voyage to Jerusalem,^ so evidently had not yet started. He died on the 
Cru«i<lo some time heforo 21st July 1220.^ 

In treating of his son Roger, second Earl, I)r Ireland has fallen into 
some difficulties. He identifies Earl Roger's eldest daughter, Margaret, 
second wife of Sir William de Ferrars, afterwards fifth Earl of Derby, 
with the lady who was alxiucted ])y Sir William Douglas at Tranent about 
January 1288-89 — in other wonls, with her own daughter-in-law ! Sir 
William de Ferrars, second son of this fifth Earl of Derby and liis wife 
Countess Margaret, received (4roby from his mother,* and died in 
January 1287-88 (Hilary Temi),''' leaving by his first wife an only son 
William, then aged 18, and his second wife a young widow, iUianora 
Lovaine, doubtless well dowered.^ It was this lady, not her mother-in- 
law Comitess Margaret (then a woman of mature age), who was ciirried 
off by Douglas. Dr Ireland errs in good comi)any, for even Jolin Riddell 
confused her with another lady." Douglas ha<l a son by her, named 
Hugh, nearly two years old in 1 296,^ and instead of dying in York Castle 
in 1302, died in the Tower of London alxDut 20th January 1298-9, where 
he had been imprisoned certtiinly during 1297.^ Sir William de Ferrars 
(II.), the stepson of the aUlucte^l lady, as the eldcjst De Quency co-heir, 
lx)re their chief anus at Falkirk in 1298,^^ and was sunmioned to Parlia- 
ment as Lord Ferrars. He also held Leuchars, besides extensive lands 
in Galloway and Ayrshire, and flourished till 1325, a conspicuous man, 
signing the English barons' letter to the Pope in 1 320. A transaction 
is recorded on 19th January 1316-17,^^ by which he and his wife Elena 
settle their manor of Groby, failing heirs of their own bodies, on Sir 

' ScfMish Calerufar, No. 442. ' Sroftish P^ingc. Law (18.33), p. 176. 

* Ihiil, No. 703. '^ Sc/)U/sh Qtltmdar, ii. p. 173. 

' Ihui, No. 771. •' Ibid., Nos. 9r)7, 960, 1054-5. 

* IhiiL, il No. 175. »» Falkirk Jioll, by H. Gough, F.S.A. 

* Ibid,, No. 329. *' Scotf.ish Calaulnr, iii. No. 534. 
** Burke's Extinct Peerage. 


Murdiic of Mentoth, a Scotsman, formerly estjuire to de Ferrars. As 
they hatl a son and heir Henry, then ageil 14, this is singular. This son 
Henry succeeiUHl his father as Lonl Ferrars «>f (iroby and died in 1343, 
succeeded by his s<»n, a thinl Sir Williiim Lord Ferrars of Groby, also a 
man of s<^me n«>te. Though RolH?rt Bruce (as Dr Ireland says) had 
swept the land of the De Quency heirs and other liostile families, his son 
l>a>'id II. was mindeil, Imd he been able, to rest<»re them. In an indent- 
ure alx>ut XovemWr 1363,^ in a list of English nobles who were to 
regjiin their lands in Scotland, appears the " Sire de Ferrers," this third 
Sir Wilham. Fn>m his grandson, a fourth Sir William Lord Ferrars of 
Gn»by, descend the present chief line^d representatives of the De 
Quencys, viz., the Earls Ferrars, Townsends, Greys of Gn>by, besides 
others less known. 

l>r Ireland is ma quite corrvHrt in his iu>tices of the Comyns, Earls of 
l>uchan, another branch of the De (Quency co-heirs. Speaking of John, 
the last i>f them, he n»peats the story that his wife Issibella was imprisoned 
four years in a c^ige on a turret of Berwick Ciistle. Had he said in a turret 
he would have lieen nearer the trutli. There is nothing to countenance 
the notion that such pris^^ners were hung outside of walls like birdsi and 
the king's warrant diH»s nc»t siiy !k». From a contemporary warrant for 
the impris<>umeiit of a Welshman i»f note in Bristol Castle,- it is clear 
that a c;»g^» was a wiHxlen structun* inside of a castle, and the prisoner 
Wiis •>idy shut in at night for security agiiiust escajH?, To sup|>ose tliat a 
human KMiig i^^mM survive four years' exjK^ure in a Ciige hung on a 
wall in our climate, is to ciwlit the imiK^ssible ; and cruel as the punish- 
ment w;ts, it foil sluTt of this KirlKirity. Her huslvuul, Eiirl Ji»hn, did 
not survive till 131J: \w tlicil Ivforx- 3r\l lK.H.vml»er 1308;* and was 
succeiNlcil by his nitvos, daii^^htors of his br^'thor Alexander, who had pre- 
•hvoas^^l liim — Alire, ilio «l,Ur, oarrvinu :lio i irMMin to her huslximl 
Ib'ury «!•' rHMVim«»nt, n^•^v ^^n- K»:tl\ ) :i '.>ii -. i.t.-l l»y tlio Stapletf»ns, 
rv»n»ii> iKMuni'iit, in wh'^.' l,i\v<ur ;Ko aVtwiMi-- w i> lonniiulol in 1840.^ 

' ^- .«:;>'. '.' ,V ..'" ' . iv. No. i«-, kherc priiit^i w: :hc ::r^: time. - I'.i.i,. iiL Xo. 16. 
/'. .. ill. Nv. ."J?. * •/ .. .\" / / • ^'*' *■ Femrs.** 


AVith these otldenda, Dr Iroluiurs jMqKjr will atfonl a good idea of the 
career of the great but short-lived houijM* of De Qiiency in Scotland. 
They are imule in no pretence of sujHjrior knowledge, Imt simply as facts 
witli which I have necessarily l)econie familiar during my ten or more 
years* study of the recowk of England l)earing on Scotland. And I hope 
l)r Ireland, who has bestowed gn»at jMiins on bin {)jii)er, will accept them 
a.s the contribution of a brother anticjuary to a very interesting and little 
known subject. 

As already ol»8erved, the I)e Quency charters in the Magdalen College 
I^ibrary, which numl)er several hundreds, contain some new |>articulars 
<»f the family. Mr Macray's rejjort on them shows that Earl Saber, 
besides a daughter Loni, wife of William de Valoines, had two nephews, 
Sir Boger and Salier de St Andreti, men of stjme note, whom I had 
jilre^idy ol)6erve<l in the records of the early jmrt of the 13th century.^ 
One of them is now representeil l)y the Foljandx? family, as I^ord Hawkes- 
hury (then Mr Foljamlie) informed me some ywu's ago. Since then, had 
time and opjiortunity served, I have often wished to examine these 
Afa^ilalen charters, believing they would reveal much of the De (Juency 
connection with Scotland. The annexed jHidigree will make the fore- 
going clearer. 

* Scottiifh CaUtuiar^ i., Nos. 556, 745, etc. 



Table of Disoknt. 

Roger de QaeD^, 


(1) w I 

Silnlla M«nihds:Sir William de FeRmra= Margaret de Queiioy, ItdroH of Grdfaj 


5th Earl of Derby 
+ 1S5S. 


+ 1894. 

I (1) I (8) (9 

Robert de Ferrara, Joao — Sir William = AUeBOfm LotraiaesSir William 

6th Earl of Derby, Dwpenser. j de FerrarsCI.) liriag 1308. Douglas 

forfeited 1S««. I +1S88. +129^-9. 


The liOitU Ferran of 
Chartlej, elo. 

Sir WiUiam de Fenan (II.)=1 
+ 13tf. I 

Sir Uciiiy de Fenmn 
+ 13U. 

Sir WiUiaai de Femn(IIIO 

Sir llettnr de Femurs 

• ite:-*. 

Sir WiUiam de F«cnn vIV.) 






On 13th INFay 1895, Dr James Macdonakl rciul to tliis 8oci(;ty a paper 
on tlie allegetl Roman road in Roxburghshire, commonly called the 
WTieel Causeway. He atlmitted that the Causeway wa^s a real road of 
some sort, hut, for reasons which seem to me Siitisfactory, he denied that 
it possessed any claim to be considered a Roman road. He did not, 
however, go on to discuss its history, and liis silence produced a doubtless 
unintentional impression that it might ])e a very modern aftair, first 
dignified ])y some over-enthusiastic antiquary with the title Causeway. 
I was rash enough, myself, to suggest as nuich in an article which I 
wrote two or three years ago on the Maiden Way {Transactions of the 
Cumberland and Westmorland Arch, Society^ xiv. 432). A *Wheelrig 
Head' and a * Wheel Kirk' are close by, and Wheel Causeway might (1 
thought) liave been named after them. This suggestion I find to be 
wrong : lx)th road and name can lay claim to a respectal)le antic^uity, 
and it may not be amiss to put together a few details about them. 
Though the road is not Roman, it was used in the Middle Ages as a pjiss 
from the headwaters of the North Tyiie in Northumlx'rland to the head- 
wjiters of the Jed and other tributaries of the Teviot. 

The facts which concern us may be arranged in order of date, as 
follows : — 

A.D. 1296. In May 1296 Edward I. of England went from Roxburgh by 
way of Gardeford and Wyel (Wiel, Wiell, Wyell) to Castleton and 
Imck again, as is testified in his " Itinerary." This " Itinerary," which 
exists in two practically identical versions, the one French, tlie other 
English, has been printed three times. It was communicated to the 
London Society of Antiquaries on Feb. 9th, 1826, and printed in 
Ardueologia, xxi. 495, and it was i.ssued l)y the Bannatyne Club in the 
first volume of its Miscellany (i. 275) in 1827 and in the Instrumcnta 
PMica or Ragman Rolls (p. 178), published by the Sfimeclub in 1834. 
The nanu»s throughout the " Ttineniry " are ill-siH'lt, Imt it is i)rol>able 
that Gardeford is .Jedlmrgh, and Wyel is Wheel. No canst^way is 
mentioned, l>ut the route taken is significant. Edward travelled from 
the Jed water along the hne usually assigned to the causeway till he 



detjceiided into the valley at the top of the North Tyiie, and thence he 
went to New CaAtlcton by the route which is followed to-day by ihe 
North Tyne branch of the North British Railway. 

A.D. 1348. A reference to the Cajwlla of AMiele occurs at this year in the 
Rotuli Scotiw (i. 724). I owe the refei*ence to Mr R. B. Arnistrong's 
History of Lidihsdale (1883), p. 86. 

A.D. 1533. In 1533 an English raid was carried into Scotland by the 
Wheel Causeway, and a description of it by the then Earl of Northum- 
berland, who was not himselt present, exists among the MSS. of the 
British Museum. Tlie (lescri]>tion is quoted by Sir Walter Scott in 
his notes to the first canto of the " Ljiy of the Last Minstrel," and I need 
not repeat it in full. Tlie material pissages state tliat the English 
met " at Wawhope ujwn North T>nie water above Tyndaill, . . . and 
so invadet Scotland at the hour of viij of the clok at nvght, at a phure 
called AVhele Causay." They proceeded to burn BranxWm and other 
neigh1x)uring houses, and retired down Liddesdale. The account adds 
tliat " Gedworth {^i,e. Jedburgh) is from the Wheles Cansay vi myles.** 
The tojK)graphj' is not quite accurately given, for Wawhope is not in 
England, as is unplied, but eight or ten miles north of the Border, and 
Jedi^ur^h is more than six miles from tlie Causeway, but these are 
simple inaccuracies committed by a narrator who was not present and 
did not know the ground. They need not disturb us. 

A.D, 1590. A map, dated Dec 1590, now preserved in the British 
Museum and published in the London Archaologia (xxii. 161) shows 
the * Wlieele Causey ' on the watershed Iwtween the North Tyne and 
Liddesdale, close to what is now called Deadwater ; thence it passes 
northwards out of the map in the direction generally given it. It is 
plainly a route from the top of the North Tyne northwards into 

A.D. 1600. The *Quheill in Liddisdale' is mentioned as l^elonging to 
Jedburgh Abbey (Armstrong's Liddesdale, p. 86^. 

A.D. 1608. Timothy Pont in his map of Liddesdale marks the Wheele 
Fell but no Caus<;way. 

It appeiirs from these facts that the route of the Wheel Causeway was 

in use as early as 1296, and the name familiar in the sixteenth century. 

I)r Macilonald has told us that the roadway shows signs of intentional 

mending at various points, and we may therefore conclude that we have 

in it a luediaBval moorland track. It would Ik; idle to speculate on the 

derivation of the name. Obviously it may hav(j been called * WHieel * 

because it was comi)aratively aibipted to wheeled traflu! : on the other 

hand, * Wheel ' occurs by its(»lf lon<^ before the term * Wheel Causeway,' 

and it may be a jjlace name <>f (|uite diirerent significjincc. 


By JOSEPH ANDERSON, Assistant Sk^jkiitahv and Kkkpkk or xiiE 

J tirst heart! nf this interesting dijscovBiy from ^Ir A. Agnew RalstoUj 
/ai*-lu>r t<i the Right Hon, the Kirl of llopetciiuii on \vhmv. prup^rty ihc 
fiLTTxi. €yi DuBcra Hill is aitu-ited. Mr Rjjlittrm kintUy fnUcil hertz with one 
of t^li^e urns, aiii^esting at thf* ajime time timt I shoulil write to Mr James 
^-lij^oti^ thts farmer, R^t^uesting him to bring in the other two that thuy 

Fig, 1, Vtu (No, 1) ronnd in a tUt *t Dmiera Hill (|.) 

^**ight iifi all exhibited to the Society t<>gotlier mu\ the dcseription of the 
^^liscuvery placed on record in the Society's Procmlmgs, ^h Elliot 
^^ kind enou^ii tc* comply at once with my reqnest, imd s*> far as he 
'^Urw eKjjlaitied the cininniatjinc^is of the (liBcovery, 

lite plnre wh<'r** the ci^t wa^ found k a sandy knoll hi one of the 
^i«id«^ iiud the eist vva.^ discnvered wlieii ploughing, tlio eover Ijeing njily 
11 ins. under the (surface. Unfortnnately I^fr Elliot was not present 
wIjru the distMiivery was made, but i\ui urns were recovered eistin* and 
cfirofully preserved, Tlie cist wjis of tlie uaual tyix:*, the cover and side*? 


\*fUP:ZZM3r,^ tj¥ THE ftOCierr, DECEMBEB ll, 1899. 

ni tijit nwlr^vt^^l otz/fiff**, iihd th<f Ult^>nl uniKive^L There were few indi- 

• aUoim of th«r f»iiri;il l«?ft, th*- uiily iKJilioii of the lx)nes recognisable 
iMiiig tliif 4hiiftH nf two fi'iiioni. IVniMen the three urns, no other objects 
of .III ;irtili«:ijil «:h;ir;u't«rr wow, found in the cist. Tlie cist, though en- 
clohin^; tliin iiniiHiial nunilMT of iihik, wiis not of unusual size. It 
rinii»uriil 3 ft. 6 Imh. in length, th<* widtli at one end being 2 ft. 11 ins., 
;ind .it thf oth«T «*nd 2 ft. 5 ins., tlie depth })eing a}x)ut 2 ft. Unfortu- 
iiiiLfly the relativf jMrnitioiiM of the iniiH were not noted at the time. 

Thf hiP^i'Ht of the thnuH urns (fig. 1) is 5 J ins. in height by 6A ins. 

• liiuiieter acniss thi* mouth. It has a slight shoulder at 2 ins. below the 
rim. Alnne the shoulder there is a very sliglit contraction towards the 


^ ^ *■ ^t m m X ^ 

Ki^. -. liu \..\ : v.y^ni i (:< a: L^uncm Hi 


V i- 

Thr rim is fiillv ; ' •.. 
oriuiuioiitcvl >^ 'ti* ''^;" ' -v' I . 
r:\v<» ply twiNU*- ->■•'•'- : • .■ 

♦'Xtcn'or -i •!'•.'■ ■ » • • 

^[..11- '( « '• •■ -■ 

: 'vi.i: 

■. >- Ui:;\ t 'viiicli '*i^t 
• ' z ■;!»- • I>s. The 
. ;. ■:.■..:> r -.'11 pre:; — 


ncsitly cut ofr»*riil roiirMleil ii.s llie tlui end uf ji nuuciJ. Thine uir six of 
Lhfiio iMinda imA hIx rows* of the eiRuilar impressions, rind the part next 
tlie hstie hius Uie width nf the haml of tluinii: iiri]mmiion.s jmn^a^^etl to 
live. The Iwittom in phiin and sHghtly connive exletiuiHy. 

Tljc second urn (fig. 2) is similar in character and meji«ure.« 4} ins. 
high hy €J ins, in iliameter nernsj* tli*' mouth. It Ir mueh the sunie 
iihai>e ai? No, 1, but deeiM?r in [vroixirtion to its widtli, and HlightJy more 
curvetl lietween the hp anil the rthonhh^*. Th<i hp, which is bevelled in* 
wjtrrlfl, is about Imlf mi ineJi in thickness, and h ornamented witJi a single 


Fig, 3. Urn (Ko, 3) li t at DuuL-ia HHl. (|.) 

tow of rather hhnit impre«F;ion,'=* of an irrejjfulariy oval shajtc, which are 
n!p*ated round the outer margin of the riiiu The ext<»rior of tiie k>wl 
la also orimmented from lip to liiu^e witli horizontal lmnd« of two lines 
each^ nlUTuating with two rows of imprt^Hsionn of ii^tmriMh inided punch, 
apjiiirpnlly iA w i«>ftis^li material, such m \Xw end of the rttem of a plant. 
Tb© lines lie t ween iippear to Imve lieeii scortnl in the awift day and not 
jmpres^l They are done in length^?, imperfectly joined, and oceasion- 
nllv with a very f^hort length iusorteil Ivetwoen the ends of two longer 
h'tigihs that have not joinwl fairly, T)l^^ lx*ttoiu is phiin, 3^ in^. in 
diannacri and ftllghUy eoTicjne extoriorly. 


Tlie tliini imi (fig. 3) i» 5^ iiis. in height by 5^ iiia in diameter acrooB 
tho mtnith, widening to a}x)ut 7 ins. at the shoulder, which is about the 
mitldlo of its height, so that its sliape is that of a truncated cone both up- 
waitls and downwards from the shoulder, with a slight coUar above the 
Ytottoni, wliioh is 2^ ins. in diameter and quite flat^ not concave estemally, 
as in tlie eases of the two previously described. The omainentatiou also 
is tliflferent, hut, as in the other etuu^s, it covers the whole exterior sarfMO. 
The lip, whieh is sliglitly l)ovelleil inwards and is g of an inch in thicknen^ 
is oniamentod by a single row of impressions as if made by a pointed 
implement thrust olilitpiely into the soft clay. A similar row of impres- 
sions enein'les the exterior of the brim. Underneath them is a horizon- 
tal line of impressions as of the teeth of a comb, and bdow that a wide 
band of herring-lMine ornament, also made by the teeth of a comb. Im- 
me<liately alnn-e, and immediately under the ridge of the shoulder, ia a 
nnv <tf oblique impressions stivngly markeil, umlemeath them a wide 
liaml of herring-Ktne itmament, ami round the collar of Uie base another 
i^f the stn>ngly-markeil ri>W8 of olJique impressions. 

Kach of these urns is specially interesting on account of its ornamenta- 
tion, and the disc«>ven' of three tif them of this particular form in one 
cist is, s<) far as 1 know, a m<^t unusual, if not imique, experience in 

It is pleasiuit to add that simv this ]m])er was written the three urns 
iMUstitxiting this unique find have Ihh'U pivsent4?«l to the National Collec- 
tion by the Ejirl of HoiH^t^nni. 


^loxDAY, Sfh January 1900. 
The Hon. JOHN ABERCROMBY, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A liallot having l>oon taken, tho following Gentlomon wero duly 
elected Fellows : — 

The Right Hon. The Earl ok Kixtork, (4.C.M.O., LL.D., Keith Hall, 

John Crax, 1 1 Bnuwwick Street, Edinburgh. 
Captain George S. C. Swintox, 36 Pont Street, London. 

The following Donations to the Muscmuu and Library wen* laid on the 
taLle, and thanks voti*d to the Donors: - 

(1) By the Right Hon. The Earl of Hopetoux. 

Three Unisof food-vessel type, from a cist at Duncra Hill, Pencaitland. 
[See the ])revious Coniniunication ]>y Dr .Iosei>h Anderson.] 

(2) Wy Rev. John Dicksox, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 
Emeralds Chased in (J(jld ; or. The Islands of the Forth : Their St(^r>', 

Ancient and Mulern. 8vo. 1899. 

(3) By Sir Archibald Dunbar, Bart., F.S.A. Seot., the Author. 
Scottish Kings -A Revised ChronoLigy of Scottish History. 8vo. 


(4) By Dr Andrew Aitkex. 

Large Indian PijK* or Calumet, made of liuifalo horn. 

(5) By the Hon. John Abercromhy, Vire-Presidmt. 

Irish Gun-Money (»f James II. — Crown, 1690 ; Half-Crown and 
Shilling, 1689. 

^ledal, in copp(»r, of the Duk«» of Cumln'rland — meliobibvs vtbre 
PATis, 1746. 



(<)) By Pn»f('s.s()r r»ALi)WiN Spkncbk, M.A., ITiiiversity of Mel- 
bourne, tlinmgh Andrew Lang, F.S.A. Scot. 
Churinga of slaU*, i)ainte(l witli red oclire (fig. 1), oval iii shape, 6 by 
3 J inches, covered on one facewitli spirals incised, and on the other witli 
arch-like figures of parallel lines, from the Arunta tribe, Central Australia. 
Ihill-roarer of wood, 11 })y If inches, painted with red ochre, and 
similarly ornamented, from the Arunta tribe, Central Australia. 

Fig. 1. Chiu'inga of Slato, from tho Arunta tribo, Central Australia. (A.) 

(7) r>y Kk.skink Bkveiudge, F.S.A. Scot. 
Xiiic riiotographs (»f Uroclis, viz., Castle Telve, Glenelg, from the 
north (lig. 2) ; Castle Telve, Clenelg, from tli(» south ; Castle Troddan, 
(ilenelg, frnin tin; n«»rtli ; Castle Trocldan, Clenelg, from the scmth ; Castle 
(■liniiil, Glen<'lg, fr(»m the east; Dun Dornadilla, in Strathmore, parish 
of Durness, Sullieiland, from the south ; Dun Dornadilla from the south- 
west ; Xyl)st(M' r>ro«'h, Keiss, Caithness, general view; Nybster Ihoch, 
interior view, from the south. 






(8) Hv Sir John Stirling Maxweli,, Bart., F.S.A. Scot. 

Soiilptiin^<l Stoin's in thi' Chiiri'hyaix! of Govan. 4to. 1899. 

(9) IW Pr KoBERT Mi'NRo, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 
Prt'liisioiic Sn »tlan«l, ami its rian* in EuMjiean Civilisation : Being a 

(itMU^nil IntnHliutinn to tin' Cniinty Histories nf Scotlaml. 8vo. 1899. 

(10) \\\ Kov. James Campbell, 1 ).!)., F.S.A. Scot, the Author. 
Rilmorino and its AMk^v. NVw Eililion. 1899. 

(11) r»y Thomas Smellie, F.S.A. Sii»t.. ih«» Author. 
Sketches .>f i »M KilniarntH-k. 4to. 181*9. 

(12) r>y (;E«»RtiE Hay, F.S.A. Siot.. ili»- Author. 

History of Arl»nmlli lo ihr |»n's«»nl linu*. St»i'ou«l Eilition. iU\ 1899. 

TIi»»n* won* als»» F\hi)»it»Hl : — 
(1) \\\ A. (;. Keik F.S.A. Si-,»i. 

Oriiiinal Lviior of luslrnctious Sir William Fleming, h\ King 
iluirlt's II., .lattMl ar linMli, H^iuX May 1650. [Set* the sulisequent 
t^alm^!lii..vt^'!l ^'\ Mi A. T.. K» i-l/ 

r-M r»v.iAMb> BiuvK, w.s.. Ks.A. s,-,.t. 

Tr.i \ t : 1 i : u I ' i -o of Vxhh • K^n f .:: ^ luonts. f ^ ni K iuiiainl, ct^iisist ing of 
lU;.:^;\'r i'lrxr. r.i'Ir Kr.ifr a:".l Frk.»^rt ami Fruit Knives in 
<Mr.i:H^l ItMihr: ^livj.'.lu w!i: ::. ^"^<>i:r■!v. in.iv havr U»longetl to James 

v"*; r»\ M'- Wi iiAV Maolvnvii\ M r .y:. wi., luvorness. 

A\. : v;xvr.-: n^, : v.' r.'*. * :^;i\ -^ : I :• liivt- Un^n foun«l on 
v.^-: •- S- U. /^ -/-'.;•• -'./:::■;:: !: by Mr Thomas 



Assistant Keeprr of thr Mfheum. 

Having been api)ointed by the Council of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland, under tlie Gunning Fellowship, to visit and report on the Stone 
Circles of a portion of north-o^astern Scotland, I beg to submit the 
following report, which is illustrate<l by several measured plans ^ and 
drawings. Almost tlirougliout this survey, I enjoyed the willing, and 
indeed indisjTensable, assistance of my two eldest children, seveml of the 
sites (examined, in Kincardineshire especially, IwMug now so densely 
crowded with larches and Scotch firs in addition to luxuriant under- 
growth, that single-handed commensuration would Ikj absolutely impmc- 
ticiible. I may }>e permitted to state, briefly, the methods adopted in the 
course of the work. After a general look around the area to be surveyed, 
we began by laying off an oblong which included the Recumbent Stone 
and its two pillars in those circles where this chamcteristic feature 
still exists. Then, having chosen the western angle of the west pillar as a 
stiirting point, measurements were made by triangulating from this to 
two other i)oints marked liy pins, and so on, round the entire space, 
taking, of course, cross check lines where the area was clear enough to 
mlmit of this. In a few rare instjinces we ran out diagonals from each 
stone throughout the whole group, by using a stout conl and measuring 
with short lengths of tape, my fii-st endejivour. always being to treat the 
circles purely from the surveyor's point of view, that is, merely as 
niathematicjd jwints, and jKiyingno attention to anything but the numlwr 
of feet })et ween the fixed i>oints at the basc^ of the stones. Afterwards 
we t<x)k the correct mejisurements, first of the Imiscs, and next of the 
heights, of each Standing Stone, further noting whether it was vertical or 
out of plumb, and the direction of its leaning, also any peculiarity of 
* The plans are all reduced to a uniform scale of 20 feet to 1 inch. 







d S S :^ 



.5 .2 © 









•^ a> © » a> 

^ A A ^^ 

a s. 

g s s 

+0 • 









i-H C^ CO 


shape at its summit, and of its miueralogical composition. When all 
measurements were finished, the orientiition was ascertained as carefully 
as possible. I then mivde drawings of such important features as lent 
themselves to such treatment ; and I trust I worked throughout in the 
spirit of one who, when planning the great series of SUma Circles at 
Carrowmore, said : — " I examined these remains day after day with an 
untiring patience, maj^ping their situations and noting their features, till 
1 left nothing to Ix? discovered, and secured an accurate record of their 
present state, liefore barlxirian ignorance has finished its work of destruc- 
tion." J 

The iiceompaiiying map (fig. 1 ) of the district surveyed '^ during the 
past September shows twenty-two sites ; and, in explanation of their 
various conditions, four different signs (for wliich see the map) have 
been used, denoting respectively — (1) Circles of plain free-standing stones 
more or less complete ; (2) circles with a Recumbent Stone ; (3) sites of 
.circles; and (4) single stones reported to be remnants of circles. Be- 
ginning with tbo» most south-easterly exam])le in this district, worked 
from Banchory as headquarters, we have, of the four circles on King- 
causie estate : — 

No. 1, Old BouHree Bu8?t, now in a sadly ruined state. — The 
ground plan (fig. 2) shows four SUvnding Stones only, Imt three of these 
are of such a height and bulk as to Ije very conspicuous landmarks, set as 
they are on ^ slightly rising ground within two miles of the sea-shore, 
and in an o|)en country. The view (fig. 3) taken from the N.W. will 
give a good idea of the height of these ponderous blocks of porphyry, 
and at the same time reveal what losses this circle has undergone. 

The other view (fig. 4) shows a large jind ])ulky stone lying i)artly on 
its edge (R on the grouinl i)lan) and tlie four still (^rect stones from the 

* Tfie Life of George Vctric, LL.D,, |». 2G0 (Stokes). 

'^ This district extcmls inland from the sea nt Portletbeu twenty-four miles, and in 
breadth it comprises Garrol Wood circle, in Durris, up to the circle formerly known as 
tlie Auld Kirk of Tough on the confines of Cluny. Northwards of Aberdeen its 
farthest point is at the Standing Stones of Dyce. 



'III ■ 




:6 O' 




■ •• • • w » M u M Mrr 

t 1 i 1 1 i 1 1 






• ,.0\t^ ^ " 

tV» -« ^^'^''^ lK>urtt\v l>u>:.. Orv^und Tl*!*. 


X.E. All the stones stiind on a mound 260 feet above the seti-level, 
whicli, near the centre, is rather over 3 feet high. The edges on the 
X. and X.E. have been very much straightened by the plougli, and its 
interior is now in such an utter state of chaos that I deemed it l^etter to 
attempt no record of its ridges, crests and hollows, or even to map out the 
sites of any loose stones and }x>ulders, not one of which seemed in its 
original position. The long stone on the S.E. i)oint is doubtless the 
Recumbent Stone, so striking a feature in many of these circles. As it 
lies, it measures 1 1 feet 6 inches in length ; but there are large fragments 

Fig. 3. Old Bourtree Bosh from the N.W. 

Fig. 4. Old Bourtree Bosh from the N.E. 

close to its north end which ai)i)ear to have been broken oil' it.^ Reckoning 

from this stone we tind, 18 feet to the left, a tidl pt)inted stone, and after 

an interval of nearly the same distance, a great prostrate block. These 

are respectively Stones I. and IT. of the circle. The third, which is of 

enormous breadth, over 6 feet in the middle, stands alnnit 20 feet furtlior 

on, and from it to tlie fourth is a space of 30 fc^et. Thcsi», and tlie small 

Standing St<me on the riglit of the liccuiiibciit Stone, are all alnnit which 

we can sjieak with conlidence. 

* If it originally touched the Pillar Stone on the right— the usual arrangement— 
this Recumbent Stone must have been fully 17 feet in length. 

. >*' f.- IV., jijirtly running in !■*■ tlio ]«ink, is a 
•i- -. •: :ii«' <*Xiut X. point, is another. On tlio 
. -. :• <:11 in sift/, this " cinli* '' must liave lieen in 
.,. . , : ..,.._; l,y 75 f<M*t l>r«>a<l. 

.-. :■ iili •»! tin- I\«MUinl>cnt Stono, Ijarfly 4 fi*»n inches. 
. •» III S'o.iH' 3 {v*'{ inches, h'aning cnitwanls. 
> '"• :".-.-: in»-h<'>, jM»intcd. 
7 ,. ,. very luoad and jagged at top. 
\ . ^ ,, »> ., inside, l>ut 10 feet inches out-sidc. 
.. . '\-ivveen the stones: centre to (;entn^ : — 
., .. .. :i Si. .Hi- I. and II. (fallen) 19 feet 6 inches 

., 11. „ III. . 20 „ 6 ,, 

„ III. „ IV. 35 „ „ 

i;..vv«v:i IV. and the X.AV. .stone . . 53 „ 

(he N.K, ston(» and the angle (»f])ank 23 „ 6 
iMgle and the north ston<' . 28 ,, „ 

. N. ^loneantl N.K. angle of l>ank . 28 „ 

, N.K. angle and the n(»rth pillar . 15 „ „ 

!h<' iu»rlh j>illar and south end of 

Keeunihent SL(»ne . . . 20 ,, 

.t'Ulh edge of liecunihent St(»ne 
md centre of Stone 1. . . IS ,, 

Total cireuinferenee, 290 feet G inches 

I •) . •■.. rnh^i^l, for the nio>t. j^irt, of the jM.rphyritic granite, very 

1 nmd, iiid willi wiih' \ein.s of ([uart/. AVishing to render tliis 

K, .... I >.'mpleli* as p.», 1 had tlie weight of the respective Ke- 

,,.(. .,■ .^h'lii- earefuUv eoiiipiit«-d I'V niv tViriid Mr K. (I. d. Watson, 

1 .1 I 'is.\..r. The r..iii|.iii;ii ions wcrr m.Kh', ..f course, from 

, ..,.1-1 ..( "Illy >" iiiui li "t" i'.mIi -Imii,' .1^ <t.iii(U ;i1h»\«' ground. 

I.. V. -.'.1 . ilifici'.'ic, .iif all wiiliiii ;li.' iiMik. Til.' Ki'L-tiiulicnt Stnno 

,,. . !. [0 l.'li- »> r\\\. 



■l.'iiiJnh/// / »£^ 

3- -,v 




n:^ fallh^ 

A> " 







<€■ tt^^-t — ^ — ? — ¥ — ? — ¥ — ¥ — ir"o^^ 

Fig. 5. Auchquhorthies. Ground Plan. 



Tlie excavation conducted liere, circa 1863, by Messrs Dyce Nicol of 
Ballogie, C. E. Dalrymple of Westhall, and others, an<l recorded ^ by Mr 
iVlexander Thomson, F.S.A. Scot., resulted in notliing but the acquisition 
of the evidence of ft)rmer excavation. 

No, 2, AuchquJu/rthieSy' Bancliory-Devenick, disUuit from the last 
one furlong, sliglitly N.W., and on a rather higher level. — Thirteen 
stones remain standing on a mound fully 3 feet high ; the two main 
diameters being N.E. and 8.\V., from the fifth ^ stone to the thirteenth, 
97 feet, and X.W. to S.E., from the second stone to the tenth, 74 J feet. 
The interior is very rough, densely overgrown with })room and bracken, 
and the iimer stone-setting has l>een greatly damaged. Two features 
arrest the eye at once : the position of the Recumbent Stone, a consider- 

^^%niin'r m 'i ' i " i "i 'i'tt' t in« » 'P i" ' ' """i 'i' i 'ii i iii ii|i|m ri|ii | i i r Mf i n ii'i " T >n , „ , „ | |i„ , „„ | j ||TH ^^ ^^^^^^ 

^^.8 • • lO U M tS io y» Mi 

»CALr]-»-M-H 1 1 1 H 1 1 1 i^&T. +P 

fe .. m .r Tn^ rT.T.tTPTTT),,|,,.^„, , ,,.,,,,p„ , , , „,p^i m iii M 

Fig. 6. Auchquhorthies. Sections, 
able distance within the Standing Stones, and the prolongation of the 
mound carrying them 45 feet outwards from the Recumbent Stone (see 
fig. 5). All the stones on the northern arc are small in comjmrison with 
the others, and their insignificance is intensified by the dip of the mound 
on that side, which is so great that even wlien standing on the top of 
the nearest suitable dike to dniw tlie circle en masse, all these northern 
stones were lost to view (see sections, fig. 6, and view, fig. 7). The 
Recumbent Stone and its solitary pillar (on the AV.) are l)oth of coarse 
grained bluish-grey granite broadly seamed with white quartz (fig. 8). 
^Fost of the other stones are of the reddish porphyritic granite, the 

^ Proc. iS'oc. Antiq, ScoL^ vol. v. p. 134. 

- Meaning suggested by Logan in Arch., xxii. p. 203, Aarh. Ortfia^ field of prayer. 

' Throughout the survey, I count the first Standing Stone to the left of the W. 
pillar No. 1, and the diameters are from centre to centre of the stones. Stones 
now standing are shown black ; low, set stones are shaded, and all others are left in 
outline. The Recuml)ent Stone is marked R within a shadedjground. 



8peciej< so commonly o<*curriii«^ all over tlio district. The interior stone- 
setting ' starts, as we sliall presently see in other inst^mccs, from near 
the htLse of tlie pillars with a hnig narroAv stone set on edge, which, like 
the rest of this [)ortion of the striuiture, rises fi-om 20 inches to rather 
over 2 feet. The central area is faintly marked as a circular hollow, 
with two set stones on the V,. over a foot high, and three narrow straight 
slabs set closely end to end on th<» north arc. These three slabs are 2 
feet 6 inches above ground. The breadth of the flat space between the 
Standing Stones and th(» st(»ne-setting varies from 7 feet to nearly 16 : 
but some of its irregularity d(»ubtl ess is due t<» comparatively re<!ent inter- 
ference. Close to the first stone lies a massive bl<K;k, marked on the 
plan "fallen." Its iM»sition may not })e of any moment ; but it is worth 
noting that in an excellent iilan made in 1822 })y Mr James Logan, 
there is shown this stone, and, in a corresjionding i>osition, at the tenth 
stone, directly opposite stone numl>er one, a stone is drawn. 

The distances between the stones, measured from centre to centre, are 
as follows : — 


m Stone 




, 26 feet 3 





,, 6 





„ 9 


(prostrat(j) and 



„ 6 





„ 8 





„ « 



VI 11., 

, 7 


VI 11. 









„ 9 









, 25 












Circumference of circle = 270 feet 3 inches 

' At present, I offer no opinion as to wJiether this stone-setting is an integral 
]>ortion of the original structure or not. 


The heights of the sKmes are, taken on the summit of tlie mound : — 


6 feet 6 iuclies 

Stone VIII. 

3 feet 9 inches 


4 „ 8 „ 



2 „ 9 „ 


3 „ 10 „ 



4 „ 8 „ 





4 „ 6 „ 


2 feet 1 inch 



8 „ „ 


3 „ inches 




VII 2 10 

The Recuml)ent Stone is 9 feet 9 inclies long, 5 feet high, anil about 
1 foot wido across the top ; it weiglis 10 tons 9 cwt. It is vertical ; 
and close up to its inner base a rudely laid and much <listurbed layer of 
small lx)ulders may Ix) traced extending unevenly towards the interior of 
the circle. The third stone is due X. of the twelfth, and the Recumbent 
Stone is set almost exactly on the S.W. ix)int.^ The tw(» stones shown 
in outline touching it do not seem earth-fast, nor is the stone which rests 
upon the very verge of the extreme south end of the mound. The note 
of the first excavation on this site is the following : — " There has been 
dug up Ixitween the two outer circles, a cist-vaen, alx)ut 3 feet long and 1 J 
feet wide, containing some ashes."- But in 1863, " the whole of the area 
of tlie innermost cirahi " was turned up, and there were found " charcoal, 
lialf calcined })ones, black unctuous earth, and small fragments of a 

No, 3, Cah^nwelL — When formerly de8cril)ed ^ this site was in a piece 
"f ^^ggy li"i^ invisible from the neighbouring circles, and the want of 
height in its few standing stones was attributed to the nature of the 
ground. It is <listant from Auchquhorthies J of a mile N.X.E. The 
field l)etween Cairnwell and Iklciuharn is now under cultivation, but the 
stones of the circle and the littor of lifted stones around it are still so 

' That is t(» say, were the S.W. radius carried out from the centre, it would 
bisect tlie inner face of the Recumbent Stone at right angles. As w^ill presently be 
shown, this is not the invariable position of this stone. 

' Sculpiureff. Stones^ vol. i., App. to Preface, p. xix. 
^ Hy Mr Alexander Thomson , F.S.A. Scot., in rro<yetiiiujn, vol. v. i>. 131. 


iuooiu$picuoii8 that most |)er8onB would walk past them unheeding. 
Even in tlie district it is not known, and many antiquaries^ with the 
exception of ^liss Maclagan, have esteemed it scarcely worth the briefest 

And yet this circle |>0S8esHe»« |>oints of rather ))eculiar interest. In 
the first place, it is very small, not much over 30 feet in diameter on its 
outermost ring. Next, the s^mce 1>etween this ring of Standing Stones, 
only three of which remain, and the intermediate setting of thinner 
stones, is peculiarly narrow, and the same feature holds good with re- 
gard to the relation l>etwccu the intermediate and the inner ring. The 

>| M '|l | ll limBM II | I H I | l| ||| li y ; '"" ' '"' ' J^ 

^...4 1 T T I hcT 

Fig. 9. Cainiwell. Ground Plan. 

whole is, in fact, a circle in miniature ; and, us may be seen from the 
^^'round plan (tig. 9), the stones have been laid with a regularity and 
neatness not always olwervable in the larger structures,^ 

The inner stone-setting is alsi» remarkable from all its stones being set 
up, not vertically, but inclining towards the centre. Tliey average 18 to 
20 iiiclies in height. In the intiirniediate ring the stones are vortical, 
an«l rise U* nearly 2 fert nbovt' groinid. 

The diameter nf tin* inner ring is 1.^) fei't. Its interior is pretty 
smooth and grassy, nor is thi' spaee l»etwei'n the two smaller rings so 

' Owing to an ovcrsi^'lit in tlrawinj^ the scale, the tigure 20 appears instead of Ift, 
and 25 for 20. 


crowded with small stones as wo shall find to 1x3 the ctise elsewhere. 
Nearly all nmnd the circumference, quantities of stones, of all shapes 
and sizes, cumber the ground. 

Tlic three Standing Stones are Inirely 2 feet 4 inches in height above 
the surface of the litter of small stones heaped up from the field. In 
the account given by ^Ir Th(»mson, this circle figures as much more 
complete and much larger. It is to be feared that its present condition 
is due largely to the removal of its more prominent stones for dike 

Fig. 10. Craighead. Ground Plan, 
building. At any rate, Mr Thomson's mejisurements of 1863 and my 
o%vn do not tally ; but tlie circle lie descrilKJs, {is the westmost on King- 
Ciiusie, can W none other than this. It is liighly interesting, therefore, 
to not<i his n>oor«l of the excavation carried on h(»ro. " The free c(».ntr}d 
si>ace," he says, "is al)out 9 feet in diameter, and we dug up the whole 
4»f it. We found it full of black moidd, i.e., churchyard earth, with 
fragments of l>»nes and wooil charcoal ; and, wliat was specially interest- 
ing, we found at live spots, arranged in a (luiucunx, fragments of coarse 


earthenware urns ; thus proving unquestionabl}' that it had been used 
as a place of burial." 

No. 4, CraigJiead. — This site is on the crest of a swelling hill within 
a few score yartls to the N. of the farmhouse, 250 feet alwve sea-level, 
and from the last site 660 yards distant in a K.E. direction. Whatever 
it«< former condition may have })een (of which there are conflicting 
accounts),^ it now consists of but four stones, and their relative positions 
are so precisely towards the cardinal points (see ground plan, fig. 10) that 
it is almost certiiin they have (juite recently been moved. This is the 
more likely, because into the side of each stone wire T0\^e8 have been 
fixed in order tc» guy up a tall flagstaft' planted in the centre. Tlie stones 

Fi^'. 11. Craighead. View from the South. 

stiuid upon a moiuid whicli is now alxjvc 2 feet 6 inches above the sur- 
face of the field. The urea of the top of the moiuid is level and grassy, 
l)resenting no vestige of stone-setting, and, but for the three thin loose 
slabs lying a little to the east of the centre, having no uneveime«s on it. 
On the moiuid edge a wall has l»een built, but as it interfered with the 
"Circle," it was omitted in the view 1 made from the S. (see fig. 11). 

The stones are all of the same red*lisli granite, antl their heights are : 
the south stone 7 feet 5 inches, the west stone 5 feet 3 inches, the N. 
stone 5 f<M»t 2 inches, and that on the east 4 foet. l^irt of this circle 
was excavated in 18G3 l)y Mr Alexander Thompson, and he re]X)rts : — 
'* We foun<l that it hail been excavated at least once before ; Imt, not- 

^ 111 .Miss Maclagairs Hill Forts six stoues are shown in PI. xxvii. 


Avithstiinding, we discovered unmistiikahle traces of sepulture — half- 
calcined bones and morsels of wood charcoal." 

No. 5, Rofis of Clu7ie,^ — Sit(;, a most densely jilanted firwo<xl on the 
.summit of a hill 8 miles W. of the List circle and from Park station 
alMiut 2 miles neurly S., at an elevation of 564 feet above sea-level. The 
ilitiiculties attending the mensuration of a group of stones not one of 
which can be completely seen from any of the others, may In? admitted to 
l>e consiilerable,""'' and, as the ruincjus and litti^red condition of its interior 
added to the diflicultic^s encountered by rc^ason of the trees, I dare not 
cLiim ipiite such accunicy for this gi'ound plan (fig. 12) as for others. 
We were forced to tiike the measurements by comi)ass, necessarily a less 
accurate method than triangulating. Like many others, this circle has 
8uffere<l heavily from l)eing used as a cpiarry. Two of its Stjinding Stones 
are now prt>stmte, and evidence of tentative diggings and scoopings is 
plentiful ; to such an extent, indeed, that, with regard, for inst^ince, to 
the long row of stones trending from near th(j pillar north-westwards, 
it is imi)os8ible to affirm that they arc^ all a |»ortion of the stone-setting; 
the majority d<» not seem in keeping with similar featunjs at other sites. 

The longer diameter of 58 feet lies N.W. and S.E., i,e,, from the 
second stone to the fifth ; th(^ (unitrary axis, from the west pillar to a point 
midway Ixitween Stones III. and IV., measuring 51*6 inche.s. 

The distances l>etween the stcnies ar(» : - 

From N. angle of Stone I. (fallen) t<» centre of Stone 11., 10 feet ; from 
II. to III. (centre to centre), 16 feet 4 inches. The sjiace between 111. 

' ThiH being an extremely ilitlicult site to discover, we freijuently asked at uuttuges 
for the Bars of Cfune wood, varying tlift in-onunciation so as to meet the requirements 
of the vernacular, Meea </ KUen ; neither of these names was known by any one of 
the iiersons interro^ted ; the farm ln«l who ultimately directed us correctly to 
the circle, speaking of it a.s in the Stnrunll Wooit. Less tlian thirty years ago the 
name in its vernacular, lieea o i^Uen form, was i|uito well known, an<l its extincti(m 
in so brief a period seems to me significant. 

- Herein lay the advantage, for the success r»f my survey, in my having two active 
and youthful assistants to whom the tangles, the Hpidcrs* wehs, and the (■immeriun 
darkness of these Kiucanlineshire woo<ls were Fairyland ! 



and IV., if nu'iisiired on the curve, is 42 feet; between IV. and 
V. is 20 feet 6 inclies. From V. to the ciwt angle of the east pillar is 25 
feet 4 inches ; the group of three nieiisures, over all, 16 feet 9 inches, and 
the space Initween the we^st pillar and the nearest angle of the first stone 
is 28 feet 4 inches, thus giving a totid circumference of 159 feet 3 
inches : prohably an under-estimati», since the former |K)sitiou of at least 
two stones is unjisc(?rtainable. 




-4? Tb 

Fig. 12. Raes of Clune. Ground Plan and Section, 
The Uccunihenl Stone is of grey granite, unlike the Standing Stones, 
wliich, so far as could he asttcrtaiuiMl for the thirk pfrowth nf lichena fm- 
tin'ly ('Idtliing thoni, arc of iIkj red and coaisrr xi-iiiiyd wjjrt. This sloni', 
just muler 15 feet in length, is of a nearly r^|i[id firi^aulth of 2fl jtiehe^ 
throughout, and has a eonsiderahle lean inwarils^ ]'Jirtly riveting im ri few 
hlocks there (sec tin* view, tig. 1.'^). It wei^^hx 9 toFi-^ T* cnl Tl*** in-*t 
pillar is very s«|uare an<l massive, and much higher Lliiin iLux^j^ Ji^ r^^ct. 
The position of the group relatively to the drcl " 


The aectitiiial vknv given below the ^muiiii plan i^ on u line lietween 
the two fallen atones, ji« nti tJthor m well slii>ws i]w extnmiu irrx-gnknty 
of the iii|iTi(»i% 

Fig. 13. Rae« of CI tine. H^jcumbetii Stone md PiJlftrt, 

Thu heigfvU of the aton^.s iire an fullow^ :— 

Stone r. (falkn) is 2 feet 3 inehm in thickneaSp 
„ Up „ 4 „ 9 „ higL 

^> rV. (frtUen) >, 1 IlhH 2 

V. „4f.^etU 

The east pillar „ 4 ,, ti 

,, RccnmhciitStone I, 4 ,, 4 

,, west pillar, t^ S ti '* 

in thiekiii!^. 

insi<k', lint S ft-i^t 7 inuln^fi f mtside. 

BfifoTf thl^ ait*^ waf* ]ilantr^1, wliirh was ahnnt thirty yojim agn, ibH 
summit must have commandal n very oxttmsive prtvf^iwjct. 

N*K 6» Caii'njmU. — Iji a coniJh^ld ekiEit! til the farm alH>tit 300 yavda 
.S. of the Cr*w*i?-i"i.>iui Hniithy, lunl mmrly 400 feet above wea level, ^tinul 
the five Btanes uoniiH>aing this ciixde^ in what we must cunsider its very 



have prolmbly }>oeii }>iiilt int<) the dike on the W., which is in close 

The (lianieLei-Js are : N. and S. 49 feet, and E. and W. 53 feet 8 inches. 
Tlie interior lias sullered in the usual way ; and, witli the exception of 
one small oblong earth-fast stone in the centre, and a heavy slab that 
runs int<j the ground at a very low inclination between it and the 
Keeunil)ent Stone, not a foot of measurable stone-setting remains. All 

-'•t'^"^' SsA'WwL. 

Fi^. 16. (fanol Wooil. Ground Plan and Section. 

Lin* >loiu',s an* massive and sciuarisli in section and of the common red 
ji-.inih'. 'Vhr Uecumbent Stone (Hg. 17) is, I think, diorit^^^^^ji^ jg 

«I;ul with l)nth lichen an«l moss, and is dilHci 

c^^to ex 



vast lieap of stones, itself ami its contents pri>bably containing the 
missing ]K)rtion of the (;ircle. 

As the view (iig. 15) shows, tlie stones are nnusually straight, 
i^iuarish with pointed t<jps auul set very nearly vertically, with the 
exception of that nearest the S. point. Their respective heights are : 
the south stone 6 feet, the south-west stone 5 feet, the west stone 
4 feet 7 inches, the north stf>ne 4 feet, the east stone 5 feet. 

The Uniant on the farm told nie that a goo4l many years ago, at, I 
tliink, alxmt the dat(? of the Imilding of the dike, some trenching was 
luade near the centre, and human lK)nes were found, Init no record was 
kei)t of aught that may have accomi)anied them or of their precise 

Fig, 15. Cainifauld. View from the West. 

^0. 7, Garrol Wood, locally known as the Nine Staiies. — Both the 
site, 800 feet above sea-level, and the present condition of this circle 
(fig. 16) so much resemble those of Raes o' Clune, that it is a little 
ilifficult to keep a distinct image of lioth in one's mind. In this instance 
also we measured by comjKiss. But there is (»ne marked point of 
ilifTerence Ixitween the two circh'.s : in this at (lari-ol Wood, the Recum- 
l)ent Stone is, i>ractically, due 8., its east pillar and the third Stiuiding 
Stone being precisely on the X. and S. diameter. The num}>er of stones 
at present upright is eight, including the two pillars. The* sixth is 
.several feet to the E. of the circumferencij upon which the others are set, 
and >>etween the second and third is space enough for two more. They 



liavo probably been Iniilt into tbe dike on tlie W., wliich in in close 

The diameters are : X. and S. 49 feet, and E. and W. 53 feet 8 inches. 
The interior has suffered in the usual way ; and, with the exception of 
one small oblong earth-fast stone in the centre, and a heavy slab that 
runs into the ground at a very low inclination between it and the 
Recumlxjnt Stone, not a foot of measura])le stone-setting remains. All 






" ^'^^^TTrnnTTTTTTTmnTTTrmrmTTrrr'Ttnn'"''" 

JO 9 » 13 *> t5 SfL, 

I ' ' ■ ' I I 1 1 1 1 \rnr 

Fig. 16. Oarrol Wood. Ground Plan and Section. 

the stones are massive and squarish in section and of the common red 
granite. The Recumbent Stone (fig. 17) is, I think, diorite : but it is 
clad with both lichen and moss, and is dithcult to examine. 


Distances Iwtween the stones : — 
Between Stone I. and Stone II., 14 feet 6 inches 

II. „ „ III., 56 „ „ (on the curve). 

»? „ III. „ „ n .y 14 „ 8 „ 

» IV. „ „ v., 15 „ „ 

»» » * • >» » ' *•> 20 „ 9 ,) 

„ „ VI. and edge of E. pillar, 25 „ 4 „ 

Width of the south group of three 15 „ 4 „ 

Between edge of west pillar and i 

> 22 „ „ 

centre of Stone I. 

Total circumference, 183 feet 7 inches 

Heights of stones : — 
Stone I. is 3 feet 8 inches (flalrtopped, and leans towards the 

group on the S.). 

Stone 11. . 

is 4 feet 9 inches 

» in. 

„ 3 „ 3 



„ IV. 

„ 3 „ 4 



„ V. 

„ 4 „ 


„ VI. 

„ 4 » 10 


East pillar 

,. 5 „ 


(vertical, hut leans outwards). 

Recumlwnt Stone 

.. 3 ,. 9 


(much more uneven at top than 

We-tt irillar 

., 6 „ 8 


(flat-topi>ed and of great hulk). 

Tlie inner surface of the Reciiml>cnt Stinic slopes downwards, and is so 
mossgrown, ami overlaid Avith soil full of roots of hracken and hlae- 
l)erry, that we could not Jiscertain its true width. Its hreadth in this 
direction would jirohaljly equal, if not exceed, its length from R to W., 
and it is therefore jjcrhaps the most [K)nderou8 of these stones yet 
examin«Ml. Its top ]>roscnts no level or smooth space* anywhere. Its 
weiglit is over 16 tons. 

In view of the very great stonin(\ss cliaracteristic of these circles in 
Durris, the following extract from the Statistical Account of 1842 is 



.^^^ ' 







-.....^F ^^ 



n 'ir;iri-itTtii in i w 'iii M ifr 

'T n ' H || ff ^T^^^T 

'^-TTrnT!fTr'> iM ' n i | i! M jTT-iiirr' n iiii TTi L i M ' iiiri| i | ' ffW" i H 'ri i ir 

I 1 1 1 1 1 I J jmr, 


Fig. 18, Esslie (the Greater). Ground Plan. 


worth (luotinj;. In sjioakin*; of Ks-slie and (lari-ol tlio writer says: — "In 
(iacli, th(^ HMnains of an inn(T cirrle are visible, within which is a small 
cairn." That certainly is th(^ impression conveyed by tlie stony masses 
in the centre of several of these circles. But that tlie whole area 
within the Standing? Stones was "nothing but a cairn," as some 
observers have stated, is an inference due to imagination. Besides, 
it must be Iw^rne in mind that the cairn-like heap of stones may lie 
(and has sometimes l>een ascertained to be) ^ formed by the farmers who 
liave utilised the unarable space within the Standing Stones as a con- 
venient place of deposit for stones gathered off the fields. 

No. 8, Ei^slifi: tlte Greater Circle. — In open ground about 550 feet 
alwn^e sea-level. If w(» include the two pillars which, with the Recum- 
bent Stone, are " in line " with the other Standing Stones, tliis circle now 
consists of nine stones ; but very serious disturbances must long ago have 
taken place, as a study of the ground plan declares (fig. 18). At least 
live massive stones, tin; two within a few feet of the Recum])ent, a thirtl 
between Stones I. and II., and two on the nortli verge, have been moved 
out of their original positions (which it is now impossible to fix U|>on) ; 
and, in addition, «»ne now standing, St<nie Xo. IV., is not on the 
same ciniinuference as the n^st. The extreme irregidarity, also, of the 
contour of the base of tlie mound which carries the Standing Stones adds 
to the difliculty of interjireting as well as <^f measuring its features. 
Immediately south of the Kecumbent Stone, for instance, is a well- 
marked hollow, 20 feet by nearly 5, bounded externally by an equally 
well-detiiied bank of earth and stones, and this ridge continues eastwanls, 
tluju nortliwards, and more or less compactly to th(» extreme X.AV. angle. 
It is surely remarkable, however, that nowhere in its whole cc»urse is 
any one of the stones actually set ujion it, the two big stones on the 
western arc lyin^' «)n an eaitlien slope uncharacterised by any ridge. 
Doubt is thus cast upon tliis stony ridge, which maybe a thing of ycst^^r- 

' S(M- r,<>^-rrin,ig>, vol. xxxi. |». 90. 


<iayj At tho ea><t pillar-liaso lies a long and <leeply-s«t stone, similar in 
r<»lative position and size to one already noticed at Ancli(pihorthies, 
while two lieaps of smaller stones opposite its end, and alxjnt 20 feet t<> 
the E. as well, seem to }>e the remnants of the inner stone-setting here, 
of which we find su})stantial alignments cm the western side, wliere, 
esp(?cially in front of Stone I. (A on the section), a space of barely 
6 feet separates the Standing Stone from the interior work. The central 
stone setting, tracea])le at a nearly miifonn distance of 16 feet from the 
other, consists of fifteen qnite distinct and vertically-placed stones from 8 
or 10 inches to 18 and 20 inches in height on the outside, their inward 
sides, here and there, disappearing amtmg a " rul)})le o' stones " to over 
2 feet in depth. In the view (fig. 19), taken from near the centre of 
the circle, and looking towards the RecumlKint Stone, the variation in the 
heights of these centre stones is shown. This drawing further illustrates 
a feature apparently unusual in the type of circles with Recuml^ent Stone, 
and that is, the remarkable lowness of the two pillars, the east pillar being 
just level with the top of the Recumbent Stone, and the west only a few 
inches taller.- The entire space on this mound at Esslie is as stony as possi- 
ble, though overgrown with a luxuriant and treacherous growth of grass. 
The heights of the stcmes are as follows : — 

Stone I. (A on section) 4 feet 8 inches, tapering. 


3 . 

, 8 , 

lounded top. 


i , 

. 6 , 

1 jj V 


4 , 

, 4 , 

, flat-topped. 


2 , 

. 3 . 

* )• 

VI. (fallen) 


4 , 

. 7 „ 

tapering to ai 

* Putting out of reckoiilDg the two boulders near, but well outaide of the Rocum- 
bent Stone, we may state that the circle had originally, at anyrate, twelve Standing 
Stones, inclusive of the pillars. Probably the long gap on the east contained another. 

^ I am aware that the block of stone at the base of this pillar looks in the drawing 
&H if it might have fallen otf the latter ; but a glance at the ground plan will show 
how small this fragment is, in comparison with the pillar, and therefore how very 
little it could have added to its height. 



East pillar is 4 feet inches, broad-topped. 

Recumbent Stone is 4 „ „ inside, but 5 feet outside. pillar is 4 ,, 2 ,, broad-t<ipped. 

A «(eneral view of the circle is giv(;n in fi<:. 20. . 
Distances ])etween the stones : — 

From Stone I. to Stone If. is 29 feet inches 

,. ., II. ,. ., III. „ 21 „ 5 „ 

III. ,, „ IV. (displiiced?) „ 7 „ 8 „ 

.. „ 111 „ ,. V. (fallen) „ 18 ,. „ 

















„ 24 

6 , 

,, 21 


.. 41 


., 27 

6 , 

,, 24 


„ 15 

9 , 

„ 26 

6 „ 

From centre of Stone IX. to east pillar (edge) 
The group of Recumbent Stone and pillars 
From west pillar outer edge to centre of I. 

Total circumference, 256 feet 4 inches 

Main <liameter from St<me VI. to R. nearly N. and S. 89 feet inches. 
„ Jl. toF. „ W.andE. 73 „ 6 „ 

The Recuml)ent Stone weighs 8 tons 4 cwt. 

Excavation was made in or about the centre of this circle in 1873, by 

J)r R. Angus Smith. His account^ is this: — 

*' On goinp down about 2 feet a hard * pan ' was fomid 4 or 5 inches thick. 
This 'pan* is very general in the district. A space of 7 or 8 feet in diameter 
was laid bare with more or leas care, and on the outer part there were found cer- 
tain black marks on the hard ground, and along with them small pieces of l>onc. 
The dark marks, in some places quite black, extended so as to be the length of a 
not tall human l^eing in three cases ; a fourth was uncertain. Tliere seem to 
have been three or four lx)dies laid so as to form a circle, within which were no 
black marks or bones. One of the men who were digging tried the centre with 
his pickaxe, and said that it had been oj^eued ; tlu^rt^ was no hard * pan,' and he 
iiiarke<l out a place, feeling his way with the pickaxe, and found a softened part 
aUmt (> ft-et long. This s|)ace was o|H?ned without difficulty with the spade 
alone: the f^lw^ervation hadljeen correct. After digging down 2h feet a stone 

' Givcii in Proteedinyy, voL xiv. \k 302. 



kist was found, if we may call it one^ built of common boulder-stones little more 
tlian half a foot, i.e., from 8 to 10 inches in diameter. ... In the grave were 
found black marks and pieces of l)one, but no more.'' 

No. 9, Esslie : tJie Smaller Circle^ commonly called West Mulloch, 
from its close proximity to the steadings of that fann. — Distant from the 
last a Inire half mile, and about 70 feet higlier, close to the road that 
winds round past West and East Mulloch down to the Cross-road smithy 
and Cainifauld already noticed. 

TTTTTT'TT^'/rillMMi, I I i|.|.|l!i:|i,;;i|lT llll.|iM|||MIMlii||||lll|rj^^j^ 

V'v^. 21, P'sslie (tlir Smaller). (Iround Plan and Section. 

< )u tills sit<', a^'ain, <nu' linds evidence of much disturbance ; and those 
intellective, half-hearted di,i^',i^qii.i,'s, ])ruductive «»f nothing but hallucination 
and hearsay, appeared to have occurred liere also plentifully. There are, 
liowever, yet live great Standing Stones set on the level crest of a mound 
3 feet high, some remnant of the inner stone-.setting, and, fallen over 


(lo^vn the slope of the ridge, close to the tallest stone, a huge block 
(shown on the ground plan shaded within a tliick line, fig. 21) which I 
take to be the Recumbent Stone moved from its position, close to the 
west pillar and minus that which was its east pillar. That this is the 
correct "reading" of the present state of things is suggested by the relative 
positions of this remaining pillar (P) and of the portions of the inner 
stone-setting now in situ, A part of this consists of two unusually large 
stones 7 feet within the circle from P. Small heaps of stones in all 
manner of positions (see fig. 22) cause confusion, and there is one pro- 
minent boulder on the northern verge apt to l)e mistaken for a Standing 
Stone. It is not earth-fast. 

Fig. 22. Esslie (the Smaller). View from the West. 

The heights of the Standing Stones are : — 

Stone I. is 4 feet 7 inches, edged at top. 
„ II. „ 3 „ 9 „ iK)inted. 

Ill 4 *> 

»> I ' • i> 3 „ 10 ,, „ 
„ V, „ 4 „ 5 „ broad and flat. 
The Beciunbent Stone weighs over 4 tons. 

I>r U, AugtiH Hinitli leL'tanls ^ that the centre circle of small stones " was 
o|te«fd t4> lh& ilc^ptli of from 3 to 4 feet and several large and flattish 
sUmcii wtTt? fuuud very irro^niiariy placed ; and apparently the remains of 
m^& stiiu'tui* hi(/kt>n and Um^il into the hole which hatl been formed 
_ia u^Jt^nini^ it. li \m\ 1m>p.ii piT Liahly a large stone cist." 

' dT. p. 308. 



No, 10, fnchmarlo, — Close to the main road going west out of 
lUnchory, 100 foet or so within the poHcies of Inchmarlo Cottage, stands 
the monolith shown in lig. 23. It is vouched for as the sole remnant 
of a circle seen hy thn late Sherill' Doughu^, wlio was a native of Inch- 
marlo ; and it is still calleil the Druids' Stone. It is a nearly square- 
Imsed block of pori)hyritic granite, and (^lose l>eside it lies a much 
smaller, hut still weighty block, of diorite. The oblong cavity on its 
eastern face has l)eon chiselled to hold, I think, one of the iron letter- 

Fif(. *2:1. lucliniarlo Standing Stone. 

l)OXcs which aiv common in llic district. There is now nu trace of the 
site of any otlicr of the stones of tlie circle. Weight over 12 tons. 

Xo. 11, Glaxiif'l. — Tliis ^Toup of j>illar stones is situatcMl on the vei*ge 
of a long and rather stiM'ji natural bank in tin* north part of a beech- 
wood known as Ordie (iordie «>r Ordie (lordon, scarcely half a mile in a 
N.W. direction from (Ila.ssel station on the* Deeside railway, and at an 
elevation of 3G0 feet above the sea. 

l>oth its diminutive })roportions and its form render it remarkable (sec 


iii;. 24). The longer iliameWr of its interior space is but 15 feet 9 inches, 
the shorter 7 feet 9 inches. The stones now standing, five in numl)er, are 
singularly symmetrically set, very sqnare-hased, and like one another in 
contour, breadth, and height ; they are also all of the siinie rcMldish granite. 
In the centre of the north arc is a i)roHtrate block of indurated sand- 
stone (see the drawmgs, lig. 25). Between this block and the Standing 
Stone on the W. is a small, <iuite earth-fast lump of granite ; and, much 
closer to the edge of the bank, 10 feet 8.W. of the south stone, lies a 
diorite or fine-grained granite Ixjulder. The interior space is smooth, 



W--*4 \ ^. 

Fig. 24. Glassel. Groand Plan and Section. 

grassy, and well flattened by a path evidently the frecpient resort of 
ramblers. Below at the foot of the bank flows the Canny Burn. 
Heights of the stones : — 
The diorite boulder on the south 10 inches thick. 
.„ S. stone 2 feet 9 inches, rather pointed. 
K* „ 3 „ 3 „ rounded at toj). 
,„ W. .. 3 ., 2 „ flat-t<jpped. 
^ N.K ,. '2 ., 11 „ shari>-i»ointed. 
,t X.W, ., 2 „ 10 „ flat-topi)ed. 
rUe |Yroatmt<^ tjandaUme ia 1 foot in thickness. 


Distances l)etween the stones : — 

Between S. stone and W. stone, 8 feet 10 inches 

W. „ „ N.W. „ 8 „ 10 „ 

N.W. „ „ N.E. „ 9 „ 6 „ 

KE. „ „ E. „ 8 „ 10 „ 

„ E. „ ,, S. „ 8 ,, 10 ,, 

Total, 44 feet 10 inches 

No, 12, Leamy, — In an upland field N. of Gownieburn, beyond 
Milltown of Leamy, to which we walked from Torpliins station, stands 
tlie one stone of a circle well known to the folk not so many years ago. 
It is not conspicuous, being a rather thin, angular, and pointed red 
granite block. It is set nearly N. and S., stands 4 feet 2 inches in 
height, and girths at the base 10 feet. One side is over- 4 feet in breadth. 
It is marked on the 6-inch Ordnance Map as " Remains of a stone circle." 

No. 13, BcUnarraig, Alulmar. — On the farm of this name, the 
Ordnance Map records and draws four very large stones at a point 1 J mile 
N.W. of Torphins. But, though we made diligent search, and were 
fortunate enough to fall in with the present tenant, we could neither 
see nor hear of any vestige of a circle. On the map, however — and the 
one I refer to is the 25-inch scale — these four large stones are quite clearly 
laid down in such a form that, if measured from a common centre, 
the line of circumference would ])isect them all and enclose a circle of 
about 80 feet in diameter. 

No, 14, Tfie AtUd Kirk & Tough,^ — All that remains of the once large 
circle on this remote moorland site, 1200 feet above* the sea, on the con- 
fines of the parishes of Tough, Cushnie, and Cluny, is a more or less 
circular ridge, to some extent still stony, and, like; the hollow it eiuiloses, 
densely grown with heather, and one large Standing ^Univ set un its 

* "The Kirk '* is the name of tlic site of a <:ircle on a raised ridge on Kirkby Moor. 
Arehaoloyia, vol. xzxi. p. 450. 



J***- * ' 



i^outlierii ai-c (fig. 26). A glance aroiiinl at tlw» nearest dikes reveals the 
fact that they are huilt largel}' of hugo stones ; and the suspicion thus 
raised of tlicir having hetMi moved from th(» circle was confirmed on tlie 
dav of my visit hy the frank admission of the crofter at Denwdls, to the 

^^- o-cTi -««**- - - -^ 

Fi^'. 2il. Tlie Aiil«l Kirk o' Toiigli. (I 

round I'laii. 

cllect that he had ''shifted ihcni a' into the dikes,' one «>f tliem also 
being comi)lacently shown forming the thrcshiJd of his cottage. Most 
of this wanton destruction must have occurred <luring tlie last twenty 


years, since Miss Maclagan ^ records, in her plan, seven stones iKjsides a 
Recumbent Stone and two ]>illar8, giving a view of the latter group. 
When examining this site, T was puzzled with the strip of straight 
contour, 26 feet l<»ng on the S.W., not having then seen any plan of the 
grouncL This, in idl likelihoo<l, was the jnisition of the Re<;um})ent Stone 
and pillars. Miss Miiclagan's plan shows a circle of 75 feet in diameter, 
the seven stones seiMinited by pretty regular intervals of about 20 feet, 
with a gap of nearly 40 feet on the E. Fifteen f(».et within, in her plan, is 
a perfectly unbroken stone-setting, within which, sigain, is the small 
central setting, its interior very stony. My measurements bring out the 
diameters, from the inner face of the one remaining stone due N. to the 
opposite and much higher crest of the ridge 80 fec^t, and the contrary 
diameter 90 feet. A go<Kl many apparently earth-fast blocks still define 
the circumference, and numl>erless smaller stones lie alK)ut all over it. 
(.)f the inner settings of 8t<mes n<»t a si»ecimen now exists. In Miss 
Maclagan's drawing of the gnnip on the S.AV., mm of the pillars is 
twice the height of its fellow, and the Kecumlient Stone is not vertical. 
Its breadth, also, seems to equal iU length. But to which side of the 
circle the Recumbent Stone leans, and whether the tall pillar is on its W. 
or its E., cannot be ascertained. 

This site, and the eight that follow, are all on the northern side of the 
Hill of Fare, the long flat ridge of heathy moorland which for miles 
forms so prominent a background to the wood-crowned uplands of this 
side of the Dee Valley. 

No. 15, Tomnagani. — Over 5 miles X. of Torpliins stiition, and up a 
road that rises at a steep and steady gradient for fully three miles, on the 
summit of a wooded hill 600 feet above sea-level, are t<> l)e seen the 
remains of this, i>erhaps the most intc^resting of all the circles described 
in the present report. In spite f)f several of iU stones l)eing now pros- 
trate, much of the inner stone- work remains in ftifu, and it is possible, on 

* flill FortSf pi. xxviii. 



paper, to reconstruct tlu* circle with an amount of eertiiintv most unnsiial 
with rcigard to these often ])arharously ill-treated antiquities.^ 




T, + 

u n f ' n i ^ ^ T ''rffTr''ii»Tr<iiiitirniinnMin^*nn<p 

Fi^. 27. Tonina^oiii. Ground Plan and Sections. 
The ground i)lan (tig. 27) sliows live Standing Stones, a massive Re- 

' Wliat disturbance at the centre is shown was due, I was infonncd, to the curi- 
osity of an idle shepherd. The tenants of the farm respect and take an interest in 
the stones. 


ciiiii})ent SUme with its two pillarn, and four of tlio cmce erect stones, fall(»n, 
Imt so cldse to the line of circunif«'rence as not to injure the symmetry of 
the circle as a whole. Of the Standing 8t(mes, the third is due X. of the 
ninth, the fifth is X.E. of the centre of the KecumlnMit Stone, which is at 
the due 8.W. iK)int. Meiusured from S. to N., the diameter hetween the 
centres of the stones is 80 feet; measured from the centre of Stone I. 
(fallen) to a point mid-way hetween Stones VI. and VI T., it is 70 ft. 6 in. 

I )i«tnnces lK3tween the stones : — 

IVtween the two fallen stones on the W. (1. and II.) 26 feet inches 
Stone II. and III. . . 24 „ 6 ,. 

III. „ IV. . 20 „ 5 „ 

IV. „ V. . 17 „ 6 „ 
V. „ VI. . . 16 „ 9 „ 

VI. „ VII. . . 21 ,, 6 „ 

„ VII. ,, VIII. . . 22 „ 4 „ 

„ VIII. „ IX. . . . 31 ,, „ 

„ ,, IX. ,, edge of east pillar .20 ,,5 „ 

The S.W. group, over all . . 16 „ 6 „ 

From edge of west i>illar to centre of Stone 1. . 16 „ „ 

Total circumference . 226 feet 1 1 inches 

Heights of the present Stan<ling Stones : — 

Stone III. 5 feet 6 inch(?s, tapers to an edge. 

„ IV. (fallen). 

,, V. 4 feet inches (hut overhangs inwards 2 ft. 10 in.). 

„ VI. 4 ,, ,, flat, ohlong top. 

., VII. 5 ,, 4 ,, broad, irregular top. 

„ VIII. (fallen). 

„ IX. 6 feet 7 inches 

East pillar 6 ., 5 „ 

Recumbent Stone 3 „ lOJ ,, inside, 5 feet 3 inches outside. 
West pillar 2 ,, 7 ,, (possibly })roken?). 

Weight of the Recumbent Stone, 9 tons 1 cwt. 


The very marked difference in the heights uf the two sides of tlie 
Reouml)ent Stone is accounted for by the hiyer of water-worn bouMers 
and other small stones that are set, like a floor, in front of it facing the 
interior (see the section, fig. 27). We assured ourselves of tlic regu- 
larity of this * flooring,* by lifting off many square yards of the thick dry 
fibrous carpeting of moss that covers most of the area of this circle ; and, 
in doing this, we brought to light the long narrow slab and its three 
almost contiguous blocks with which the inner stone-setting begins at 
the liase of the east pillar, and which can be distinctly traced round the 
east arc, though for some portion matted over with the ever-abundant 
blaeberry stems. See the view of the Recumbent Stone from the interior 
(fig. 28) which shows these stones. The whole of the X.E. and N.W. 
arcs are al)solutely devoid of earth-fast stones, and the ground here is so 
level, that, if any once existed, the clearance of them luus been efTected 
mast rigorously. Four large stones, varying from 14 to 26 inches high 
(the highest nwirest the S.), form a portion of the stone-setting on tlu^ 
W., and between them and the Kecum})ent Stone a lumi)y ridge 

In front of and almost touching the west [)ilLir lies a block which has 
possibly once formed its apex, as on one side the pillar shows a })road, 
fractured, not weathered, surface, and its present want of height seems 
* out of keeping ' with the Inilk and height of the Recumbent Stone and 
the other pillar (see fig. 29). In the centnd space, three narrow slabs 
1 4 inches high are all that remain in situ ; Init the })road oblong slab now 
lying about 3 feet to their S. (with a smaller triangular one resting on it) 
must have once stootl in the space now blank, its width corresponding to 
the blank. The cavity thus originally enclosed does not appear to have 
Ijcen circular, but oblong or s^juarish ; but it is impossi))le to define its 
limits (see view from the W., fig. 30). The bre^idth of the; free space 
lying between this central stone-setting and the outer one is 21 feet 9 
inches, and the width from the latter to the Standing Stones of the circle 
is 13 feet. 

The site, now completely hidden by woodland, could at no time have 

VOL. XXXiV. 31 


been specially conspicuous ; tliere are much ^^rcater lieights on nearly all 
sides of it. 

No, 16, Midmar Kirk, — Quite on the other and eastern side of this 
upland portion of the district, alwut 600 feet above the sea-level, and most 
easily accessible from the village of Echt, we find a few stones remaining 


Fig. 81. Midmar Kirk. Ground Plan, etc. 

of this circle, the parish church l>eing built so close to it that I am not 
sure whether several of its western stones were not removed to make 
-way for the walls. Stormy weather prevented our making more than 
one hurried inspection of this circle. I therefore wrote to tlie Rev. E. 
Luinsden, M.A., for accurate measurements, which were most promptly 


and courteously afforded me ; and the annexed ground plan (fig. 31) has 
been laid out from them, witli, also, some assistance from the plan given 
by Miss Maclagan.^ There are at present four Standing Stones, in addition 
to the two very tall and massive pillars, and the vertically set Recumbent 
Stone. When complete, there were probably nine Standing Stones, there 
l)eing ample space for three on the north arc. All the stones are of the 
same material, the reddish granite much weathered. The pillars are un- 
usually equal in height, and the Recumbent Stone very broad throughout. 
It is set on the S.W. arc, but not so precisely as in other examples. It 
is 14 feet 9 inches in length, and 4 feet at the greatest breadth. The 
N.E. diameter of this circle, measuring from the pillar on the left to 
the opposite stone, is 55 feet; the contrary axis is, of course, now 
unasccrtainable. The Recumbent Stone weighs 9 tons 13 cwt. 
Distances between the stones : — 

The Recumbent Stone pltm pillars . 

Between pillar on right to next stcme 
,, the next two stones . 

22 feet inches 



9 „ 



8 „ 






9 „ 

„ the hist two stones . 
Circumference of about §rds of circle =104 feet 2 inches 

eights of the stones : — 

The N.E. stone . 

4 feet 6 inches 

„ first S.E. stone . 


n 6 „ 

„ second „ ,, 


M 3 „ 

„ south stone 


» 6 „ 

Tli(? pillars, each 


n 3 ,, 

The Kccunibent Stone 


„ 6 „ at highest 

No. 17, Balhlair, — At the time of my visit to the circle just described, 
I was not aware that another once existed within about 100 yards to the 

1 mil Forts, PI. xxvii. 



nortli. But having noticed on the 6-ineh O.M. tlie remains of a circle 

^'^'"l^eci at this spot, I wrote to the Rev. E. Lunisden again, and learned 

iroixi. Him the following particulars. At a point 22 yards north of the road 

going east of Midmar Kirk, and 100 yards or so north of it, there is in a 

wochI one tall stone standing. ** It has," says Mr Lumsden, " quite the 

<^naructer of such (I'.e., circle) stones — its surfaces Ixjing eitlier worn by 

^atura.1 agencies or presenting the natund cleavage of the stone. It is 

^^ut Si feet high, and leans over consideral)ly to tlie south." The drawing 

® xvhich accomixinied this description shows the })ase of the stone as 

^oJios wide on the west and north sides, with the south and the east 

^ ^ ^li^htly less and rounded, and the stone as viewed from the east 

■^^^^^S to a i)oint. There is also at its base the remnant of a ridge 

^^^ T f> inches in height. Wishing to assure myself of the former exist- 

^ ^>^ 5:1 circle here, I wrote for information to Col. Farquharson of the 

.. '^^^^^cie Survey Department. In due course a rej>ly came to the effect 

*^^ "the Name Book of date 1864, three of the residents in Midmar 

^"^^X the single stone remaining at that date to be the remnant of a 

the c^ 

It is not definitely stated that eitlier of them said he had seen 

^•^^^le or any more stones than this (me. 


^ ^ 18, Seanhinni/y or, to follow the locid pronunciation and 

|. , ~^^^=?> Sunhonei/y^ by reason })oth of its size, the regularity of its mono- 

* ^^ Xid the almost un)>roken smootlmess of its grassy sward, l)esides its 
, . ^^^^^ding position, is, perhaps, the most impressive of the circles of 

^ ^strict, as it assuredly is the most satisfactory to deal with from the 

« -^^^ ^or's j)oint of view. A dike surrounds the jJantation of beech and 

, _ -fc^ich in a manner grace without confusing the view of the stones ; 

^--^ distance from the outer ridge carrying the stones is sufficiently 

io allow of a clear view of the entire circle. The site is the 

^ _ ^ Xt of the upland fields, 400 feet above sea-level, on this farm, which 

^^^nt west from the village of Echt about li miles, and across a 

fully wooded valley J of a mile X.E. from Midmar Castle. 

^^^^^^ .? ** name " Sunbrick Circles'* is given to a group on the brow of a bill called 
^^[g, near BradMS, Morecambe Bay. ArdiccologiUf vol. xxxi. p. 450. 



Then* ia every reason to believe that tliis circle, in respect of its 
Standing KStones at least, is really in the same condition as in prehistoric 
times. See tlie ground plan (iig. 33), which shows nine stones on the outer 





Kic. S*2. S^Anh'uny. round Plan. 

rid-o of t'arih and siouos, two vi ry lan^? pillars* and a Recnmbent Stouc 
x»f ;r.;l\ r,.oc.d;:hix' pn^ivrtiouis Wini: 17 feel 4 inches in length, 2 feet 
o iuv ];os iJi ;hiokiu*s<N and 4 ftvt inches in hn^adth, this last dimension 


being in reality its height, as this vast mass of close grained grey granite 
long ago fell forward, and was (also long ago) ^ robbed of a fragment, now 
prostrate at right angles, which itself is of no mean bulk. It lies very 
slightly west of the S.W. point. The weight of tliis stone is over 12 

The longer diameter of Seanhinny is almost precisely due N. and S., and 
measures 87 feet 6 inches from the centre of Stone III. to that of Stone 
IX. The contrary axis. Stone I. to a ix)int mid- way between Stones VI. 
and VII., is 81 feet 6 inches. 

Distances l)etween the stones, centre to centre : — 

I]etween Stone I. and 


25 feot 6 inches 


II. „ 






III. „ 






IV. „ 







V. „ 






VI. „ 







VII. „ 






VIII. „ 






From the centre of Stone IX. 

, to east 


of the east ] 







Breadth of the group (over a 

11) . 





From west angle 

of the west 

pillar to the 

centre of Stone I. 






This gives a total circumference tlirough 
the stones of 

260 feet 6 inches 

Heights of the stones taken on the inside of the ridge : — 
Stone I. 6 feet inches, shari>edged. 
„ II. 5 „ 10 „ pointed at top. 

„ III. 5 „ 3 „ sharp-edged. 
„ IV. 4 „ 6 „ rather pointed. 

* See tiMaoeoimt of Seanhinny in Arclutologia^ vol. xxii. p. 193, by .Tames Logan, 
wtHi Ui oudtai plan annexed. 


Stono V. 5 feet 3 inches sharp-edged. 
VI. 5 „ 3 „ flaUnppeil. 
VII 4 5 

„ VIII. 6 „ 8 „ tapers to point. 
„ IX. 6 „ 9 „ square and Hat-topi>ed. 
Tlie f^radual rise in tlie heights of the stones towards the Recumlient 
Stone is made clear to the eye in the two sections now given (fig. 33). 
They are to l)e taken as viewed from an imaginary line, dottetl on ground 
plan (Hg. 32), which nearly bisects the circle. 

The east pillar is 7 feet 6 inches ; the west pillar is 6 feet 5 inches. 
lV>th may be styled rudely pyramidal when seen at the angles. All these 
eleven st^^nes are of the usual re<ldish gmnite or gneiss ; but the great 
Recumbent Stone (lig. 34) is of a widely different composition and colour : 

L fl 4 A A 

*X-JL a A JLil 

Fig. 33. Seanhinny. Sectional Views. 

very compact, close-grained, of a cold grey hue ; and, though not per- 
haps actually st) hard as the diorite boulders occasionally seen in the dis- 
trict, tliis (Mionnous block impresses one with a sense, not only (>{ 
immense solidity and weight, but of the labour involved in the mere 
raising of it on to its edge, wbich was presumably its original position. 
Its dimensions are already given. On its present ui)per surface, how- 
ever, then^ arc some shallow hollows very like the cup-marks now so 
fre([uently found in many j)arts of Scotland, and soni(»limes on the pillars 
of stone circl(\s. I show these 'cups' on my jJan. After careful 
examination, ] am n«>t incliiKMl to regard these hollows as made by tools 
of any age. In the first })lace, th(»y do not show the slightest vestige of 
tool marks. True cup-marks usually do. Next, there is not the slight- 





est vestige of any ring round them or near them on the stone. Again, 
when this Recumhent Stone stood on its edge — its western extremity, by 
the way, would then bo precisely in line with the inner end of the west 
pillar — these cui>liollows, if existent at that remote period, would, in all 
likelihood, have been under the ground. For the innermost of them all 
is but 13 or 14 inches within the margin of the stone, and we must 
allow quite that measure as tlie depth of the founding of the stone. 
Lastly, the comparatively softer flakes of mica in this block of granite do 
weather into small shallow pits or hollows, and my impression is that 
these particular hollows may have been formed by weathering. 

Of the interior little need be said, as my ground plan shows, without 
useless detiiil, tlie relative proportions of the two now-existing ridges ; of 
any much smaller and almost central ridge, such as the older views re- 
cord,^ naught remains (see fig. 35). Tlie greater portion of the area, at 
any rate within the inner ridge, was dug through and turned over in the 
years 1855-56, by Mr C. E. Dalrymple, whose examination is thus 
recorded : - — 

" Witliin the circle there is a flat cairn, about 64 feet in diameter, of stones, 
raised nearly a foot above the rest of the area, and going down to the subsoil. 
In the centre of this cairn, throuch a part of it 8 feet in diameter, were found 
deposits of incinerated bones, witn some charcoal and black mould, but in no 
great quantity. This part of the caim differed slightly in construction from 
the rest, as the stones were not quite so closely packed, and were mostly marked 
with lire. At the outer circumference of the caim, on the south side, was 
found what seemed to have been a deposit of some kind, as concave stones were 
placed so as to form a circular cist ; and some fragments, apparently of a rude 
stone vessel, were found forming part of the enclosure ; but everything of 
animal substance had entirely disappeared. At the foot of several of the pillars, 
at a depth of from 18 inches to 2 feet, flat stones appeared, similar to thoee 
which are generally found placed above and under the cmerary urns ; but any 
deposits which may have been inserted had entirely disappearwi. The richness 
of the soil, a deep black loam, might •])artly account for this. All the soil 
appeared to have been brought into the circle, and, except in front of the 
jullars, seenuHl almost every^vhere to cover quantities of stones, though these, 
except in the centre, were not dis])Ose(l in a regular caim. The soil seemed 
also to differ from tliat on the outside of the circle, in which stones only occur 
occasionally. At the base of tlie pillars, the ground seemed, in various ca-ses, 

' See suprn. 

- Stuart's ,S<-i(Ij'tur>t^ Sfonrs, vol. i. Appendix to tlio Preface, p. xxi. 


to have been dug down into the subBoil, so as to form a pit about 2^ feet in 
depth. A ridge of loose stones, like the foundation of a dyke, runs round 
between the standing stones. Some of the latter had a small semi-circular 
pavement of stones in front of them, and they all stood on deposits of middle- 
sized boulder stones." 

No, 19. — At a point nearly mid- way between Old Wester Echt and 
New Wester Echt, and about two miles N.E. of Seanhinny, three Stand- 
ing Stones are shown on the Ordnance Map, forming a curve 90 feet long, 
the remnant apparently of a circle about 1 20 feet ^ in diameter. The 
height above sea-level is over 550 feet. 

On communicating with the i)resent tenant of the farm of Old Wester 
Echt, Mr James Gillespie, I was informed that after having made 
enquiries, he learned, from a man who remembered the site when a boy, 
that " there were nine stones in a complete circle, and that they were 
removed about sixty years ago, the three largest- ones being left." 

Mr Gillespie subsequently sent me the measurements of these. One 
is 9 feet in height and girths at the ground 1 4 feet ; the middle one is 
6 feet in height with a base of about 14 feet ; and the third is 8 feet in 
height, 5 feet broad on two sides and 1^ feet broad on the other two.. 

No, 20, Standing Stones of Echt, — Drawn on the 25-inch scale Ord- 
nance Survey Map, as a true circle of 50 feet in diameter, and about 100 
yards to the north of the^ farm-steadings. Eight stones are shown. The 
site is on the extreme east of Echt parish. I learned from the present 
occupant of the farm, Mr William Hogg, that all the eight stones are still 
in situ and still erect ; this being, doubtless, largely due to the fact that 
" they are mentioned in the lease of the farm, and must be protected." 

This and the next circle will be fully described later. 

No. 21, BinghUl, Petercvlter. — This site is rather over one mile in a 
straight line N.W. from Murtle station, and the circle is drawn on the 

^ This rather unusually large diameter has been obtained by computation from the 
curve taken by the three stones as shown ou the 25-inch scale of the Ordnance 



map as one of seven good-sized stones, in a plantation and a few score 
yards to the north of a tumuhia ; the diameter being 55 feet or there- 

No. 22, Tlip SfamUng Stonesi, Dt/ce, — This, in older accounts, is 
called Tyr-lKigger or Tyrie-baggor.^ The sitcj is 2 miles W. of Dyce 
junction. The circle, now planted round with trees, must, long ago, 



31 ':•■%. ' 

"a *■■■■■• ■^^■•■;. 

* ■ V ji-.n ^-. ^' ~ -^^^^ ■' ' ■ ■ \ ■■ 

^-;r t 

Fig* 8d. Tyre- bigger, or Standing Btonn nf Dyce* 

have l)een very con^picuotia, sitiialod m it h on ih} cfnwit of ja hilt 
500 f(M't above thf Sfa-lt*v-i, .fr^l bmrif* rmiifiom-H! tif cixttdiiitily uH aiitl 
imjMwingly-arningtHl niun. '•'■,*- in t^ll hirtniiivri,?. narftle* ihi» mmh 

' Meaning Hd^-^fwl hy I^i^ui 
Ittinl, c»f acoriih 



larity to Seaiihiruiy and otlicrs, Dycc circle iwssesses some characteristics 
of its own which render it interesting. In the first place, as the ground 
plan (fig. 36) and the section show, the ridge carrying the stones is 
specially welklefined and high, the interior very level, and, although 
full of hroom and whin, almost unbroken hy stone work. Part, 
however, of this distinctness of ridge is really due to the very 
matter-of-fact purpose once served hy the circle ; I>ogan ^ recording that 
the spices Ijetween the stones were huilt up with loose stones and the 
spot thus converted into a cattle-pound. Another feature not so easily 
accounted for is the existence of the two thin stones — slabs, one might 
almost call them — close together on the X.E. arc, Nos. VI. and VII. The 
great magnitude of the pillars and the Recumbent Stone?, and the striking 
l)osition of the last, combine to impress this circle on the memory. 

The main diameters are : — 

N.W. to S.E., Stone III. to IX 61 feet 

S.AV. to N.E. outside of the Recumbent Stone to Stone IV. 56 „ 

Distances between the stones, centre to centre : — 

Stone I. 



15 feet 

































„ VII. 





„ VIII. 







From the ninth stone to edge of ( 






The group of 

three (over all) . 





From the ed^ 

[e of the west pillar 

to centre 

of Stone I. 







This gives a totid circumference of 166 feet 10 inches 
^ Archcdolotjia^ vol. xxii. p. 411. 


Heights of the stoues : — 

Stone I. 7 feet 3 inches, leans outwanls ; somewhat i)ointed 

at top. (See section, fig. 37.) 






























The east pillar 9 „ 5 
„ west ,, 11 ,, 




[i| i ll| M i| | || Mi! i ." iiil ii ii i [in M i fMnn i |i i i iii | ii!''ii :i 

V— ? — ? — ¥ — ¥ — ?^-^ 

Fig. 37. Tyre-bagger, or Standing Stones of Dycc. Sectional Views. 

Those, two j^rcat stones arc very dissimilar in form. See the various 
views (figs. 40, 41, 42). 

The vertical height of the Recum})ent Stone can he stated with 
some certainty. Its present measurahle sides show that (a) its upper 
edge; is now 4 feet phnnh ahove the hedding of small stones (see sec- 
tion, hg. 38, and view from the west, fig. 39) ; that {h) its under side 
from edge to ground is 6 feet 5 inches wide ; and that (r) its outer side 
or hack is 10 feet 6 inches wide. If * restored ' and set cm its edge ver- 
tically, with 2 feet depth as foundation, wci should still have a stone of 
fully 8 feet in height — a dimension well in keei>ing with the remarkahlc 
height of its two pillars (see tlie two views, ligs. 40 and 41). The 
eastern end of its edge (or top If * restored ') is the widest portion, and 


the middle is rather protiil)crant and rough. The material is a darkish 
grey granite, not so fine-grained as that just described in the Recumbent 
Stone at Seanhinny, but of a quite different species from that of any of the 
otli(!r stones in the circle, most of which appeared to me to l)e reddish 
and much more gritty. The Recum})ent Stone is shown in Logan's plate, ^ 
done in 1822, leaning inwards much as it is at present. This stone 
being s*) much out of the grcnmd, its culiical contents am Ije more fully 
gauged ; and its computed weight, therefore, of nearly 24 tons need be 
no matter of surprise. In my view of the circle (fig. 42), taken from as 
near the north as was feasible, the two short thin sla})s (Stones VI. and 
VII.) are on the extreme left. 

i i' i ii i| ' i 'T MmiHMini ii|ii iii| i |i i ii i| |i |i| i I I r r 

R 5 10 19 to t5 30 

1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 \raz. 

Fig. 38. Tyre-bagger, or Standing Stones of Dyce. 

CoiiclusiofL — The first result o})tjiined by the survey here recorded is 
that in fifteen of the stone circles still possessing features sufficiently 
definetl for julmeasurcment, three distinct types are exemplified : first, the 
tyi>e having oidy the free-st-inding pillar stones, as Craighead, Cairn- 
f judd, and Glassel ; second, the type comprising the pillar stones plus one 
or more interior stone-settings, as Cairnwell; and thirdly, the type^ 
wliich is characterised by the most striking feature of the Recum})ent 
Stone, which is in situ at Old JJourtree IJush, AuclKpihorthies, Raes of 
Clune, Garrol, Esslie (the greater), and Tomnagom, Midniar Kirk, Sean- 

^ Archasologuif vol. xxii. p. 411. 

•'-* Drawings and measurements of many circles of this type in Aberdeenshire were 
made so long ago as 1S62 by Dr (now Sir) Arthur Mitchell, to whose note-books I am 
indebted for information regarding them. 











hiniiy, and Tyrbagger, and, though out of place, visible at Esslie tlie 
smaller, if we include the Auld Kirk of Tough as having oidy within the 
last twenty years or so b<M»n liereft of its Recuniljent Stone, it is evident 
that this tliiitl type is the type of this district. In this tliird typical 
group, also, there exist remains of at least one interior stiuussetting. The 
next result is, tliat in the circles having the Recumbent Stone, the |>osition 
nf that stone varies in its orientation from a point S.E. of tlie c(»ntre t«) 
S. and S.W. Further, its position in relaticm to the stones on the cir- 
cumference is variable. In the greiit Auchquhorthies examjile it stands 
well within the circumference ; in all the others, unless we except Plsslie 
(the greater) as presenting difficulties not now lightly to l>e explained, 
the Kijcumlx'-nt Stone is placed on the circumference, thougli n«>t always 
upon st> well-<letined a ridge as that upon which the free stone.s stand. 
Again, tlie intervals l)etween the stones are far from regular ; assurciUy, 
they have not been placed with exact spacing, such a,s would have l^een 
employed if, e.g., we supiM)se that the circles were erected in media* val 
times or by people influenced by p(»st-Konmn science. I have not 
yet foun<l any intenti<mal gaps }>etween any two stones, for instan<!C 
on the N.E. arc ' or the S.W. arc ; and, in a<ldition U^ this, these cin'les 
exhibit a want of exactness in the relation of the two stones which 
mark the extremes of the main diametei-s. These diameters are in 
scarcely any instance * oriented' to any point of the compass as we under- 
stand the term. For even in such examples as possess two stcmes 
pmctically at the north and the south points, the line between them so 
rarely })isects the circle, that we may safely conclude that the position of 
the stones was accidental. 

Then^ does exist one feature, however, in several of the circles which 
the measurements of this survey emphasise: this is, that the stones rise 
in height as tln'y approach the Recumbent St<.)ne — a feature already 
noted by the Rev. James Peter in the circle at Aikey Brae, Old Deer. 
(See Proc, xix. p. 375.) How far this rise; in height is intentional, and 

^ Mr A. L. Liewis, who ha« examined many stone* circles, claims this as a feature 
directly connected with their use as astronomical observatories. 



^^*' F^si&z- it is regular, are moot ix^ints, perhaps ; but the evidence suggests 

^iit 4A t 2i.nyrate the Recumbent Stone was of the liighest importance, the 

*^Ur fcs'toxies nearest being usually the largest and most prominent. V^mi 

pi^eis^i ^iieaning or purpose, pmctical or symlnjlic, governed the placing 

th:i.£^ |)articular stone, we are not yet in a i)08ition to explain; and 

^^ t*Ac^<:jries> already so lavishly proi)ound<'d appear to me so inter- 

'^*>ntrffx,^3.ictory, and the majority of them t<^ lie built ui)on so very slim a 

ound.i^-^-j^jjj of fact, that we ris<* from a perusal uf them, interested, 

IKWsil-^Xjv^, hut not convinced. 

^^ ^^^1)68 of stone circle found in the north-eastern jxjrtion of Scotland 

*\V> «^^ :^ter all, Imj quite distinct from the types of those existing, say, 

"^^^^meijs and Perthshire, or in (Jalloway; and without comi)etent 

*^^^tion we caiuiot assume that their meaning and purpose and 

^^ "t-^r are the same everywhere. Yet, so far as direct evidence has 

^^-^^^"fctainetl through rightly conducted excavations, the outstanding 

^"^^ of all the Scottish stone circles that have been thus investigated 

, ^ presence within them of interments of the Bronze Age.^ Any 

^ use or purpose of these stone-encircled areas has yet to be 

.. "^i , And I would submit, that, with a view to the {iscertauiment of 

. I ~^^ ^'er-ground phenomena,'^ waiving excavation in the meantime, the 

e . ^^">iethod to be employed is to institute a complete survey of these 

I . - -^"^uishing remains, in onler that we may become jwssessed of a foun- 

^"^ of facts as trustworthy as possible. As portions of this subject 

which we still want definite information, we may state these 

Maci'^^ ^ ^At the Recumbeut Stoue was, c*/., the lintel of the doorway to a broch (MiHS 
au<l --^^^"^^^n*8 Hill Farts) ; tliat it was an altar upon wliich Druid priests offered human 

ttfim ^^,^-^icr sacrifices (Stukeley, Aubrey, and their school) ; that the circles were Viking 
Wa^-^ ^ ^^=5:8 of (XUii and Courts of Jiutice (MaccuUoch, Hibbort, llarry, and, alas ! Sir 
HHim. ^^^' "^»Scott) ; that they are but tlic rini-stoncs of Cairns (Lukis) ; tliat they were 

* ^^^- "^iples and observatories (Lewis and other writers). 
aVHJfc'Xr- ^^« l^*ve no record of any excavation having been made in seven of the sites 
coi^^m^^ described. But regarding eight other sites in whicli excavation was rightly 
^^i^^s ^^^ ^ted, we (lossess distinct descriptions of remains fountl ; and these remains 
*%. '^'te burnt burials, sometimes in cists, at other times without cists. 
"^^-cxie^tHrf i/t Pagan Times, 




items : Wliat is the geograpliical distribution of the tnie stone circle, 
i.e., an area more or less circular enclosed by free standing pillar 
stones? To what extent do circles of this type possess, within their 
area, in addition (as I have shown many in the district under notice do 
possess), one or more Jipproxiniately circular stone settings? In wliat 
proportion to tlie simple circles of free standing stones do the circle* 
with the Recumbent Stone stand? Is the interior of thcj circle sonie- 
times on a higher level than the level of the ground outside of tlie 
pillar stones, as notably at Craighead, and in a sjyecial manner at Tomiia- 
goni ? Is the feature of the rising in height of the pillar stones, as they 
approach the Kecuml)ent Stone, a constant one ? In short, we require 
definite information on the mere external details of the various types of 
stone circles to such an extent as to render any attempt at making a 
proper classification of them at present impossible. 



3 ! 










Old Bourtreebush 

Auchquliorthies . ' 

Cairn well . . ' 
CYaighead . 
Raes of Cluiie 

Caimfauld . . | 
Qarrol Woo<l 

Esslie (the greater) 

Esslio (the smaller) 

Glassel . . 

Auld Kirk of Tough I 


Midmar Kirk 

Scanhinny . 

Echt ... 


Tyrebagger, orDycc! 




DiametefK. Peculiar Features. 


100' X 75' Recumbent SU>ne 

I (on S.E.) 

97'x74'«" I Recumbent Stone 


30' X 30' Triple-concentric 

(?) 33' X 24' 

75'x75' I 

89' X 73'6'' 



SO' X 70' 




39' X -'JG' 

Kecumlient Stone 
(on S.) 

Recumbent SU)ne , 
(on S.) ' 

Recumbent Stone 

(on S.S.W.) 
Recumlient Stone 

(on S.S.W.) I 

Reoumi>ent Stone 
I (i)robablyou SS.W.) 

Recun)1>ent St<>ne 
I (on S.W.) 

Recumbent Stone ; 
I (on S.W.) 

Recumbent Sterne 

(on S.W.) 
Several circles of 
set s^me8 mm-con- 
centric within area 
Recumbent Stone 

(on S.W.) 

Recumlient Stouc 

(on S.W.) 

Relics found. 

None recorded 

Cist : fragments of urn and cal- I 

cined bones 
Fragments of Ave urns and frag I 

ments of bones and charcoal 
No record 
No record 

Human bones in the centre 
None recorded 

Remains of a cist and uf i 

human remains 
Remains, probably of a cist ' 

No rect)rd 1 

No reconi 

Remains of cist extant 

No record 

I)eiM)8it8 of incinerated hunes 

No record, and site almost un. 

No record, interior undisturlnrd 

No record 



22nd May 1650. By A. G. REID, F.S.A. Scot. 

1 lately purchased, at an auction sale in Edinburgh, an odd volume, 
being tlie 2nd of the MUrellanij of the Maitland Club, In going over 
the Wigton l^apers in that volume, I discovered an original pai)er bear- 
ing the 8uperscrij)tion of King Charles II., entitled "Instruction for S"^ 
WiUiam Fleming, Kn^". " Given at Breda, fj-th day of May 1650." It 
is of considerable historical interest. His ^lajesty states that he had 
heard a report of a fight })etween Lieutenant-( teneral David Lesley and 
the Marquis of Montrose, wherein tlie forces of tlie ^larquis were totally 
routed and defeated ; and that on Sir William Fleming^s arrival in Scot- 
land, if he should find this to be the case, he should carefully conceal the 
letter directed to the Committee of P^states; but in the event of the 
news being untrue, the letter should be delivered. These instructions 
do not form part of the AVigton Pai)ers published in the Miscellany, and 
so far as known have not })een printed. 

Sir James Balfour states^: ** Saturday, 25th May 1650: A letter 
from the King's Majesty to Parliament, dated from Breda, 12th May 
1650, showing that he was heartily sorry that James (5raham had 
invaded this Kingdom, and how he had discharged him from doing the 
same, and earnestly desired the Estates of l^arliament to do himself that 
Justice as not to l^elieve that he was accessory to the said invasion in 
the least degree, — reiid. 

"^Vlso a double of His Majesty's letter to James (Jraham, dated 15th 
of May 1650, conunanding him to lay down arms and secure all the 
ammunition under his charge, — read in tlie house. 

'*The House remits to the Committee of Despatches to answer His 
Majesty's letter to the Parliament." 

* Balfour's Aatmlsy vol. iv. p. 24. 


The teruis of the letter from the King to the Parliament,^ dated 18th 
May 1650, are quite different fn)ni those in the letter of the 12th as 
given by Sir James Rilfoiir. He expresses no regret that ^Ioutros<» has 
invaded the Kingdom, and he tloes not disclaim his having lM»en accessory 
thereto. He merely states that he had given satisfaction to the Commis- 
sioners, and laid the foundation of a happy agreement and perfect imder- 
standing between them and him " for tlie time to come, Iwing resolved to 
cast ourselfe on the allections of that our ancient Kingdom of Scotland, 
and to endeavour the good and peace thereof in all things to the utter- 
most of our power,'' and that he had accordingly given orders for tlie 
disbanding of the Forces, and for their withdrawing out of the Kingdom. 

Private instructions- were given to Sir William Fleming, dated 
19th May 1650, to sec Montrose, and if the prevailing party in 
Scotland were not satisfied with the concessions he had granteil to 
them, that Montrose should not lay down arms; that if His ^lajesty's 
friends in Scotland did not think fit that ^lontrose should lay down 
arms, "then as many as can may repair to him, and if Sir William 
Fleming should see if the ^fanpiis have a considerable numbi»r of men, 
and if he have, you must use your best indevt^r to get them not to be 
disbanded, but if Montrose be weke then he should disband." 

From these documents it is clear that Sir AVilliam Fleming's instruc- 
tions were, if he found ^Montrose still in strength, His Majesty's letter 
should not 1)0 produced to Parliament, but, if otherwise, that the letter 
should be pr(Kluce<l. 

These instru(;ti«ins were given before hciuing of the discomfiture of 
Montrose at Corbiesdale, and there is no dubiety about their imjwrt. 
Those n«)w exhibited were written after his disiistrous defeat, and 
by them Sir William Fleming was carefully instructed, in the event 
of bis finding the news to be true, t»r that the Marquis should not Ik; 
within the Kiugilom of Scotland, the letter to Parliament should not bo 
delivered and be carefully concealed ; but that if he foun<l tlu' news 

' " Wi^tou PaiHjrs," MisctU>nt>f of Ih Moithnol Cli(h, vol. ii. p. 478. 
'•' ** Wigton I*a|»ers," xli. 


iiiitnie, .iiul the Marquis in coiiaidemble force, tlie letter should be 
«l«livered to the Parliament, to the end that by their direction Montrose 
might 1m» induc(Ml t<» lav down arms, nceoi*ding to his express onler on 
tliat Ixdialf. 

The tenor of these secret instructions api>eai's contradictor v. Accoi-ding 
t:« » the instructions given previous to the news of Montrose's defeat, the 
1 cotter to Parliament was not to be delivered in the event of ^fontrose 
^ >«ing able to hold liis own, while the instructions given afti»r his <li8- 
<*<iniliture were that it should Ik? delivered on nf) account if the tidings 
*->f his defeat should prove to be true. 

It is diflicult to reconcile the two sets of instructions, but the letter 
X ^ow exhil»ited proves that Sir William Fleming disobeyed his ultimate 
*->T<lcrs, and, notwithstanding of the instructions to conceal the letter, on 
^^nding that Montrose was routed, it was produced to Parliament. 

It seems to be matter of inquiry if Sir William Fleming, on finding 
^lontrt»se utterly defeated, and subsequently condemned and executed, 
^ lid not think it a matter of worMIy prudence, in conjiuiction with His 
^lajesty's supjwrters in Scotland, to disreganl His Majesty's ultimate 
^-jrders to pi-oduce the letter, and with the view of conciliating the party 
i u power, disingenuously to disavow the authority given to Montrose. 

The followuig is a copy of the letter : — 

Charles R. — Instruction for S*" William Fleming, Kn^ 

As scone as you arrive in Scotland you shall carefully informe yo^^ selfe con- 
<3eming the Report that is lately come hither of a fight betweene L^ Q'rall David 
Xiealey and the Marquis of Montrose, wherein (as it is said) the forces of the 
^«aid Marquis were totally routed and defeated, and if you find the same to be 
Urue, or that he be not in the Kingdome of Scotland, then our pleasure is that 
>'ou doe not deliver our Letter directed to the Parliam^ or Committee of 
i^^tates, but that you carefully conceale the same, and do not communicate it to 
€*ny i)erson whatsoever. But if upon enquiry you find that either there hath 
>>ecn no such tight, or that notwithstanding the same, the forces of the said 
^larquis of Montrose are still in a considerable IxkIv, you are then to deliver 
t..bc8riid lictter to the Parlia"*^ to the end that by their direction therein, the 
**aid Marquis of Montrose may l>e induced to lay downc amies iiumediatly, 
^According to our ex]>re8se order in that I>eholfe. IJiven at Breda, the *f Hi»« day 
«.>f May HmO. 

The document is in the handwriting of an amanuensis, with tlie cxcep- 


tion of an interlineation, " or that he be not in the Kingdome of Scot- 
land," which is holograph of tlie King. 



Although the existence of the large and imjwrtant earth-house at 
l*itcur has been known to this Society for many years, the Society's 
volumes of Proceedings contjiin as yet no representtition of the place. It 
is for this reason that T now submit a brief description of this interesting 
structure, illustrated by a carefully-executed diagram of its ground plan,^ 
with some sectional views. 

It is situated in a field on the farm of Pitcur, 2J miles south-east of 
Coupar- Angus, and it is locally known as *The Cave.' Access to it may be 
obtained either by entering a gate on the east side of the public road 
opposite the ancient tower and modern farm-house of Pitcur ; or other- 
wise it may be approached from the south side of the farm-house of 
* Leys t)f Ilallyburton,' which is only a few hundred yanls from *The 
Cave.' A protective post-and-wire fence marks the spot ; and that por- 
tion of the structure which is still roofed over is further safeguarded by 
having a locked door at its entrance {r in the ground plan), the key of 

which is kept by the lodge-keeper, at the main entnmci^ to llaliyUaiton 
House. Visitors to the * Cave ' will therefore hmx in mind Uiat the iipsl 
stop is to obtain the key, if the original appearnuce of the building bt to b 
lu-operly understood ; for the greater part of thf eartli-hou^e is a cumiJfii- 
wreck, and only the; roofed-in portion remains luuiltere*? "' — "' 

It will be seen from tlie ground plan (iig. 1) that * 
longer and ui»>ri' varied than most of its congene 

' The oriontatiou of the «{rouii(l )ilan is obtained from 
vcy : Tor wliicli I have to cx|ii-css my indebtedness to 

Ikecliwood. ( .'oiij)<ii -Angus. 





Cross section, a—b. 

Doorway at tf. 

Entrance to covered 
IK>rtiou at r. 

Elevation and section 
of recess at c» 

o K to 

Scale ^ Ret 


Fig. 1. Ground Plan and Sections of Earth-House at Pitcur, Forfarshire. 


The Pitciir earth-house had at least three separate entrances, namely, 
at the j)oints //, t, and ./. The subsidiary room appears also to have had an 
independent connection with the outside world, at the ^loint </, ajid per- 
ha|)s also at ./', thou^li tlie latter may only mark a fireplace or air-hole, 
for the condition of the ruin makes it difficult for one to speak with 
certainty. The entrance at », wliich slopes rapidly downwanl, is roofed 
all the way to </; and consequently this short passage remains in its 
orij^inal suite. 

Within the covered i)ortion, and quite ne^ir its entrance, a well-built 
recess (^ in the plan) seems clearly to have l>een used as ji fireplace, 
although the orifice which ju'csumably once connected it with the upper 
air is now covered over. Another and a smaller recess in the covero<l 
portion (/r in the plan) can hai'<lly have Ix^en a fireplace, and it is diffi- 
cult to know what it was used as. 

One other point of int(»rest is the presence of two cup-marked stones 
(p and 7 on the i)lan). Of these, the former is lying isolate<l on the 
surface of the ground near the entrance i, while the latter forms one of 
th(» wall stones ])cside the doorway c. Curiously enough, the two cuj)- 
marked stones in the earth-house at Tealing, in th(» same county of 
Forfar, occupy exactly similar jKJsitions. The j)resence of these cuj>- 
iiiarked stones at l^itcur, however, is only mentioned here as a necessary 
iletail of th(? description. For, as Dr Anderson remarks^ in connection 
with the stones at Tealing, such cup-marked stones are found in various 
situations, and their occurrence in connection with that earth-house 
" has tlicrefore no special significance witli respect to the age of the 
structure, and there is nothing in the association or the circumstanctis in 
wliich they occur in this ])articular instance winch contributes to our 
knowledge of the puri)osc or significance of the markings themselves. 
They may or may nr>t have ]>een scul])tured on the stone l)efore it was 
taken to form part of this underground gallery." These observations, 
made with reference to the cu])-niarked stones at Tealing, are equally 
a]>]>licable to those at Pitcin'. 

i ScoUandin Paffm Timrs : Tlu- Irtm Ay\ Kdiuburgh, 1883, pp. 299-300. 


1 mile north of Mudhall ; ^ one at Ruthven, 5 miles north-east of Cou par- 
Grange ; *^ five at Airlie,^ 2 miles north-east of Ruthven, of which one still 
survives, thanks to the care of a former Earl of Airlie, who, at the time 
of its discovery in the latter part of last century, inserted a special 
clause in the lease of the farm on which it is situated, stipulating that 
the tenant in all time coming should be bound to do no damage to the 
earth-house ; "* and lastly, there was an earth-house at Meigle, 4 miles 
north of Pitcur, of which a portion is believed yet to exist within the 
grounds of the manse.^ 

Thus the Pitcur earth-house and the specimens at Tealing and Airlie, 
altogether only three in number, are the only survivors of a scattered 
group of about twenty, which have been discovered at various times 
during the last four or five generations. Special precautions have pre- 
served the Airlie specimen intact, and that at Tealing appears to have 
been fairly well looked after. It is a matter of regret tliat the Pitcur 

with rough whinstones. In their length they were not straight, but a portion of 
a circle. It would seem that they had been roofed with wood, and covered above 
with earth and turf."* The foregoing is extracted from an unpublished MS. of the 
late Rev. George Brown, minister of Bendochy, with reference to which his son, the 
Rev. James Brown, Elchies, Morayshire, observes (2nd January 1900): *' There 
were no traces of these ' earth-houses * left by the time my father became minister of 
Bendochy. In his MS. he distinctly states that the discovery was made on the 
estate of Miul/tall. As to the Coupar-Grange affair, I rather think it was a different 
building entirely. At least Pennant's description of the remains in his Second 
Tour points that way." It may be explained that Coupar-Grange lies about 1 
mile to the north of Mudhall. It is therefore quite possible that the earth-house 
referred to in Pennant's Tour 7nay have been one of those on Mudhall. On the 
other hand, the fact that Coupar-Grange is specified seems to indicate that the weem 
was situated within the lands of Coupar-Grange. 
^ See preceding note. 

* " In a brae south of the Kirk of Ruthven there vxis a weem," says Dr Marshall 
{Hi'sforic Scenes in Forfarshire, p. 153). 

^ Dr Anderson {Scotland in Pagan Times: The Iron Age, p. 292) specifies "a 
group of five," four of which appear to have been obliterated during recent times. 

* For accounts of this weem see the Society's Proceedings^ vol. v. pp. 352-355, and 
Plate XXI. ; also The Antiquary for July 1898 (Elliot Stock, London). 

^ This I was informed some years ago by a local worthy, who stated that the weem 
crossed the present road in front of the manse, but had been greatly destroyed at the 
time the road was made or modified. 



DfiSCRlPTlON 01? AN EARtlt-IlOUSfi At PtTCUtJ. 21 1 

^rt.lx-liou8e, which is of much greater importance in size and character, 
should have undergone so much destruction since its discovery; but 
ther-^ i *3 at least this consolation, that the small portion of it which has 
esca- j>^^cl ruin is now carefully safeguarded by the proprietor. 

'^ix^crc the above paper was read, several interesting facts have come 

^ ^"*-y laiowledge. Acting upon the suggestion of Dr Anderson, I placed 

mya^ljf in communication with Mr A. Granger Heiton, F.S.A. Scot., son 

^' ^Xx* John Granger, tenant of the farm of Pitcur, who was at the 

exp^i:!.^^ of excavating the earth-house, or a portion of it, at the time of 

its discovery in 1878. 

, ' ^'*x« objects found by him," writes Mr Heiton, " were (1) a small red clay 

^^^ o:^ Samian ware in pieces, afterwards put together and found to be com- 

r*^^^ » (2) a Roman com. One or two other coins were reported as having 

^®*V^"Oimd, but were not seen by him. These two articles were the only ones 

j?^**^J^ \)y members of my family. ... I am of oninion that our knowledge of 

^f^^J^^^xlding could and should be greatly increasea by a systematic examination 

pj^ ^^ ^oil in and around the builoing ; the soil never havinjg been sifted. The 

^^l*^*'i^tor would doubtless give permission if approached in the name of the 

^V-irther learned from Mr Heiton that the earth-house described in 

^^ X^S^s is quite sejmrate and distinct from that Pitcur earth-house, a 

"^^^^^Xi of whose contents was given to the Museum as far back as 13th 

-^ 1863.^ Hitherto, having been unaware of the fact that the large 

^^ — ^ouse had not been discovered until 1878, 1 had assumed tliat the 

, ^^ in the Museum had come from it instead of from the structure 

*~^- had been unearthed fifteen years earlier. With regard to this 

^ — ^^ouse last referred to, Mr Heiton writes : — 

chi^,^^^t^^ to the other find on the farm [of Pitcur], I have heard of an underground 
on^^^^^^^^r having been discovered in a sandy knoll in a field called Ballo-field, 
Bal'i^^^^ S.W. of the farm, and just below the road leading between Pitcur and 
^gix^^^^ larms. Mr Hood [who presented the relics to the Society in 1863] was 
jjft,^^?^^^'^ of Pitcur at that time, but I only heard of the discovery fifteen years 
^(^^w ^t took ^lace, when all trace had disappeared, and only the vague descrip- 
^^^ the grieve who was at the discovery was to be obtained." 

'^^T Society, therefore, does not at present ])ossess any relics from the 

^>. ^«e p. 244 of Catalogue: HD, (1, 2) fragments of red embossed lustrous ware, 
^ ^tut chip, (4) bodkin of bone, found along with iron implements. 


earth-house described in the foregoing pages ; but by the favour of Mr 
W. D. Graham Menzies of Hallyburton and Pitcur, F.S.A. Scot., the bowl 
found in 1878 has been sent for exliibition, and a representation of it is 
now here figured, elucidated by a description from the pen of Dr Joseph 

[The Samian lx)wl, wliich has been reconstructed so far as the pieces 
fit togetlier and is shown in fig. 4, is 8 inches in diameter and 5 inches 
high. It is of the usual form of these bowls, with ornamentation in 
relief, having a rounded lip, underneath which is a plain band 1 J inches 
in depth. Under the plain band is the usual band of festoon and tassel 
ornament. Below this on the round of the lower part of the )x)wl is a 
band of ornament in relief arranged in panels or spaces separated verti- 
cally by wavy lines. These panels are wider at the top than at the 
bottom, in conformity with the rounded shape of the bowl, and are also 
of different widths. In the first panel to the left (as shown in fig. 4), 
which is subdivided across the middle of its height, there is in tlie upper 
part a bird within a medallion, and Ijelow it a hare. Below the hare are 
two small circles in relief. In the next panel, which is not subdivided, 
is a standing figure nude, and bearing a pabn branch in the right hand. 
Underneath is a dog at speed. The tliird panel is a repetition ,of the 
first. The fourth is double the width, and contains at the top a lion in 
the act of springing, enclosed in a half circle ; underneath is the sub- 
division of the panel by a row of five small circles between two Iwrtlcrs 
of wavy lines. In the lower sulxlivision of the panel is another lion also 
about to leap. The fifth panel repeats the first and third. In the sixth 
panel is another standing figure nude, tluj upper part broken away. 

With this bowl there are fragments of at least two other Samian Iwwls 
and a portion of the lip of a vessel of tlie ordinary coarse native pottery.] 

It is interesting to note that both in tlic; earth-house discovered in 1863 
— of which, unhappily, no trace now survives — and in the large earth- 
house still existing, there were found fragments of * Samian' ware. 
Specimens of this ware were also found in the earth-houses of Tealing 
and Fithie, both in Forfarshire ; and thus there are four underground 








sites on record, in this one county, in which this particular ware has been 

Unfortunately, the Roman coin which was picked up at the same time 
as the bowl has been lost sight of ; temporarily, it may be hoped. Nor 
does there appear to be any trace of the "one or two other coins 
reported as having been found." 

It would furtlier seem that Mr Granger's excavation of 1878 was only 
partial, followed afterwards by supplementary excavation on the part of 
the late proprietor, Mr R. Stewart Menzies, M.P., with the result that 
many more objects were exhumed. The Hally burton forester, who 
superintended these later excavations, speaks of " a bronze pin," as well 
as of a quantity of " stones, beads, etc.," all taken from this earth-house. 
And Sir Arthur Mitchell, who visited the place in company with the late 
proprietor, and who saw the whole collection of objects recovered, retains 
the impression that these numl)ered from one to two hundred, " many, of 
course, fragments, and many of no value." The numerous articles thus 
indicated by Sir Arthur Mitchell and the Hallyburton forester seem to 
have been mislaid — it is hoped not irretrievably — some time after the 
death of the late Mr Stewart Menzies. 

[The Society is indebted to Mr MacRitcliie for the use of the blocks 
of the ground i)hm, and interior views of the Earth-House.] 




1. On the farm of Moray town, in the parish of Dalcross, Inverness- 
shire, on the 19th June 1899, a stone cist was discovered during agricul- 
tural operations. It measured 4 feet 3 inches by 2 feet 2 inches, and 
consisted of four large slalis of sandstone peculiar to the district. One 
of the side slabs had fallen outwards, causing the covering slab, which 
was of unusual size, to fall into the grave. 

It contained a skeleton very much decomposed, but sufficient remained 
to show the position of the body, which lay doubled up with the head to 
the north. Portions of the skull and of the thigh and leg bones were 
distinguishable. Although a careful search was made, no implements or 
ornaments were found. 

2. On the 21st of June 1899, a little to the east, a second cist was 
found of similar structure. In this case the skeleton was remarkably 
well preserved, and lay doubled up with the head to the east. The skull 
was well formed and of the Brachycephalic type, with teeth well pre- 
served. Tliree small flat jet beads, but no imj)lements, were found. 
The skull was preserved. 

In grave No. 1 the body lay on the right side, while in No. 2 it lay on 
the left. 

3. On the same evening, 21st June, a little to the east of grave No. 2, 
a circular pit, built with water- worn stones, was discovered. It was in 
shape like an inverted bee-hive, and not quite circular, as the diameter 
varied from 30 to 34 inches. From the floor of this chamber an arched 
passage built of the same kind of stones extended 8 feet to tlie west and 
ended in a chamber 39J inches by 30^ inches. The height of the 
arched passivge at the east end was 17 inches, and at the west 26 inches ; 
and about 18 inches wide. 

In the circular chamber were found shells of the oyster, mussel, and 



cockle, with bones of some large bird, and of a small animal, possibly the 
rabbit, along with several jaws of some carnivorous animal, perhaps the 

Much credit is due to Mr Macdonald for the great care he took to 
have the remains thoroughly examined. 

Mr Macdonald possesses an iron axe of peculiar shape (fig. 1), found on 

Fig. 1. Iron Axe of peculiar shape found at! Moray town. 

the same farm in 1876 ; and a stone axe (fig. 2), 7 by 4} inches, said to 
have been found at Culbin Sands ; although there can be little doubt of 
its having come from the West Indies, as it is evidently of the special 
form peculiar to the Caribbean area. He also possesses a steel implement 
found at Alves in 1885, at the place where Cumberland rested on his 
way to Culloden. The iron axe cannot be very old, but the peculiar 


hook shape of the cutting part makes it interesting. The edge, of 
course, is on the side away from the handle. It could not well be 

Fig. 2, Stone Axe said to have been found on Culbin 
Sands, but probably Caribbean. 

used as a hook. The steel implement may have been the point of a 
lance, or the top of a pole to which a standard had been fixed. 


Monday, I2tk February 1900. 
Mr gilbert GOUDIE in the Chair. 

Before proceeding to the ordinary business : — . 

The meeting resolved to record its sense of the great loss the Society 
has sustained in the recent death of its President, The Marquess of 
Lothian. Elected as President of the Society in 1876, his Lordship held 
that office without intermission for nearly a quarter of a century, continu- 
ing during that long period to take a warm interest in all its affairs ; 
and to the influence which he exerted, and the sagacious advice he was 
ever ready to give, the present prosperous condition of the Society, as 
well as that of the National Museum under its charge, may in a great 
measure be ascribed. 

In the latter part of Lord Lothian's Presidency, the value of his 
counsel and guidance was specially conspicuous in promoting the success 
of the long and arduous efTorts of the Society to obtain from Government 
adequate accommodation for the Museum, which had far outgrown the 
space originally assigned to it in the Royal Institution ; and, subsequently, 
when that accommodation had been sujiplied by the generous gift to the 
nation by the late Mr John Ritchie Findlay of this spacious building, in 
obtaining tlie niean.s to provide for the adecpiate exhibition of this 
Collection and for the maintenance of tlie increased staff. More recently 
the Society was again inde])ted to Lord Lothian for his servicer in 
securing an annual grant from the Treasury for purchases for the 
Museum and the Library attachwl to it ; and in successfully defending 
the claim of our National Museum to the first choice in the purchase of 
articles specially ai»pertaining to Scotland. 

But it wjis not only in the Inisiness of the Society that Lord Lothian's 
influence as an arclueologist was beneficially exercised. He took an 
intelligent interest in the science of archaeology, and he showed an 
example which it would be well that others should follow, in the 


judicious, careful, and cautious manner in which he renovated and re- 
paired the Abbey of Jedburgh, excavated the Roman remains at Oxnam, 
uncovered and marked out the foundations of the Abbey Church at 
Newbattle, and cleared away the modem obstructions that veiled or hid 
the remains of the Abbey buildings within the house. 

The many important services rendered by Lord Lothian during his 
long tenure of office were all the more appreciated from his unfailing 
loyalty to the interests of the Society, and the frank and genial manner in 
which he discharged the duties of the Presidentship. 

The meeting likewise resolved to record its great regret at the unex- 
pected death of Dr James Macdonald, one of tlie most distinguished 
Fellows of the Society. Dr Macdonald showed the archaeological bent 
of liis mind at an early period of his busy professional career by under- 
taking, in 1860, the superintendence of the excavation of Burghead on 
behalf of the Elgin Literary and Scientific Society, and by writing the 
admirable historical notice of the place and description of the excava- 
tions which appears in the fourth volume of our Proceedings, In 1874, 
when Rector of the Ayr Academy, Dr ^Macdonald became a Fellow of the 
Society, and was subsequently transferred to the Rectorship of the Kelvin- 
side Academy, on his retirement from which he had leisure to devote 
himself with greater ardour to antiquarian pursuits. In 1890 he became 
a member of the Council of the Society, from 1893 to 1896 he held the 
office of Vice-President, and afterwards, till his lamented death, acted as 
one of the Foreign Secretaries. In all these positions Dr Macdonald's 
sagacious counsel was highly valued ))y his colleagues, to whom he was 
also endeared by the charm of a singularly gentle and amial)le disposition. 
Their appreciation of his extensive and accurate knowledge of Roman 
Uterature and antiquities in particular, was evidenced by his ai)pointment 
to the Rhind Lectureship for 1897 on the Roman Occupation of Scotland, 
and it is to be hoped that the work founded on his course of lectures, 
upon which he had been engaged for some years, is sufficiently advanced 
for publication. 

The Secretaries were instructed to forward copies of these resolutions 


to The Marchioness of Lothian and to Mrs Macdonald, from whom the 
following replies have been received : — 

Nkwbattle Abbey, 21«t February 1900. 

Sir, — I have received the copy of the Minute recordinff the feelings of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland at the death of Lord Lothian. 

I would ask you to assure the members of the Society that I have received 
most gratefullv, and value most highly, this expression of the esteem in which 
they held Lord Lothian. I am very glad to remember the details of those ser- 
vices which Lord Lothian delighted, I know, to render to the cause for which 
the Society of Antiquaries labours ; and to possess the testimony of such a bodv 
to the manner in which he advanced the cause of Archaeology generally. Such 
a record, so kindly made by your Society, shall always be gratefully cherished 
by myself and my family. — Believe me, faitlifully yours, 

Victoria A. LoTHIA^^ 

To D. Christison, Esq. 


19^^ February 1900. 

Dear Sir, — I am desired by my mother to acknowledge receipt of your letter 
of 16th inst., inclosinc copy of Minute of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotlajid, 
with reference to my late father, Dr Macdonald. She begs you to convey her 
grateful thanks to the Society for the kindly and appreciative terms of their 
resolution.— Yours faithfully, 

D. W. Macdonald. 

To D. Christison, Esq. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentlemen were duly elected 
Fellows : — 

William Johnston, M.D., Lt.-Col. (retired), Army Medical Staff, 

of Newton Dee, Murtle, Aberdeenshire. 
William Lawrence Taylor, Broad Street, Peterhead. 

The following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on 
the table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By Robert Shiells, F.S.A. Scot, Neenah, Wisconsin, United 
States of America. 

Indian Socketed Spear-head or Knife of native copper, 4^ inches iii 
length by 1 J inches in breadth, from Neenah, Wisconsin. 

Two Luckenbooth Brooches, three small Pendant Crosses (of the shape 
shown in fig. 1), a Circular Mounting with five included circles, and 


eleven small Buckles, all cut out of thin sheet brass, found together in 
excavating an Indian mound at Kaukauna, Outagamie Co., State of^ 

Mr Shiells has supplied the facts for the following account of the 
locality and circumstances connected with the discovery of these curious 

Fig. 1. Luckenbooth Brooch aud Cross found in an Indian nionnd. (g.) 

reb'cs of the old intercourse between the British and the Indians. Kaukauna 
is on the Fox River, 23 miles W. of (xrecjn Bay, which is one of the very 
oldest settlements in North America, at the south end of a large bay of 
Lake Michigan and the moutli of the Fox River. It was the seat of a 
Jesuit Mission, and a depot for the fur traders. The river was the high- 
way to the Mississippi. Its sources are on the south side of the water-shed 
of Lake Superior. It runs in a southerly course to the city of Portage, 
where it turns easterly to the bay. The Wisconsin River pursues a 
similar course to Portage, where a sliglit water-shed deflects it westerly 
to the Mississippi. The two rivers come within three or four miles of 
each other and are now joined by a canal. The Indian traders used to 
take their canoes up the Fox River by Kaukauna and Xeenah to Portage, 
carry them over the slight ridge, and go down the Wisconsin to Prairie 
du Chien on the Mississippi. Mr P. V. Liwsun, ex-Mayor of Menasha, 
has written an account of the circumsUmces in which these Luckenbooth 
brooches, crosses, and other trade articles came to be ]>uried in the Indian 
mounds on this route. The method of obtaining the friendship of the 
Indian tribes during the occupation of the French and English was by 
making presents to the savages. By lavish gift-making the British had 
the strong support of all the savage tribes of the north-west, even after 


the treaty of 1789, and up to and all through the war of 1812. From 
memoranda found in the Canadian archives it appears that there were 
given to a chief from the upper country, among other items: "three 
hundred brooches, twelve pair ear-bobs." In 1814, in the official list of 
goods sent to Green Bay for distribution were " eighteen hundred and 
seventy-four brooches, twelve hundred and fifty ear-bobs." By means of 
such gifts nearly every tribe in the great north-west fought on the 
British side. 

(2) By Mr Andrew Law, through Mr G. L. Soott Elliot. 

Digging Stone of purplish steatite, 6J inches diameter, perforated by 
an aperture made from both sides, 2 J inches diameter ; and Perforated 
Disc of yellowish sandstone, 1^ inches diameter, both from Tanganyika, 
Central Africa. 

Mr Scott Elliot sends the following account of the Digging Stone : — 
Mr Andrew Law, for a long time stationed at Tanganyika in charge of 
the African Lakes Company's post there, and also subsequently in various 
places in British Central Africa in forts of the British South Africa 
Company, sent this to me through tlie kind offices of Captain Boileau, R.E. 
Mr Law stated that this stone was dug up, and was the most perfect 
that he had ever seen. The use of the stone was not known to the 
present inha})itants of the country, and Mr I-aw was himself not aware of 
the manner in whicli the Bushmen of the Kalahari use similar instru- 
ments. It seems prohalJe that it is tlierefore a relic of the former occu- 
pation of this ])art of Africa by tribes which have now been driven into 
the extreme Soutli l)y the advance southwards of natives allied to the 
Zulus. A stick pushed through the hole would, undoubtedly, be a good 
instrument for levering up large tubers and bull)s, which form a consider- 
able part of the Buslimen's food. 

(3) By ^Ir W. G. Stewart, Makarora, New Zealand. 

Rudely-made Axe of jade, 4 inches in length by 2J inches in breadth 
and I inches in thickness, from Makarora, Pembroke, New Zealand. 


(4) By Mr Alex. Bbll, Gasworks, Dalkeith. 

Stoue Ball, 2^ inches diameter, found at Eldonhauj^h, near Melville 
Castle ; Stone Ball, 2^ inches diameter, found netir Straiton ; and Perfor- 
iiteil Stone Disc, rudely triangular in outline, 3J inches by 2J inches, 
found in Gala Water. 

(5) By Dr A. P. Aitken. 

Fragments of a small Cinerary Urn, found at I^swalt, Wigtownshire. 

(6) By Mr Jambs Cameron, Marlee, Blairgowrie, through David 

Macritchie, F.S.A. Scot. 

Three Arrow-heads and a Spear-head of chert, 3 J inches by 2^ inches, 
from Nebraska, U.S.A. 

(7) By Mr John Bertram. 

Medal, in copper, of the Elgin Marbles, dedicated to George IV. 

(8) By the Misses Drummond, Royal Crescent. 

Small Luckenbooth Brooch in gold, heart-shaped, |; inch in diameter, 
set with garnets. 

(9) By T. Watson-Greig, of Glencarse, F.S.A. Scot. 

Banner Pike-head, 25J inches in length, found at Dalchosnie, Perth- 
shire. The pike is four-edged and 10 inches long, with a knol) at the 
lyase and straps riveted down the sides of the shaft, the globular heads 
of the rivets pierced with holes for the attachment of the banner. 

(10) By F. G. Hilton Price. 

A Catalogue of the Egyptian Antiquities in the possession of F. G. 
Hilton Price. 4to. 1897. 

(11) By C. Sanford Terry, the Author. 

Civil War Papers. Extract from Ardiwoloyia ^Eliana, 


(12) By Col. Jambs Allardyce, LL.D. 

The Strachans of Glcnkindie, 1357-1726. 4fco. Printed for private 

(13) By Jambs Curle, Librarian. 

Das I^ Tunc Grabfeld von I^ngugest, bci Bilin in Bohmen, von 
Robert Hitter von Wcinzierl. 4to. 1899. 

There were Exhibited : — 

(1) By William Buchan, F.S.A. Scot. 

Bronze Scabbard-Tip of Late-Celtic type, found on Glencotho Farm, 
Peeblesshire. [See the subsequent paper by Mr Buchan.] 

(2) By T. Watoon-Oreig of Olencarse, F.S.A. Scot. 

Scid (impression) of James Sharpe, Archbishop of St Andrews. 



Wc may question if in the whole of Scotland there is one sjwt whicli 
is better known or more deeply impressed with tragic associations than 
the lIolyroo<l of Mary Stuart. Not only to our own countrymen but 
to the English speaking nations it has become a pilgrimage of never 
failing interest ; and even in the devotee fix)m foreign lands who can 
only mutter the words ' Marie Stuart ' as he finds his way through the 
old Towers, the same keen sense of profound interest is manifest. The 
regal 2>alaces of Falkland, I^inlitligow, and Stirling's towering stronghold 
have each their tales of strife and roll of births and royal Stuart deaths, 
but the story of Mary Stuart's six years' misery in her father's Towers 
of Holyrood has made an indelible mark in Scottish history. 


What has heen often designated as descriptive treatment of James 
Fifth's Towers has yet left us without one thorough exposition, either of 
their external elevation and varied changes, or of their curious and 
somewhat intricate interiors in which so many historic and tragic events 
have occurred Even in the Prore&Hngs of this Society tliere is a singu- 
lar paucity of that exact i)eriodical tracing which we expect to find from 
the study of such a deeply interesting pile. We may except from this 
remark, however, the lucid description of the ceiling of Queen Mary's 
Audience Chaml>er hy Henry Laing,^ which, strange to say, has never 
yet found its way out of the volume, not even into the pages of the 
official guide. It is hoped that an initiatory paper such as this may 
lead the way to a further investigation, not only dealing with the 
Towers as they stand, but with the unsolved question whether they 
originated with James Fifth or his ill-fated father. 

James Fourth was married to Margaret Tudor in 1503 in the Ahhey 
of Holy rood, and there was some sort of a royal palace ready to receive 
her then. It appears that although Henry S(iventh had long i)roposed the 
alliance,- it was not till 1502 that the royal pair were formally affianced ; 
and part, at leiist, of the palace was ready in 1503, as devscrilxid in glowing 
terms by Jolin Younger, Somerset Herald.-^ That it was of a somewhat 
extensive nature there is clear and convincing proof. On his arrival, we 
are told, after Te Deum had been sung, " the King in a most loving 
manner conducted the Princess out of the church through the cloistei's 

' ProacdingSf vol. ix. p. 381. 

'•* About 1495. Seo Ty tier's Sci)tlrinify vol. ii. p. 261. Rymer'a Fcedera, vol. xii. 
p. 572. Rymer, vol. xii. p. 765, gives the date of the dispensation for the marriage 
5th August 1500. See Tytler, vol. ii. p. 269. Wilson, vol. i. p. 25. 

' HiiUary of Holyrood, pp. 25 and 124. That there were apartments for 
the Stuart kings in Holyrood long previous to this is beyond any doubt, for as 
early as 1430 the Queen of James First gave birth to twin sons in the Abliey, the elder 
of whom died, the survivor In-ing James of the Fiery Face. James Third made it his 
residence almoMt constantly ; then followed his son James Fourth, who apt>ears to have 
much frequented the Abl)ey, and received there the liistoric sword presented by 
Pope Julius II., which forms i>art of tlie Regalia of Scotland ; but seemingly he had 
become convinced that the offices of the Canons of St Augustine were not suitable, 
and hence arose the first royal x^alace to receive his bride. 


226 rK<)cEEi>iN(;s of the society, februaky 12, 1900. 

Ut her apartments in the ailjoining pahice. After a brief space the 
Princess wits hruu^ht l)y the Kin«^ into *the CJreat Hall/ where she was 
introdiUMMl to a j^eat conipjiny of hulies," etc. ^ 

In the Treasurer's Accounts of 1502-3 mention is made of the con- 
struction of *a new hall,' the construction of *the galler}' and 
windoes,' and the * turatis of the for-yet/ which * turatis' do not lead u^ 
to James Fifth's Towers, l>ut to the j^ateway at the entrance to th»- 
jialace yanl. Then we have note of *the Queen's great Chamher/ 

* the King's ( hatory,' and of * the Queen's Oratory * ; but there 
nothing Ui bring us nearer to the tliree Towers.- In the Liber Car 
Sancf(v Ci'uru it is stated: — "After his treaty of marriage with Kii 
Henry Seventh for the youtliful Tu<lor, lie set (earnestly to work for 
bigging of a palace l>eside the A])bey of the Holy Croce."* 

After Flodden, John, Duke of Albany, Wiis recalled from France, i 
in 1515 took up his residence in Holyrotnl and continued the irnrl 
James Fourth which had b<»en carried t>n till his death.'* It shoul^B^ 
here noted that a certain Maister lA)gy is mentioned as early as 150 
receiving paymtuit for ** aiding and toi)ping the chimnais," and 
'*com|»leting of the * toure ' in llalyrudhous" ; and in the iirst of t.l 
years a grant of £[0 yearly is made to him for his diligence in. "fcli* 

* bigging' o( tlu' palace beside the Abbey of the Holy Croce.^ 

With the i^xeeption of the faint trace we have in I^)gy's ])aymcnt^«^ '^^ 
completing Mbe toure,' there is little to guide us to a solution oJc 'tJ 

ipiestion \Vt»re the Towers which are named after Jame^ Fifth im'M^ ai- 

' Aivtnmt of Jolm Vounucr, SomocNot Hi'ralil. Hi:itonj of Ilofj/rood, T '^ — 
LilamrN ('.//Y.i '«..'. vol. i\ . p. 'JSl*. 
-■ TnMMUA'r'N Avvouiits. /iist<>rt/ •■/ //•.»'; /•.'♦«/, p. 124. 
'^- O WUsvui'n r-'i-.h r-ih. vol. i. p. •-•:». LiW.\ Prvtac-e 58. 

•..',•.,.',, p. IS. r.ranr, \oI. ii. |». 62. Uistoi-y of IF*^^ £f » 


shape part of James Fourth's palace ? But there is one other reference 

worthy of notice. An annalist,^ cited in the preface to the Liher 

Cartainim Sandce Ctttds, records that " the Duke of Albany committed 

the Lord Houme in 1515 to the *auld toure' of Holyrudhouss which 

was founded by the said Duke."^ Taken in conjunction with the 

records of Maister Logy and the Duke of Albany as to the *auld toure/ 

^nd looking to the fact of the jail being in the present Towers apparently 

^constructed and fitted for such a use, and having all the appearance of 

antiquity, there is some room for the belief of those who argue that the 

powers were only remodelled and extended by the Fifth James. 

It will thus be seen that this corner of Holyrood has three claimants 
£oT the honour of its erection ; and while there is not much more than 
supposition to back the claim for James Fourth, there is still less in the case 
of the *Ducke of Albany,' although there is a distinct historical assertion 
to the contrary. It may be, however, that the whole three took part in 
the 'bigging'of the Towers, beginning between 1501 and 1503 with 
James Fourth, carried on after his death by Albany, and finished or re- 
modelled by his son, after his translatibn from Stirling to Edinburgh in 
1524 '^vlien he was in his twelfth year, on Albany's final retiral to his 
native France. 

In the Diurnal of Occurrents it is recorded that James, in 1524, was 

brougHfc from Stirling to Holyrood at twelve years of age. Then in 

Pitscottie's Chronicle : — " In the spring of the year 1525 he founded a fair 

palace in the Abbey of Holyroodhouse and three great towers till rest 

into wlien he (James Fifth) pleased to come." ^ Hawthornden (p. 23) 

^ Marjorey bank's Annals. Pitacottie, vol. ii. p. 296. 

' This is most i)erplexing, as it is the very year in which he came from France, 
and but two years after the death of James at Flodden. It is puzzling to connect 
Mbany with the founding of an *auld toure,' for if it had years at all, surely 
they should hark back to James Fourth at least ! Unless we presume that the 
Mud touro ' is one seen in both Hollar and Gordon, situated in the south court, 
s^ prison in which Lord Houme was * wardit ' is still, as it doubtless was then, 
I called James Fifth's. 

; Somervillsy vol. i. pp. 315, 316, it is stated that the architect 
I Sir James Hamilton of Finuart. 


to }ier apartuitaits in the adjoining jmliice. After a bri- 
Princess wius l)rou«,'lit l»y the Kin;^ into *the Cftent Hall,' • 
intnxliic'iMl to a great ('(»nii»any of Isulies," etc, ^ 

In the Treasurer's Aee«)unU of 1502-3 mention is ir 
struction of *a new hall/ tlie construction of 'the l 
windoes/ and tlie 'turatis of the for-yet,' which 'turati 
to James Fifth's Towers, hut to the gateway at th- 
pahice yanl. Then wt* have note of *the Queen's •. 
*the King's Oratory,' and of *the Queen's Oral- , 

nothing to bring us nearer to the three Towers.* In ^ 

"Sanrfiv Crwis it is stat^sd : — "After his treaty of ^^ 
Henry Seventh for the youthful TtnW, he hv\ ^^ J 

higging of a jwlace besidr iln^i Al)bt*y of thi" 11 ■! 

After Floilden, .John, l>itki* of A Units y, wn i 
in 1515 took up iiis resideni-e in Uijlynw-ni ■ 
James Fourth which hail lit-en carried im Lil) ^^ 

here noted that a certain MaiaUir l^igy i- 
receiving payment for ^* fading smd %*'] 
** completing of the *toui'e- ia Italyrudi 
years a grant of £40 ymrly is m»^ Iti 
* higging' of the pahice fe^itlc tht* AM. 

With the exception of iho faint ti ■ 
completing * the toure,' tkifr^ k Uiih ? 
4uestion — Were the Towers whiiih ir** 

* Account of John Youiij^^r^ Siuiinnti^t H^ 
Iit:laiid'.s O'llcctanen^ vol. iv. \k 2K1J, 

-' Treasurer's Accounts. Jfi»l&ry t*/ Ijt^- 
'-' Dr 1). Wilson's EtHnhuiffh, vol i. \\ 

* Dr WilBon's RHuhuruh, \k 4^ ^r. 
]). 1*25. 

■' (iraiil, v«.l. ii. p. 60. lh^f*rjf 
III all likeliliodd this may hrivt> 
Dr D.niitl Wils«in says: — **TIilh 
wliit'li ;:ive •videuce of tlje |sii>^^tv«M 
at tlii.s linu' in tlie Castle, uuilei llml 







Lt ^^' 







''' Castle^ 


ol ^^"^^„ 







YsJftce ' 









tYvei"**- _^ou\d>»« 




Proas, ^® ^ v^o Vuwft ^ < i\v 



1'*^"""" ^!'^ 





V>vvvviv^ • 





•: Vft^'^''* 


Hamilton of Crage,^ and altlioiigh we have no special mention of exten- 
sive operations or additions to Holyrood after his ap{)ointment in 1543, 
it is (]uite certain that both repairs and extensions must liave gone on, 
as the palace was twice damaged hy the English, viz. : — in 1543 by tlie 
P^rl of llortfoitl, and again in 1547. 

In 1579 Sir Rol>ert Drummond of the Tlawthomden family 8uccee<iecl 
namilt(»n,2 and in 1592 William, a distinguished builder and 
favourite of Queen Anne, took office. These tliree Masters of Works 
apimrently w^ere in office during the lifetime l>oth of ^lary and James 
Sixth, when Holyrood assumed tlie shape and dimensions which we find 
depicted in Hollar and Cxordon. 

A close inspection of Hollar's view will sliow an entire change from 
that of the invasion map of 1543. The north side exhibits the hitherto 
open space between the Towers of James and the south Towers of the 
Ab})ey to Ikj filled with a range of Iniildings forming one side of a court 
or quadrangle as at pre^sent ; but it also shows that the builder had still 
left an open space lietween the Abbey and the old Towers, as it was in 
the Hertford plan, by keeping his erections further south. This pleasing 
feature cannot be fnHowcil in the i)lan by (lordon of Kothiemay (fig. 3), 
but we have no trace of the Tower which in Hollar united the fa^iide of 
the palace with the Towers at the north-west. The bird's-eye view 
fortunately lays before us the elevation of this north side, looking south 
into the ctnirt, showing it to be a building with dormer windows similar 
to those now existing, and an arched doorway in the centre. 

Another change in connection with the Towers appears in this view. 
A l)uilding called Regent Moray's house is seen clinging like a swallow's 
nest to the nortliern side, with an apparently spacious roadway in front, 
separated from the court-yard of the palace })y a wall, and having a door 
into the soutli royal gardens. If this be the siime building drawn by 
lUore (an«l published in 1826), it was there up till \vell into the second 
quarter of this century ; the marks of its junction with the Towers are 

* ProceoHngs, vol. xxx. p. 51. 
- IhUK 


quite visible on the masonr}' of tlie walls. If they were Moray's apart- 
ments in Holyrood, it is fair to infer that he had entry into the private 
stair leading up to his sister's rooms. The wall separating the Towers 
from this building where the round of the stair bulges out is only 5 
inclies in thickness, and at the tiking down of the old house, had to l>e 
renewed at the i^oinU of contact. In the same sketch we see the 
turretftd gateway lemiing to the house, and the south wall which separates 
it from th(i palace yard, as in Rothiemay. To the north-east of this 
house Rothiemay gives us another first view of Croft-an-Righ, with its 
turreted mansion also called after Regent Moray, which, having lieen 
purcliased from ^Fr Hector Ciavin, was in 1859 fitted up as dwellings 
for gardeners, keepers, etc. 

The Towers, with their enormous walls from 6 to 7J feet thick, 
appear to have bravtily weathered every attack, and up to this day pre- 
serve their fair ijrojwrtions almost intact. In the other portions of the 
large straggling palace great industry must have been displayed in their 
reconstruction, for on Brantome's arrival with Queen Mary in 1561, he 
spoke in liigli terms of the palace as being " a handsome Imilding, and 
not like anything else in the country." This interval of fourteen years, 
there is little doubt, had initiated the great change, in the northern 
elevation at least, which we see so well displayed in Hollar. The 
Master of Works was John Hamilton of Cnige, dating from 1543, and 
no change is noted till 1579, when Sir Rol^ert Drummond took office. 

During that time tlie palace had taken its present form of a great 
ceutml court, but with other detaclied courts which are now gone. In 
lK)th views of Hollar and Gordon, we see the gradual creeping uj) of the 
palace from the north-west Towers to the south Tower of the A})bey, 
which it appears to have ultimately engulphed. It seems impossible to 
come nearer to the precise periml of this reconstruction. Thus, we find 
in the work on Fjcdesia^tical Architect iire by M*(libbon and Ross, that 
the change is disposed of in one sliort sentence: — "The north-west 
Tower (Abbey) is still preserved, but its companion Tower, which 
formerly stood at the south-west angle, was demolished when the palace 


vas rebuilt in the 17th centur}'" — that is, the present erections designed 
)y Sir William Bruce in 1671, and finished in 1679. 

From ( rordon's full front view of the palace taken before the advent 
)f Cromwell, we may form a jierfect idea of the building as it was in 
lie time of James Sixth and Charles First, and probably in that of 
lie unfortunate (^ueen of Scots (fig. 4). 

The palace at that period consisted of five courts, and the buildings 
vere of a decidedly straggling nature, showing the want of an original 
lettled plan, except the front elevation flanked by the north- wes^. 
[(►wers. Whether these Towers were the last erection of the west front 
nd an afterthought is an open question, but we know that the design 
'f Sir William Bruce followed on the same lines, as proved by his 
ddition of the south-west Towei-s in complete harmony with the other 
da — in fact, adapting the whole of the present fa9ade to harmonise with 
le ancient Towers on the north. 

In the final view, published by Blore in 1826 (fig. 5), we have the 
ilace of Sir William Bruce as now existing, showing the so-called 
egent Moray's house — now gone. 

With the exception of the first floor and the pinnacles of the three 
rrets, the views presented to us from 1543 till just before the Crom- 
tillian burning in 1650, show little signs of structural change. The 
est front with its two empty panels, which, it is believed, had at one 
me been filled with the royal arms of Scotland, gives a rather curious 
iistration of the first floor reported as Lord Darnley's from what it 

now. Small prison-like windows are represented, more like those of 
^mrd-house ; but those of Queen Mary show as in their present posi- 
Dn. We have clear proof that the famous historical rooms of the 
ir but unfortunate Stuart are clearly traceable, both in their external 
pect and internal arrangement, to the earliest time of the Towers. Both 
I ternally and internally the first floor has undergone some change. The 
xmnd floor is, in its western front, a strongly vaulted ajmrtment built 
«e a fortress, with arch, pier, and })uttre8s, and has long been used as a 
Lne cellar. Here ])egan the private stair leading up to Darnley and 




\>uoeu Mary's nj<im.4 (fi^. 6), ami then; is no trace of windows saificient 
tn lo4i«l to tliH l">elief that it ever wa« a resilience of Heniy Damlej. It 
•loesi nut iie»Hi much penetratirm t*:) notice where the existing windows of 
l>ain ley's nM>ms have been reconstmcteiL thua at:connting for the differ- 
ence l)etweeri tlie present Jiapect ami that ol Bothiemays large front 

^oAo 4f>« 9*r>^ i^iHOtfH,* Btf. 

Fi;j:. 6. Private Stair, HolyrcKxi Palace. 

>»t^\v (li-. U. Hi< i<H)ni.s w»fre In'Iow of the Queen, ami on 
lii.:i lloMi, ;iiul an iiK^poction «•£ tho iu;iS4»nry sliow.s wlicro they have 

It iii«»i|illr«l. 

ri»\i..n-. l.» llh' fi.nflM.uniti.'ii "f 1»>.")0, tlio i>iim;iplps .if the tuc 
„i I. (m».lir»l with faiicifiil <l^vi.-.-^ lik»' iiiiiMTJal (.'itiwn-, n.»\v replacei- 
|.i»Mi :|.»i il Irrmiiiiil inp>. T!;» r""f \v;i- high ami |M>int»:»jl with a 
M »». :i ii..Mi, wliiiv n-'w il i^ i! iL ,111'' Mameutcd. At the f..K_~ 


w rref. 
^\ hy 


the left empty panel may be seen the shelf-like strip on which Wilson 
tells lis the words " Jacobus Y. Rex Scotorum " were inscribed ; and clear 
traces of the filled-up sockets where the iron bars of the windows were 
eml)edded are quite visilJe. The first floor appeared to be barred on 
the inner side of the lintels close to the ghuss, but the two upi>er floors — 
viz., Queen Mary's rooms and the jail — were protected by iron gratings 
fixed, prison-like, on the outer face of the walls, a striking commentary 
on the state of society and value of human life even in a royal palace at 
that time. 

At the foot of the west front of the Towers the ground has been 

lowered about 3 feet, particularly at the north-west corner. At the 

north side may be easily seen the new masonry filled in when taking 

ilown the building called " Regent Moray's house " (fig. 5). None of 

the historians take the slightest notice of this building ; even our local 

writers, Arnot and Maitland, completely ignore it, though it was there 

(iiiring their lifetime. It may have been the house of Lord Robert, 

however, if we bear in mind that Regent Moray's mansion was said to 

^ in Croft-an-Righ, and also if we give any weight to the following 

Extract from the DiumcU of Oc4*un'ents : — "Tlie next day Lennox 

^«-Hle in state to the Abbey of Holyrood, and entered the lodging which 

^iad been honourably prepared for him in the house of Mary's brother, 

^l^ie Lord Robert, Commendator of Holyrood, hesidf. the said Abbey." 

On the flat north wall of the Towers, the air-slots wliich were left in 
^iie elevation (whence, in the middle of this century, the so-called 
i^egent Moray's was removed) are plainly seen, and guide us to the 
i Position of the private stair which is built, not in the Tower as is gener- 
'>-lly thought, but entirely within the wall, which at this spot is 7^ feet 
^ liick. At the bottom of the wall no trace of a doorway is to be seen, 
1 trading us to the belief that the exit was inside the ground floor of the 
^ -fcalacc, thence along to the Abbey. 

Higher up, near the jail windows, we see the single slot which lights 
^%-ud airs a secret stiiir of singular width and construction leading into 
tlie prison. This wall joins on to the largest of the three Towers 


which coiituins the stiiir leading up U) Queen Mary*s rooms, the jail, 
some store-rooms, and the roof. On tlie ground floor of this north-cast 
Tower another private stair ends ; hut on tlie walls outside there are 
no signs of exit, which must have also heen through the hiisement. 
And in Queen Mary's audience chamlmr, near the entrance door where 
Kizzio was flung to die, is another private stair huilt inside the wall, and 
lending up to opposite the jail door. 

These Towers, at all events, whoever was their original founder, show 
a width and strength explanator}"^ of their heing the sole survivors of the 
original Palace of Holyrood. If we take the west front, we find a 
thickness of 7 J feet, and at the turrets 4 feet. The east face, which 
Wius originally clear of all huildings towards the Ahl)ey, is of the same 
thickness, viz., 7i feet. The north and south walls are fully 6 feet, and 
the wall dividing the Towers from the more modem palace of Charles 
Second is over 5 feet. The external changes, from 1543 till Cromwell's 
time, may be summed \i\) briefly : — alterations on Lord Darnley's floor, 
on the panels, on the roof and turret tops, and on the north side. The 
roof, in particular, is first shown with flat-topped turrets, then with high 
l)itchcd roof and pointed turrets as at present, then with the crown- 
topped pinnacles and high roof, and finally the present elevation. 

Tli<^ power given by Charles Second to Sir William Bruce to punish 
tln» refractory operatives at the relmilding of Holyrood in 1671-9, is, in 
the light of niodern Trades l^nionism, so very curious in its phraseology, 
an<l points s<j clearly to our *'auld toure prison," that a quotiition may be 
panloned : — "With power also to the said Sir William Bruce, during 
llie space aforesaid, to do all other things necessary and requisite as to 
liiiii shall seem expedient, an<l to i>uuish, mulct, incarcerate, and amerce 
dclincpients and transgressors at the sai<l works and courts, by himself 
or his (h»puU's (;is (»fl as need shall br), for this purpose, within the Siiid 
]»ala('es, houses, ami prceinrts thereof to us ])ertaining.'' ^ 

Then' is little to a<ld wliieh l»ears sullicient int(»rest, as we are now 
nearing the top of th<', old Towers. Half a flight up the i)rincipid stiiir, 
' Procc'idiixjSj vol. vi., Third Series, ])[k 60-61. 


and immediately under the flat lead-covered roof, are some store-rooms 
whicli must have been frequently subjected to harsh usage and much 
change. A few 8tei)s more and the roof is reached, round the battle- 
ments of which there is the usual nanow way. The turret toi)S have 
entrance from this path. The leaden capes and the three upper courses 
of masonry towards the front are quite of recent date, and evidently the 
result of kindly watchfulness over the grand old Towers, which, for nigh 
four centuries, have weathered every storm, and proudly borne the name 
of the gaUant Fifth James. 



Though it was a source of gi-atifi cation to me that so distinguished an 
archaeologist as Mr Joseph Bain should have taken the trouble to add 
filling-in to the sketch which I essayed of the Scottish de Quencys of 
Tranent and Leuchars,^ it lessened tlie plejisure when he indicated a 
number of errors which he thought I had committed. As most of these 
corrections were on points of minute detail, 1 was unable, after hearing 
his paper read at a meeting of the Society on the 11th December, to do 
more than make a general defence. Having now had time to go back to 
my authorities, I ask an opportunity of showing how some of these 
corrections cannot ])e sustained. 

Mr Bain began by saying that it was to be regretted I had not con- 
sulted some works, which he named, in addition to those wliich I referred 
to. My essay was almost wholly written from original documents, hence 
I did not think it needful to quote compilations like Burke's Dictionary 
of Extinct Peerages^ of which, nevertlieless, I had made some use. And 
as for not consulting t'he Cartulary of St Andrews, I referred to it in a 
note (see p. 277 of my paper in the Proceedings of the Society of Anti- 

> See antea, p. 124 ; and vol. xxxii. p. 275. 


fiuariesj vol. xxxii.). I unwittingly passed over the four volumes of the 
CcUewlar of Scottish Documents^ edited by Mr Bain himself, which he 
mentions at the end of his list. In these volumes there are several notes 
about the de Quencys, which, if I had lighted upon them before, would 
have saved me much trouble and some errors of detail. Mr Bain tells 
us that " tliere is no evidence that the de Quencys came from Normandy 
with William. The Roll of Battle Abbey is well known to be of little, 
if any, authority, and it has been thought by some, the late Mr John 
Gough Nichols for one, that they came from Gascony — their arms, 
mascles, representing a kind of flint found there. The first who appears 
in the English pipe-rolls is Saher de Quency, in 11 57, in Northampton- 
shire, where he was remitted on his land." I camiot here discuss the 
trustworthiness of the Roll of Battle Abbey. Those who are curious on 
this question should consult the books which have been written about it^ 
especially that by John Bernard Burke, ^ and the three quarto volumes 
contributed by the Duchess of Cleveland. - 

After relating the foundation of this abbey by William the Conqueror, 
Sir Francis Palgrave ^ tells us that " Iiere the monks enrolled before a 
Dcgville or a Darcy, a Pigot or a Percy, a Ikuce or a Despencer," or 
other Normans, "the roll containing the honoured names of the com- 
panions of the Conqueror from whom they deduced their lineage and 
their names." The objection to this document is that, in later times, the 
monks allowed name« to be iidded to the roll to please people who wished 
to claim descent from tlie first Norman conquerors. The document, at 
all events, has always been held in high estimation by the old chroniclers. 
There are several independent copies of it, and the name of Quincy is in 
tlieni all. We liave thus to consider the probability of this name being 
fraudulently added before the death of Roger de Quency in 1264, for 
after that time no one would have an interest in such a transaction. 

^ TheEoIl of Battle Abbey, annotated by John Bernard Burke, Esq. ; London, 1848. 

'^ The Battle Abbey Jioll, with some account of the Norman Lineages, by the Duchess 
of Cleveland, vol. iii. p. 27 ; London, 1889. 

^ The History of Korvuitidy and of England, by Sir Francis Palgrave, K.H., the 
Deputy KeeiMirof H.M.S. Tublic Records, vol. iii. p. 407 ; London, 1864. 


The Duchess of Cleveland says (I know not on what authority) that 
Seyr was descended from Richard de Qucncy, the companion in anns of 
the Conqueror. Xishet, in his lx)ok on Heraldry,^ also states that the 
first de Quency came over with William the Conqueror. Moreover, in an 
undated charter published in Dugdale's Monasticon^^ there is a grant of 
ten solidi to the Priory of Dunmow Little from Saher de Qumci for the 
salvation of his soul and that of his son Saher, from his lands in Braden- 
liam in Suffolk. Assuming that the son was the same Saher who got the 
manor of Bushby in Northamptonshire in 1157, and attested the treaty 
of Falaise in 1173,^ we can thus trace the de Quencys back to the l^e- 

ginning of the 12th century. 

As for Mr Gough Xichols whom Mr Ikiin thinks worthy to Imj quoted, 

api)arently to raise a presumption Jigainst my view, he is clearly unaware 

that the arms of Seyr de (Juency, Earl of Winchester, were not mascles, 

for he and his son Roger bore dilferont arms. 
There are engravings of the arms of this family in Burton's Lfdcester- 

shirey p. 37. The coat of arms of Seyr de Qucncy (fig. 1) was : or, a fesso 


Fig. 1. Arms of Seyr de Quency. 

Fig. 2. Arms of Roger de Quency. 

gules, a file of eleven jyoints azure. That of his son Roger (fig. 2) was ; 
gules, seven mascles or, three, three, and one. 

> A System of Heraldry, by Alexander Nisbot, vol. i. p. 208 ; Edinburgh, 1816. 

•-* Vol. vi. p. 148. 

' See Dictionary of National Bioffraphy^ art. de Quinci. 


In Hewitt's Ancient Armour^ there is a fine engraving of the seal of 
Roger de Quency, Earl of Winchester, in which the lieraldic devices of 
the mascles are given on the housings of his charger. 

Mr P. Macgregor Chalmers, a Fellow of this Society, informs me by 
letter that he has discovered the fragments of a tomb in Culross Abbey 
" on the arch to the south side of the choir, and opening into the aisle of 
the south transept. The de Quency arms are carved on a shield at the 
point of the arch. The shield and the arms are in perfect preservation." ^ 
The arms are seven mascles, three, three, and one. " On the north side 
a tomb, built as a sarcophagus, occupies the lower part of the arch, and 
the arch is recognised as part of tlie tomb. The effigy of a lady 
fastened upright to the wall close to this tomb doubtless lay 
originally on the top of the sarcophagus. This portion of the abbey 
was built early in the thirteenth century." This may be the tomb of 
Roger de Quency. Matthew Paris tells us that the second wife of Roger 
de Quency was buried at Brackele in England in 1252, and that another 
wife of the same earl wjis laid there. C)n this account the earl chose to 
be himself buried in tlie same ])lace. " Et propter has causas multiplices, 
sibi sepulturam ibidem elegit comes memoratus." ^latthew of Paris 
simply records tlie desire of the earl to be laid at Brackele, for this pas- 
sage was written during his life. IMattliew died in 1259, and Roger. de 
Quency five years later. If he died in Scotland, it might have been in- 
convenient at the time to carry out his wishcis and convey the body to 

^fr Bain tells us that the wife of Robert de Quency wjus not called 
Eva, but (^)rabilis. Yet in the charter in the muniments of Melrose, as 
cited by me, this lady, quondam uxor Roherti de Quinri, in a grant for 
the good of the soul of her father and mother, her husband and others, 
did call herself Eva. It is true that she is styled Orabilis in some of the 

* Ancient Armour and Weapons in Europe^ by John He\vitt ; Oxford, 1855, 
p. 345. 

2 Since writing this I have visited Culross Abbey and had no difficulty in finding 
the stone shield as indicated by Mr Chalmers. 


charters of the Priory of St Andrews (Orabilis filia et heres domine 
Nesi) aiid in one by Seyr de Quency (Orabilis matris mee). I took this 
title for an adjective, a translation of some Gaelic word meaning worship- 
fiU or gracious. At any rate, in the only known document issued by this 
lady she calls herself Eva. Mr Bain somewhat arbitrarily says that this 
Eva was the wife of Robert, a younger brother of Seyr de Quency, wlio, 
we may recall, had also an older brother called Robert. The lady, lie 
tells us, was also called Hawyse or Hawise, " which name is easily read 
Evii." Those who think the matter worthy of further contention may 
discuss whether her correct title was Eva Orabilis or Ombilis Eva, or 
Eva Hawise, or whether Orabilis also can be easily read Eva. Apparently 
he sees no difficulty in believing that Orabilis was the widow of the Earl 
of Mar before she was married to Robert de Quency, and in one charter 
the daughter of Ness is styled "Comitissa de Mar." The name of 
Gilchrist, Earl of Mar, is given as a witness in some of these parcliments. 
This Gilchrist^ is said to have superseded Morgund as Earl of Mar, 
and his name appears in chartei*s between 1170-80, and 1204-11. In 
that case, how could this lady have been a widow while both her reputed 
husbands were living, and, in<lee(l, P^arl (lilchrist must have survived 
Robert De Quency ? The Rev. William Hunt, in an article on Seyr de 
Quency in the Dictionary of National Biography, as well as Dr George 
Burnett in the Genealogist,^ have both confessed the difficulty of this 
question. Perhaps the filia Orabilis of Ness wiis an elder sister, the 
one named Christina in the charter granted by P>a, the wife of Robert 
de Quency, who may have been married or betrothed to the Earl of Mar, 
and died young. 

' See The Earld<ytn of Mar, by Alexander, Earl of Crawford and Balcarres ; Edin- 
burgh. 1882, vol. i. p. 167. 

2 The Earhj Eiirls of Mar, by George Burnett, LL.D., Lyon King-at-Arnm, vol. 
iv. new scries, p. 177. After considering a number of dates in an elaborate note, 
Dr Burnett comes to the conclusion that Orabilis could not have been the widow of 
Gilchrist, but "might conceivably have been the widow of Morgund, or it is pos- 
sible that she might have been the divorced wife of Gilchrist.** Morgund, however, 
is known to have had a wife called Agnes, as may be seen from the Churtuldry of St 
Andrews, p. 246. 


In the charters extending and confirming the grants to the Abbey of 
Newbotle, Seyr de Quency is styled Earl of Winchester (Comes 
Wintonise). Amongst the witnesses to these grants was Jocelin, Bishop 
of Glasgow, who is known to have died on the 26th of April 1199. Now 
Seyr de Quency was not made Earl of Winchester till about eight years 
after. As the Bishop could not liave been witness to a charter after he 
was dead, I asked to see the documents in the Advocates* Library. These 
are not the original charters, but a parchment volume of unknown 
antiquity containing copies of the Newbotle charters. The name of 
Joceline, Bishop of Glasgow, is there sure enough, and thus the words, 
* Comes WintonisB,' must have been either added as a gloss when copying 
the original, or the charters must have been later fabrications of the 
Cistercians. T\n\ name of Seyr, hereditary in the de Quency family, 
shows tluiir Scandinavian origin. It is still in use as a name in Denmark 
and Norway. The name of Quincy is French. It is still lx)rne by 
persons in Normandy, and there is a Commune called Quincy in tlie 
department of Seine et Marne. 

Witli regard to the treatment of the Countess of Mar and the sisters 
of Robert Bruce who fell into the hands of Edward I., Mr Bain tries to 
show, from a contemporary warrant for the similar imprisonment of a 
Welshman of note in Bristol, that the cage was merely a wooden struc- 
ture inside the castle, in which the prisoner was shut up at night for 
greater security against escape. Apparently cages were not uncommon 
in those times wlien the confinement was meant to be rigorous ; but it is 
too much to assume that a cage made for the night custody of a Welsh- 
man ^ in a liouse at Bristol Castle must have been of the same pattern 
as a cage in a turret at Berwick especiiUly designed by the greatest of the 

^ The extract on which Mr Haiu has founded his argument is given in the Calendar 
of Documents relating to Scotland^ vol. iii. p. 4 : Fiat for allocate to Nicholas 
Feriubaiid, late constable of Bristol Castle, etc., for £14, Os. 8Jd. expended in cutting 
oaks, cariHjnters* and others* wages, iron, lime, etc., to repair a house in the castle, 
and making a wooden cage bound with iron in said house for the straiter custody of 
Owen, son of David Griffith, a prisoner shut therein at night (dated 1807, Michael* 
mas Term). 


Plantagenets to torment a lady who would not submit to his usurpation 
of the Scottish crown. It must embarrass the admirers of the English 
King that the minute directions for the treatment of these ladies so 
jealously laid down by the vindictive Plantagenet still remain. They 
may be found in Rymer's Fcvdera and in Grose's Military Antvpii- 
ties, the original French l)cing given in the Appendix.^ I prefer giving 
my own translation : — 

" It is ordered and commanded by letters of the Privy Seal to the Chamber- 
lain of Scotland or to his Lieutenant at Berwick-on-Tweed, that in one of the 
towers within the castle of this place, in a situation which he sees to be most 
convenient, he should cause to be made a cage of strong wooden spars, with posts 
and bars and well strengthened with iron, in which he should put the Countess 
of Buchan, and that he make it so well and render the cage so secure that she 
cannot get out in anv manner ; that he should assign a woman or two of the 
same toTiTi of Berwick, who should be English and exposed to no suspicion, to 
attend on the said Countess, to eat and drink and other thin^ to be done in 
this abode, and that he keeps her so well and strictly guarded in the cage that 
she should not speak to anyone, either man or woman, who may be of Scottish 
nation, and that no other should get access to her save only the woman or 
women who will be assigned to her, and those wlio will have her in their keep- 
ing ; and that the cage should be so made that the Countess should have the 
convenience of a privy, but that it should be well and surely ordered that no 
danger should be incurred in the security of the keeping of the said Countess." 

In the same writ it is ordered that Mary, the sister of Robert Bruce, 
formerly Count of Carrick, should l)e sent to Roxburgh to be kept there 
in a cage within the castle. If Mr Bain had looked up the authorities 
cited at the foot of the page whose correctness he questions, he might 
have saved himself from the vain attempt of oversetting the narrative as 
given by our best Scottish historians. To quote Burton 2 : " Though we 

' See Kymer*8 Fcedera, vol. ii. pp. 1013, 1014 ; and Military Antiquities respecting 
a History 0/ the English Army, by Francis Grose, Esq., F.A.S., vol. ii. p. 348. 

^ Burton adds his authorities in a note : ^* In domuncula quadam lignea super 
mamm costri Berevici posita est, ut posseut earn conspicero transeuntes. " Rishanger, 

"Sub dio forinsecus suspondatur, ut sit data, in vita et post mortem, speculum 
viatoribos et opprobrium sempiternnm." Mat. Westm. 455. Burton adds : — "It is 
not in the instruction that the cage shall be in the open air and visible to the 
passers-by, and therefore the chroniclers may be mistaken. A cage made secure in 
itself— and the instructions are to make this absolutely so— is rather anomalous 


are not told so in the minute instructions for the making of the cage, the 
English chroniclers tell us that the cage was so hung that she could be 
seen by passers-by ; and the object of restraining her in this form seems 
to have been that she might be a common spectacle, and an example of 
the fate in store for those who thwarted the will of Edward." 

Mr Bain is at some pains to show that these ladies were not hung up 
in a cage on a wall like canaries, which, indeed, we are not called upon to 
l)elieve. Nevertheless, it comes somewhat near it. As Tytler ^ remarks : 
" Any one who has observed the turrets of the ancient Scottish castles, 
which hung like cages on the outside of the walls, and within one of 
which the countesses cage was to be constructed, will be at no loss to 
understand the tyrannical directions of Edward, and the passage of 
Matthew Westminster." 

We are told by Hemingford that the wife of Robert Bruce was tre^ited 
with less cruelty than liis sister because she was the daughter of the Earl 
of Ulster, two of whose sons were serving with Edward, and she could 
plead that at the coronation she had said that she feared it was no Ixjtter 
than being a queen at a play. Slie and her stepdaughter, Marjorie, were 
put in sejiarate places of confinement. The brothers of tlie Scottish 
King, Thomas, Alexander and Nigel, and his brother-in-law Sir 
Cliristopher Seton, wlio also fell int^) P]<hvard's hands, were all put to 
death with that attention to grisly details and studied indignity which 
were characteristic of the greatest of the l^lautagenets. The common 
prisoners taken fighting on the Bruce's side were hanged.^ Surely it is 
reading wrong the lessons of history that so many English chroniclers 

within the tower of a castle, and seems a work of sui)ererogation." History of Scot- 
laml, Eilinburgh, 1874, vol. ii. chap. xxii. p. 242. 

It is scarcely necessary to cite in addition the words of Hemingford -.^Rcxjuimteam 
yoni supra murum atstri <fe Bereinjk in ti-istega ligneajixa^ ut sic a traiiscuntibits 
viikri jjosscl et cogiiosci ; iimnsitquc sic clatisa multis diebiui, et in arcta diclii. 
Chronicon dc Gc^tU Jictjutn Amjliac, vol. ii. p. 247 ; Londini, 1849. 

1 lliMory of Scotland, by Patrick Fraser Tytler ; Edinburgh, 1829, vol. i. p. 213, 
and note, p. 391. 

'^ Calendar, vol. ii. 1811. 


should seek to palliate such cruelties for which neither the morals of the 
period nor the spirit of the age offer an excuse. 

Mr Bain tells us that the lady whom Sir William Douglas carried ofif 

at Tranent was not Margaret de Quency, the widow of William do 

Ferrers, seventh Earl of Derby, but her daughter-in-law, Eleanor I-K)vaine, 

the widow of her second son William de Ferrers, I^ron of Groby, and in 

8upi>ort of this statement IMr l^iin cites lUirke's Extinct Peerafjes^ one 

of the books which he regrets 1 did not consult. Now Burke says that 

this William de Ferrers, who obtained the Manor of Groby as a gift of 

liis mother, and assumed the arms of the de Quencys, married Joane le 

Despencer, that he died in 1287, and was succeeded by his son William. 

Burke says nothing about his having a second wife. From the several 

references in the calendar of Scottish History it is clear that the lady 

carried off by Sir William Douglas the Hardie was not Margaret de 

Quency, Countess of Derby. Hume of Godscroft, in his IIi»tory af tlie 

House of Douglas,^ says that Sir William Douglas the Hardie had for 

his second wife an English lady called Ferrar. The same old historian 

tells us, ** there are that say that Sir William was sent to Berwick to 

Newcastle and from thence carried to York in the castle thereof he died 

and was buried in a little chapel at the end of the bridge which is now 

altogether decayed." It is clear from references in the calendar edited 

by Mr Bain that Sir William was a prisoner in the Tower of London, 

and that he died about the end of the year 1297. 

It seems likely that the de Quencys, when living at their estates in 
East Lothian, resided at Fawside, which is by far the best military situa- 
tion in the neighbourhood, though there are no traces of an earthwork 
upon it. Speaking of the ruins remaining, Macgibbon and Ross, in their 
valuable work on the Castellated Architecture of Scotland,^ observe : 
** There seems to be no evidence of the date of erection of this keep, and 
from its style we cannot ascril>e to it an earlier date than the latter half 

* The History of the House of Douglas ami AiigiuSy by David Hume of Godscroft ; 
Edinburgh, 1644, p. 16. 

'^ Edinburgh, 1887, vol. i. p. 409, 


of the 14th or the 15th century." These authors say notliing of the 
de Quencys. The Normans who settled in Scotland were not so 
busy at building castles in the first century of their coming to Scotland as 
they were in England, and most of the fortresses which they did erect 
were remodelled in after times. Nevertheless, it would be difficult 
to distinguish a keep of the 12th century from one of the 14th 
century ; and it is at least possible tliat the square keep may have been 
the donjon of the wustle of tliese almost forgotten Norman lords. 

In the Bull of Pope Alexander III. confirming the monastery of Inch- 
colme, dated on the 11th day of March 1178, there are mentioned among 
the possessions of the church of St Colmc^s Inch a thousand eels out of 
Strathenry, the gift of Robert de Qucncy. Strathenry is in the parish of 
Leslie by the river Leven. The Rev. William Ross adds further infor- 
mation.^ Later statements tell us that "along with the thousand eels, 
the convent had a right to two swine and a cow, yearly, out of the lands 
of Stmthenry. This curious annual rent was the gift of Robert de 
Quency, whose name I find ivs a witness in many cliarters of the time of 
William tlie Lion." The monks did not let slip their thousand eels, and 
as Dr Ross tells us, innumerable quarrels arosci regarding this annual 
tribute, until it was at length agreed that the payment should be com- 
muted, and tliat instead of a thousand eels, two swine, and a cow, the 
proprietor of Stratlienry should give the convent a yearly sum of 38 
shillings sterling, payment to be made at the i)arish church of Fithkil, as 
Leslie was of old called. This papnent was not regularly made, and 
was the subject of compromise between the Abbot and Walter of Strath- 
enry on the 6tli day of Octol)er 1354 — forty years after the battle of 

It is also recorded that Seyr de Quency made a gmnt of the lands of 
Dunikeir to the monks of Dunfermline. ^ 

Before parting with ^Ir Bain I ouglit to thank him for the additional 

* Abci'dour and JhcJicoIttic, by the Rev. "William Ross, LL.D. ; Edinburgh, 1885, 
pp. 64 and 121. 
2 Register, Dunfermline, N. 155. 


light which he has thrown upon an obscure field of research. It is to be 
hoi>ed that he may yet find time and opportunity to read the 200 
charters relating to the de Quencys preserved in Magdalen College. An 
examination by so competent an archaeologist would not fail to elicit 
facts of imi)ortance in illustrating the historj' both of Scotland and of 

[My friend, Mr Christopher Aitchison, has, during the summer of 1900, 
examined these charters at Magdalen College, Oxford. They are de- 
8cril)ed in the manuscript calendar of the College. Mr Aitchison has 
sent to me some extracts from these documents. The charters are 
princijmlly grants to the hospitiil of St John and St James at Brack eley 
in Northamptonsliire, for the maintenance of chaplains, and the burning 
of candles at the altar for the souls of Seyr and Roger de Quency and 
their wives and children. Amongst these are grants from the demesne 
of (Jask in Perthshire, and other proofs of the extensive jKwsessions of 
this family. There are two grants (dated 1240 and 1256), in which 
Xloger de C^uency provided for the burial of his body at Brackeley ; but 
IK) record was found of his actual burial. If Roger de Quency died in 
Scotland, it would have l)een in accordance with the custom of those 
t^imes that his heart alone should l>e sent to Brackeley.] 





About a quarter of a mile west of tlie Eatablishe<l Cliurch at 8tmthy, 
Hufcherlatiilsljire, resting iu the moi^rland beside the old march dyke, 
there hiisj lain fur centui'ies, negh^cted and uituoticed, a rude stone slab 
{tig. 1} l>earin^^ an incised crosi^ of a type which, if not aJtogether mre, is 

Fig. L Rude Stone Cross at Stratliy. 

yet absolutely unique among Scottish crossef?. The alah, a rough, un- 
dressed sandstone^of the same kind sia exists iti the neighlxairhooil — is 
broken at certain points, but the central surface is intact. It is 54 


inches in length, 8 inches in thickness, and the broadest part, from arm 
to arm of the cross, is 21 inches. In appearance it is somewhat coffin- 
shaped ; but this resemblance is clearly accidental — the result of recent 
breakage — and not intended in the original design. 

The cross from summit to base is 34 inches, and from arm to arm 18 J 

The summit and the base, as well as the two arms, end in circles 
formed by the outer lines of the cross — the lines lacing 2 inches broad 
and nearly 1 inch in depth. Inside these again are hollows or cups ; the 
one at the bottom slightly oval, the rest more or less round. The circles 
and cups at the top and foot are of the same dimensions — the circles 6 
inches and the cups 3 inches in diameter. Those in the arms are J inch 
less than these. In the centre of the cross are traces of a small and 
almost obliterated cup. On the vacant spaces in the cross — on the shaft, 
arms and summit — are slight lines as indicated in the drawing. 

As to the origin and age of this curious cross, tradition and topography 
are alike silent. All that we have therefore to guide us in this direction 
is the cross itself and its distinctive features. At first sight the work 
would seem, from the rudeness of its art, and the depth and clearness of 
the incised lines, to be of mediaeval or late Christian date. On the other 
hand, the cups and rings at tlie four extremities, and the central cup, 
evidently point to a much earlier period. Cup-marked stones have 
occasionally been found in connection with early Christian burials, and a 
cross, though not unquestionably the cross of Christianity, appears in con- 
junction with these symbols in the Lough Crew group of stones, and 
occasionally in Norway on the rock surfaces — both of which are usually 
assigned to the Bronze Age. If, then, the circles and hollows on the 
Strathy Cross could be supposed to have been intended to represent the 
* cups and rings * of pagan times, we might, perhaps, be justified in 
assigning to it a very early age — an age of transition between Christianity 
and paganism — when the old forms were still current and exercised an 
influence on the rude art of the time. In any case, whether it be old 
or comparatively recent, whether it belongs to the 7 th century or to the 


13th, the cross is of much archaeological interest as indicating in the 
Christian period the existence and use of a type of art that is i)eculiarly 
associated with paganism. 


F.S.A. Scot. 

The object to which this note refers was found in the month of June 
1899, on the farm of Glencotho in Holms Water, Peeblesshire, by Mr 
Walter Smail, shepherd. He states that one showery day in the end 
of June he was passing an oi)en gnissy space amongst the surrounding 
heather near the liead of Glencotho Burn, when he saw something 

Fig. 1. Bronze Chape of Scabbard for a Sword of the late CeUic iHjriod. 

{^littering in tlie sun on tlie top of a newly throwTi-up molehill, about 
fifty yards from the burnside. He picked up the object here shown 
(fig 1.), which is the bronze chape or tip of a scabbard for a sword of 


the Late-Celtic period. It weighs a little over two and a half ounces 
and is fonned of two curved pieces of bronze, separate at the top and 
joined at the foot, but it is possible that it may have been cast 
in a single piece. It is three inches in length, each ann is on an 
average half an inch wide by three-eightlis of an inch deep. At the top 
the arms converge to within half an inch of each other, then open out to 
a width of seven-eighths of an inch and gradually converge towards the 
foot where they join. The outer sides of the arms are rounded, and the 
inner sides are deeply grooved or hollowed out from top to bottom. On 
the outside of the inner edges of each arm, back and front, there is a 
narrow moulding which at the top of each arm swells out into two 
lip-like mouldings with a well marked groove between them and 
smaller mouldings at the edges of the lips. At the foot the narrow 
lateral moulding swells out into another lip which curves outwards and 
backwards upon itself. There is a deep groove between the mouldings 
where the arms join. On wliat may be called the front of the chape 
the lower of the two lip mouldings at tlie top runs downwards for about 
half the length of each arm, and curves outwards, ending on each arm in 
an ornament like a leaf or bird's head, in the centre of which is a small 
hollow circle with the ring in relief. The outer surface of the chape is 
polished except where eroded. The right arm looking at the front htis 
a small nail or rivet hole near the top running from the outside of the 
arm through to the inner groove. 

Mr Smail says that the locality of the find, although on a hillside, is 
not on steep ground. He saw no trace of a camp or fort, but states that 
in the grassy area there are a number of small knolls like large mole- 
hills grown over with grass. The place is about 1200 feet above sea 

Glencotho is about two miles from the watershed between the Tweed 
and the Clyde. About two miles to the east as the crow flies is the 
farm of Stanho|>e on Tweedside, where in 1876 a Late-Celtic bronze 
armlet, a Roman patella and two small bronze ornaments were found — 
these are numbers F.A. 25-28 of the Museum Catalogue. 


I have much pleasure in announcing that since this paper was road, 
the bronze scabbard-tip has been presented to the National Museum by 
Rev. Andrew Baird, B.D., minister of Broughton, to whom it had been 
given by the finder. 

Monday, I2th March 1900. 
The Hon. JOHN ABEECROMBY, Vice-President, in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken, W. D. Graham-Mbnzies of Hallyburton 
was duly elected a Fellow, and Mungo Buchanan, Falkirk, a Corre- 
sponding Member of the Society. 

The following donations to the Museum and Library were laid on the 
table and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By tlie Excavation Committee, with consent of Mr Forbes of 

Callander, the Proprietor. 

Large collection of Pottc^ry ; bronze objects, chiefly Harness-mountings 
and Fibulae, sonic beautifully enamelled ; iron implements and objects 
of l)Oue and stone, obtained by the Society from the excavation 
of the Roman site of Camelon, near Falkirk. [See the subsequent 
account of the excavation of Camelon.] 

(2) By Mr James Russel of Blackbraes, through Mr James Curle. 

Roman .Utar (fig. 1) dedicated by an Ofticer in the Tungrian Cavalry 
to the Magusan Hercules, found in 1841 near the Bridge of Brightons, 
to the south-east of Falkirk. The altar is 2 feet 9 inches in height by 
1 foot wide, and bears on the front the following inscription : — Hbrculi 
Magu8an[o] sacrum. Valerius Nigrinus dupli[carius] alae Tung- 
RORUM. It is No. 1090 of Hubner's " Inscriptiones Britanniee Latinae" 



in the seventh volume of the Carpus Inscriptionum Latinarum^ 
iterlin, 1873, and is described and figured in Stuart's Caledonia 
Jiomana^ p. 359 and plate xv. 






Fig. 1. Roman Altar found near Bridge of Brightons in 1841. 

(3) By R F. Buchanan, 19 Rodney Street. 

Perforated Hammer of porphyritic stone from Orkney. 

rrr. march 12, 1900. 

•■-. tlirough James Palgarso. 

Iviitrtli, f«ninil on the farm "f 

• ■' II.. tjin'on Anne, and ("leni>:e II. 

.. i:.\ '-.D.. Minister of r»rou.L'ht«»n. 

-/ I:: tvjM', foinnl in a m.»Iehill ..n OKii- 
. -»-/ r* . [S.M- tin- previi'us ConimuuiiMii-ii 

\. 9 Mt-nt-au* T'-rraoi-. 
■f'.v-s m-l I 'III- inirri«.«r view of the Iinn 
i-r vh «.•£ Cli'krniin, S^hetlanvl : i«fst«'i : an-l "f a ShrtLuul nui-rn. 


L ^♦^ 

:':^:-:»;; a > f ::.v C u-.-ii, 1559 

- :• < ■^ . A :^ : ::.v Privy C-^ 
- : -:.: r.- >. S:v;:.:<L 15S7-16 

" '."LTV 

■^1 vil. 

v^iinrE .. r :;■.:-: I'MYrK-iTY LiPKAiixr- 


There were also Exhibited : — 

(1) By Rev. J. D. Anderson, Manse of Hoy, Orkney. 

Silver Bracelet, with jointed opening, said to have been found in a 
moss near Alford, Aberdeenshire. 

(2) By Alexander Gray, New Deer, Aberdeenshire. 

Seventeen Borers of flint, and three notched imj)lements, from 

(3) By Mrs M'Intosh, Dick Place, Edinlmrgh. 

Large Spear-head of bronze, witli crossbar, found in the neighbour- 
hood of Meerut, India. 

The following Communications were read : — 



[The papers composing the account of these excavations liave been 
poBtponed in order to give time for the preparation of the plans and other 



ARMITAGE. Communicated by Profbssor BALDWIN BROWN, F.S.A. Scot. 

I am not aware that any serious attempt has ever yet been made to 
ascertain what the nature of an Anglo-Saxon fortification was. One of 
our best archaeologists observes that " whatever amount of difficulty may 
attend our inquiry respecting the domestic buildings of the Saxons, the 
character of their military edifices is involved in far greater obscurity." ^ 
It is possible that this ignorance is mainly due to not making use of the 
materials which exist in a scattered and fragmentary condition, and 
which have never been pieced together. But it cannot be denied that 
the general absence of interest in questions of English archaeology has 
led to a complete lack of accumulated observations on the subject ; and 
the difficulty of getting information, even about existing remains, can 
only be appreciated by those who have attempted an inquiry of the 

What is worse is that this lack of interest has left the ground open to 
assumptions, which are accepted as facts, because no one cares to dis- 
pute them. It seems strange that in the nineteenth century any 
arclireologist of reputation should still follow the method of the archae- 
ologists of a hundi'cd or two hundred years ago, who first guessed at 
things, and then said they were so. Yet this is certainly the method 
followed l)y the late ^fr (I. T. Clark in his otherwise valuable work on 
MediiBval and MilUanj Architecture. Finding that in several places 
where the Anglo-Saxon records tell of hurlis or strongholds erected by 
our forefatliers, there are still existing round hillocks of earth, sur- 
roimded with ditches, he jumped to the conclusion that a hurh was a 
moated hillock, and then proceeded to assert that it was so, without any 
further inquiry into the literary history of the word. The evidence 
wliich he adduced in support of his assumption was chiefly this : — 1st, 

* Hudson Turner, History of Domestic Architecture in England^ vol. i. |>. 18. 


^^ the fifty hurha mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, there 

^enty-two still existing where moated mounds of the kind in ques- 

^^e to be found ; 2n(l, many of these works are known to have l)ecn 

. ^^^tre or caput of great estates in Saxon times.^ Strange to say, 

"^ery scanty and disputable evidence has been accepted witliout 

^ion even ])y such writers as Freeman and Green, and is adopted 

^^^fit of the antiquarian lx)oks and papers written during the last 

>^^^^ years. 

^ ^ith the theory that these moated hillocks mark the centre of a 

^'^te estate in Saxon times, this paper will not attempt to deal, as it 

y^ ^ ^ left in the far more competent hands of Mr J. 11. Round, who 

^^ clearly expressed liis dissent from it.^ The philological and historical 

Mence, and the evidence drawn from the actual remains, will be sufli- 

*^^iit for the purpose of this paper. What first led the writer to doubt 

^^« truth of Mr Clark's contention tliat a hurh was a conical earthwork, 

^''^ that on looking through the illustrated Anglo-Saxon MSS. in the 

^•^n'tish Museum to find a picture of a Imrh, it was seen that the Anglo- 

^axon idea of a hurh^ as represented by those })ictures, was an enclosure 

^Vith walls and towers of stone — in other words, a walled town.* Not 

^tDng afterwards, an article on P^nglish ctistles in the Quarterly Revieio 

^or July 1894, now known to have been written by Mr J. H. Round, led 

to the conviction that Mr Clark's theory of buHis was simply an archaB- 

V>logical delusion. Mr Round's words are : " We hold it proved that 

* Mediccml and Military Architecture, pp. 22, 23. 

*-* Essex Archccologi4:al Society h Traiisactians, vol. iii. part ii. "Tlie more deeply 
1 have studied the theories of ' Castle Clark,' the more reason have I seen to doubt 
liis view that these strongholds were intended for the centre and defence of a private 
estate, for the accommodation of the lord and liis household, and for the dwelling of 
the English lord who succeeded the Roman provincial." In his Feudal Emfland, 
Mr Round shows that most of the Norman fiefs were wholly new creations, con- 
structed from scattered fragments of Anglo-Saxon estates, p. 260. 

' On p. 29 of the MS. of Pnidcntius (Cleopatra C. viii.) there is an excellent 
drawing of a four-sided enclosure, with towers at the angles, and haUlemented. walls 
of masonry. The title of the picture is **Virtutes urbem ingrediuntur *' ; and 
urhem is rendered in the A.S. gloss as hurh. 


these fortified mottes were, at least in some cases, erected in the Con- 
queror's days, and if this is proved of some, it becomes probable of 
many. Indeed, so far as what we may term private castles are con- 
cerned, there is actually, we think, a presumption in favour of this late 
origin." It is proposed in this paper to carry this contention even 
further, and to maintain that while the hurha of the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle are almost always walled towns, the moated hillocks scattered 
so thickly over England and south-western Scotland are the remains of 
castles built by Normans, 

The philological evidence is of considerable importance in this con- 
tention. There is not the smallest reason to suppose that the word hurh 
ever meant a hillock, for tlie history of the word can be clearly traced. 
Mr Clark had not the advantage of consulting the New English 
Dictionary^ which had not appeared when he wrote, but had he looked 
into SchmiiVa Gesetze der Angehachsen, he would have learned that a 
burh, which is derived from the same root as the verb hergian^ to 
shelter, meant originally a wall of some kind, whether of earth, wood or 
stone, built for protection. As in the case of the words tun^ yard or 
garth, and icorth or ward, the sense of the word became extended from 
the protecting bulwark to the thing protected. In this sense of a forti- 
fied enclosure, the word was naturally applied by the Anglo-Saxons to 
the prehistoric and British " camps " which they found in Britain, such 
as Cissbury, or to similar forts which they constructed themselves, such 
as Bebbanburh (Baml)orough). Sometimes the burh was probably 
nothing more than a palisade or hedge round a great man's house, if we 
may judge from the innumerable places whose names end in bury or 
borough,^ from which every vestige of bulwark has totally disappeared. 

Tlic laws of Ethelbert of Kent, Ine of Wessex, and Alfred, speak re- 
spectively of the king's and earl's tun, huse, and JieaUa, and special 

* The dative form byrig is the origin of the names ending in bury. " To say 
nothing of hamlets, we have full 260 parishes whose names end in burgh, bury, or 
borougli, and in many cases we sec no sign in them of an ancient camp or of an ex- 
ceptionally dense population." Maitlaud, Domesday Book and Beyond, p. 184. 


^ . ^^^^>^ent8 are ordained for crimes committed within their precincts.^ 
i ^^^si\)le that in two instances in the later laws, the Tdng^a burh is 
^^ the same sense.- But from the time of the laws of Athelstan 
^ ^^irii burh far more commonly means a city or town. Thus he 
^**«-r\^ .that there shall be a mint in every hurhJ And it appears that 
^^V the town has its gemot or meeting."* In the laws of Edgar's 
^^d later, the hurh has not only its btirhrgemot^ but its burh-gere/a 
^"^ix-reeve, and its Imrh-waru or townsmen.^ Burh is contrasted with 
«>^T\take as town with country.^ And in this sense it has descended 
. ^^ own day as a borough, though because the word borough has so 
^^R meant a chartered town or a town with parliamentary representa- 
^> we have forgotten its older meaning of a fortified town. 
*^f we turn to Anglo-Saxon literature, we get the same answer. 
"Alfred in his Orosius translates city by burhJ The Anglo-Saxon trans- 
action of the Gospels (circa a.d. 1000) uses the same word for the 
^vitateni of the Latin version.® In the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, the 
^ords getoeorc or faesten are generally used for a fortress hastily thrown 
Up, and burh is reserved for fortified towns. The word burh, indeed, is 
seldom used in the Chronicle until we come to the time of Edward the 
Elder. It is conclusive as to the general meaning of the word that 

* V. Schraid's OesUze der Angtlsachsen, Ethelbert, 5, Ine. p. 22, Alfred, p. 74. 

'^ Thus Eklmund (ii. 2) speaks of mine hurh as an asylum, the violation of which 
brings its special punishment (Schmid, p. 176), and Ethelred (iii. 4) ordains that 
every compurgation and every ordeal shall take place on thae^t kyninges byrig, 
(Schmid, p. 214). A charter of Alfred's time speaks of the hedge of the king's 
burh. Birch's Cartularium^ ii. 305. The word burh does not occur in the laws of 
Edward the Elder. 

3 Athelstan, ii. 2. Schmid, p. 140. 

^ Professor Maitland says : '* In Athelstan's day it seems to be supposed by the 
legislator that a moot will usually be held in a hurh. If a man neglect three sum- 
monses to a moot, the oldest men of the hurh are to nde to his place and seize his 
goods." Domesday Book and Beyond , p. 185. 

* Edgar, iii. 5. Ethelred, ii, 6. Athelstan speaks of the reeves of every hurh, 
I. Preface. 

* OCSe on burge, ©"Site on wsepengetacce, Edgar, iv. 2. 
' New English Dictionary ^ Borough. 

■ lb. Matt. xxi. 17. 

264 PROCtifiDINGS OF TltE SOCIETY, MAKCll 12, 1900. 

Florence of Worcester, one of the most accurate of our early annalists, in 
his account of Edward's reign, regularly translates the burh of the 
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle by urbs.^ 

But though we may now feel certain that the general sense of the 
word Imrh was a town, its more special sense as an enclosing bulwark 
does not api)ear to have been forgotten in Anglo-Saxon times. Thus 
Athelstan orders that all burhs shall be repaired fourteen days after 
Rogations ; ^ and Cnut, when making a similar provision, expressly 
defines it as civitatum emendatio,^ Here the word for toMTi is used for 
the town wall. The same sense appears as late as the reign of William 
Rufus, in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (1092) ; when relating the restora- 
tion of Carlisle by that King, it says : — " He repaired the burJiy and 
ordered the ccutell to be built."* And finally, a remarkable charter of 
Ethelred of Mercia and Ethelfleda his wife states that they have com- 
manded the burh at Worcester to be built as a protection to all the 
people.'* Ethelred and his wife were not building a n6w to^vn, for 
Worcester already had its churclies and its bishop, and possibly the 
remains of its Roman walls, but they were building or rebuilding a town 
wall or embankment to protect the city from tlie Danes. 

It is equally clear that a burh was not a castle, in the sense in which 
we commonly use that word. The word castdhim is occasionally used 
in Anglo-Saxon charters, but when it is used it clearly means a town.^ 

^ Florence of Worcester lived at the end of the eleventh century and beginning of 
the twelfth, when Anglo-Saxon was still a livhig language. 

2 Athelstan, ii. 13. Schmid, p. 138. 

3 Cnut, ii. 10. Schmid, p. 276. 

* A passage, by the way, which is fattil to Mr Clark's theory that a burh meant 
a moated hillock, for there is no such hillock at Carlisle. 

* Hehtan bewyrcean tha burh at Weogernaceastrc eallum tham folce to gebeorge. 
Birch's Cartularium^ ii. 222. 

^ Thus a charter of Egbert of Kent, 765, says : ** Trado terram intra castelli moenia 
supranominati, id est Hrofescestri, unum viculum cum duobus jugeribus, adjacentem 
plateae quie terminus a meridie hujus terrse," etc. Codex DiplomcUicus^ i. 138. In 
two charters of Ethel wulf, Hroji castellum is used as an equivalent for Hrofecestre or 
Rochester. Birch's Cartulurium^ ii. 48 and 86. In this sense, no doubt, we must 
interpret Asser's ** castellum quod dicitur Werham." Vita Elfredi, 478. 


It has been necessary, at the risk of tediousness, to spend some time 
on the history of the word hurh, because it is the key to the historical 
and archaeological evidence, to which we must now turn. We must first 
inquire what models the Anglo-Saxons were likely to follow in fortress- 
building. From the first days of their coming to Britain, they had before 
their eyes the remains of the cities and camps fortified by the Romans. 
The numerous terminations of place names in Chester, caster, and cautery 
show how plentifully the island was furnished with Roman toAvns, each 
with its four-sided bulwark of stone or earth. ^ It has been maintained 
that the Saxons, after laying the Roman towns in ruins, avoided rebuild- 
ing them from superstition or some other feeling, and made their own 
settlements on other sites. This was certainly true in some cases, as, for 
example, when the Saxon town of Rotherham arose at the distance of 
about a mile from the Roman station of Templeborough. But the great 
Roman to^vn8, such as Canterbury, London, Winchester, and York, were 
evidently occupied by the English from the first, and probably they kept 
the walls in repair. And it may have been tlie invasion of the Danes 
which led Alfred to repair and occupy many chesters, as the Saxons 
called them, which had until then ])een unoccupied and ruinous.- In 
886 the Chri^niclo tells us that Alfred repaired " Londonburh," and com- 
mitted it to the keej)ing of Kthelred the e^ildorman, the same Ethelnid 
who restored, as we have already seen, the burh of Worchester. William 
of iMalmesbury tells us that the city of Shaftesbury was built by Alfred ; 
and it is evident that the old Roman castruni at L^Time was being 
rei)aircd by Alfrtnl's orders, when the workmen who were repairing it 
were atUicked by the Danes. "^ The repair of the city of Chester — the 

The d<[uaro or parallel o;;ruTii was certainly the Roman ideal, but the nature of 
the grountl often led them to vary this form, so that many Roman towns are poly- 
fjonal. See the plan of Compie^ne in Cohausen's BefestUjuiujcn der Vorzcit (fig. 99). 

- Dr Christison thinks the Saxons sometimes gave the name of chesUr to their own 
fortifications, even when they liad no Roman origin. Early Fortifiaitions in Scot- 
land, p. 105. It would be interesting to know whether Roman remains have been 
found at all the ehestcrs in Britain. 

y A, a, ChrouicU, 893. 


" waste Chester in Wirrall " — after it had been possessed and ruined by 
the Danes, was another of the good works of Ethelred of ^lercia, in 
Alfred's reign. ^ A cliarter of Edward the Elder's reign shows that he 
secured the old Roman city of Porchester, by exchanging some other 
lands for it with the Bishop of Winchester, to whom it ]>elonged. We 
cannot doubt that he did this in order to make it one of the defences of 
his kingdom.- 

What was done at Porchester was doubtless done at many other 
places. Sometimes the fortification to be restored or the new one to l>e 
raised would be a stone wall ; sometimes it would be an earthen bank 
with a stockade or he<lge or wattle-work fence on top, such as Ida reared 
at Bamborough ; sometimes it would l)e a Thelwall or timber palisade 
such as Edwanl put up on the shores of the Mersey.^ No nation is 
unacquainted with these simpler fonns of fortification ; but if we are to 
judge froni the Uluminated manuscripts, the Anglo-Saxon ideal of fortifi- 
cation was formed from Roman mod(ds, just as their oth(;r architi»cture 
was, and the solid stone wall with towers and battlements, forming either 
a polygonal or a square enclosure, was what they preferred when time 
and money permitted. 

But of whatever material the Saxon tjefccorc or biirh of the 9th and 
10th centuries was constructed, we may l)e sure of one thing : that Wie 
burh enclosed a much larger area than the ordinary Norman castle. 
The works construfcted by Alfred and Edward and Ethelfleda were not 

^ A.S. Chronicle, 907. 

^ The charter of Edward speaks only of some cassati of land at Porchester, but a 
later charter of Edgar, which recounts this transfer of land, says expressly that it 
was the appidum of Porchester which Edward acquired by this exchange. It is 
interesting to find that Mr Clark and Mr Smirke both remark that the masonry at 
Porchester does not at a first glance suggest Roman work. Possibly an expert might 
be able to separate the repairs of Edward the Elder from the original Roman work 
in the outer walls of Porchester, as well as from the later additions of the Norman 
and Plantagenet kings. 

' Camden was the first to point out this etymology, which he professes to quote 
from Florence of Worchoster ; but it is not to be found in Florence. Britannia, 


castles, built for the personal defence of some great man and his family ; 
they were not forts, intended to be held by a choice body of troops, for 
there was no standing army from which to draw such a force ; ^ they 
were boroughs^ that is, towns, hi which people were expected to live and 
do their daily work, as well as to repair and defend their town walls, 
while at the same time these walls were to be ample enough to serve as 
a place of refuge for the whole country side at the time of a Danish 
inroad. The people of England would no longer be at the mercy of their 
barbarian foe if they could take refuge behind stout bulwarks while the 
Dane harried the country. And perhaps from these bulwarks they could 
sally forth to cut off his retreat, even if they had not hail the courage to 
oppose his advance. But as Professor Maitland has observed, the origin 
of the boroughs was largely military, and in all probability the burghers 
were, of all men in the realm, the most professionally warlike.^ 

Before we turn to the existing remains of the hurha or boroughs 
founded in the 9th and lOth century, it may l>e well to say a few words 
on the type of castle which Mr Clark supposed to be iKJCuliarly Anglo- 
Saxon, or, as he sometimes more vaguely expressed it, Northern, in its 
origin. The type is a very marked one, and consists of a round or oval 
hillock (there are a few cases in which the hillock is square), truncated 
at the top so as to form a platform, which is sometimes large enough to 
sustain extensive buildings, as at Tumworth, sometimes so small that it 
cannot have carried anything larger than a watch-tower, as at Bradfiehl 
and ^lexborough, Yorkshire. This hillock is generally surrounded by a 
ditch with a bank on the counterscarp, and ha^ attached to it a court- 
yard which is also ditched, and has evidently had banks both on the 
scarp and counterscarp. The courtyard is usually higher than the 
surrounding land. 

^ I will not ^o so far as to assert that they never constructed anything small enougli 
to be called a fort. But if it were intendetl for permanent occupation, it must have 
been maint^iined on the same system as the boroughs were : by laying on the magnates 
of the shire the duty of keeping hawa in the borough, and burgesses in those haws. 
See Maitland, J)omcsday Book and Bct/oiuf, p. 189. 

'^ Domesday Book and Bei/ond, p. 190. 


In very many cases, the ground plan of these earthworks resembles 
a figure of 8, in which the upper limb is very much smaller than the lower. 
But though the court is frequently circular or semilunar in form, this is 
by no means invariably the case; and it will be seen from the table 
given in this paper (p. 279) that rectangular forms predominate in the 
castles built by William the Conqueror. The banks of these courts 
were, of course, crowned l)y stout palisades, and there can be no doubt 
that these enclosures contained the stables, kitchens, workshops, and 
other necessary appurtenances of a castle. The hillock carried on its 
summit the lord^s residence, a wooden tower, which served as a citadel 
in the last resort, as well as a look-out station from which to watch the 
foe. The hillock is generally artificial, though, as might be expected, in 
cases where a natural hill or rock offered itself, it has been utilised to 
form the base or even the entire citadel. But the situation of these 
fortresses differs entirely from that of the more ancient prehistoric 
camps, where natural strongholds were chosen by preference. The 
moated hillocks are almost always found in towns or villages, on the 
level of the arable country. 

The wooilen castles which crowned these hillocks had a special name 
in Norman French ; they were called Itretasckes} The hillock also had 
its name in the same language ; it was called a mottCi Latinised as mota. 
The courtyard was known as the haijle or bailey^ in Low Latin ballium. 
As these are the proper Norman names, and there are no others, I shall 
henceforth speak of this type of castle as the motte-and-bailey type. The 
word motte is, of course, the same as the mote which we so frequently 
find in the south-west of Scotland, and in other parts of Great Britain, 
and which is also found in some old English records, with the sense of 
an artificial hill. Thus a document of the year 1585, cited by Grose, 
says that Prudhoe Castle is built "on a high nioate of earth." ^ d^ 
Christison, in his Early Fortifications of Scotland^ remarks that there is 
the same confusion between moat in the sense of a ditch, and mote or 

* See Dacange, Bretaschia, Mota, and Ballium. 
^ Grose's AntiquitieSf iv. p. 5 of Addenda. 


castles, built for the personal defence of wnn.* gr«at p 
they were not forts, intended to be held by a ehoi* * 
there was no standing army from which Ui draw 
were boroughs^ that is, t*>\vn*s in which p(*oph> wpt^ 
do their daily work, us? woll an t^:* repair aiid dftf 
while at the same timo thesis walk wc^rc t<j Tie mM) 
a pUice of refuge for the whole country «iik lU 
inroad. The people of England would no lon^i 
barbarian foe if they could take refuge l^ehisiii 
Dane harried the couritryi AxmX perliaxw) {mm 
sally forth to cut off hin retreat, even if thev ! 
oppose his advance. But »is Profassor Mai tin 
of the boroughs was largely military, and 
were, of all men in tlie rMlmj the mo^X 1 1 

Before we turn to the existing ivr. 
founded in the 9th and 10th century, U i% 
on the tyi)e of castle whith Mr Clar^ ' 
Saxon, or, as he sometimes more vaf^u ' 
origin. The type is a very marked i«ir*. 
hillock (there are a few ismm in ^vl 
at the top so as to form a ]jkitfon3u 
sustain extensive bui Mings, tls jiI 1 ' 
cannot have carried anything larg' t 
and Mexborough, Yoikshire * T1 n - 
ditch with a bank on the tounli r 
yard which is also diU-liml, and ^ 
scarp and counterscarp, 71 ii 
surrounding land 

* I will not pfo 80 far an to v^hMn\ t 
to Ikj called a fort. But rf U w^e i 
been maintained on the haniv Fvtf n 
of the shire the duty of k^^* j^hk ^ • 
Sec Maitland, Domesday Mtml- 

'^ Domcaday Book and B*:ij<i><^\, i 



Monk's Kirby on the borders of WarAvickshire. In only ten of these 
twenty-six places is a motte to be found, and in every case there is 
evidence tending to show that the motte was connected with a 
subsequent Norman castle.^ 

BuRHS OF Ethelflbda. 

Worcester, 873-899. 

Chester, 907. 

Bremeeburh, 911. 

Scacrgate, 913. 

Bridgenorth, 913. 

Tamworth, 914. 

Stafford, N. of Sowe, 914. 

Eddisbury, 915. 

Warwick, 915. 
Cyricbyrig (Monk's Kirby), 916. 

Weardbyrig, 916. 

Kuncom, 916. 

A motte and a Norman castle. 

A motte and a Norman castle. 



No motte, but a Norman stone keep. 

A motte and a Norman castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 

A motte and a Norman castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 


No motte ; a medueval castle (?). 

BuRus OF Edward tub Elder. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 

A motte and a Norman castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle 

A motte and a Norman castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 

A motte and bailey. 


A motte and a Norman castle. 

No motte, but an early Norman keep. 


No motte and no Norman castle. 

A motte and a Norman castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 

No motte ; a mediaeval castle. 

No motte and no Norman castle. 

A motte and bailey at Bakcwell. 

Out of this list, fourteen are ancient boroughs, that is to say more than 
half the names in the list, which must be reduced to twenty-seven if the 

^ See Appendix A. 

' Possibly Cley in Norfolk. If so, this is another case where there is no motte 
and no Korman castle. 

Hertford, N. of Lea, 


Hertford, S. of Lea, 




Buckingham, S. of Ouse, 


Buckingham, N. of Ouse, 
Bedford, S. of Ouse, 















Stamford, S. of Welland, 

Nottmgham, N. of Trent, 




Nottingham, S. of Trent, 


Bakewell, (near to) 



burhs on both sides of the river at Hertford, Buckingham, and Nottingham 
are counted as one. I have counted them as two in my list, because the 
very precise indications given in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle show that 
each burh was a separate construction. If, therefore, a burh was the 
same thing as a motte, we ought to find mottes on each side the river 
at Hertford, Buckingham, and Nottingham. But as a matter of fact, 
in all these three cases we only find mottes on that side of the river 
where a Norman castle was subsequently built, and they always form 
part of the works of these castles. 

Regarding it, then, as proved that a burh is a wholly different thing 
from a motte, and that it meant generally the vallum or wall of an 
Anglo-Saxon town, we must now consider the evidence which exists to 
prove that the mottes were the work of the Normans. A priori^ we 
can see that such castles would bo extremely advantageous to the 
Normans in England, because they could be so quickly built. They 
were exactly the castles which were needed by an invader who was 
intending to settle among the people whom he was conquering. He needed 
not only an intrenchment which could be thrown up quickly, but he 
needed one which could be defended by a small force, for he had only 
a few men with him whom lie could trust. ^ He needed also a look-out 
station from which his sentinels could watch the disaffected town or village 
which had fallen to his share. It was said of Roger de Montgomeri's 
castle at Shrewsbury (which was originally a motte and bailey) that 
not a l)ird could fly in the streets of Shrewsbury without being 
observed from it.- 

But we arc not confined to arguing that the Normans would be 
likely to build castles of this type; we can show by i)ositive evidence 
that they did build such castles. We can point to the innumerable mottes 
which still exist in Normandy, some in their primitive condition of 
simple earthworks, having lost their wooden stockades and bretasches ; 
others transformed into mediaeval castles by the addition of walls and 

^ See article on English Castles in Quarterly Review for July 1894. 
•- Leland's Itinerary, 


single exception of Dover Castle, which was built by Harold,^ and 
perhaps Arundel, which Domeaday Book speaks of as a castrum in the 
reign of Edward the Confessor. 

The motte-and-bailey castles are scattered very thickly over Eng- 
land, though as no complete list has ever been made of them, it is im- 
possible to say what their numbers are. But their distribution in Wales, 
Scotland, and Ireland is one of the most important links in the chain of 
argument for their Nonnan origin. In South Wales it is impossible to 
claim these mottes as the work of a former English proprietor ; and they 
certainly were not the native Welsh fashion of fortification, for the 
Welsh were still in the tribal stage, and the goers which they built 
were intended to accommodate large numlKjrs of people. Harold hail a 
great campaign in Wales, but it is plain that the only jmrt wliich he 
retained as a conquest was the vale of Clwyd, Radnor, and that part of 
Monmouthshire which lies between Wye and Usk.*^ But the Normans 
before the end of the 11th century liad conquered the whole of South 
Wales, and the building of castles is expressly recorded as the method 
by wliich they fixed their hold on the land.^ The sites of these castles 
still remain, as well as the tradition of their Norman founders, and though 
it has been impossible to obtain particulars of all of them, at least 30 can 
l)e enumerated where mottes are yet to be seen. Several of these castles 
are mentioned as Norman castles in the Biut y Tyicysogion. Grose ex- 
presses his surprise that the castles in the marches of Wales are so often 
said to have been burnt to the ground, and six months afterwards are 
mentioned as standing and making a defence. But this is easily 
explained if we suppose them to be wooden castles on earthworks, the 
earthworks remaining when the wooden walls and buildings were de- 

In Scotland, also, these mottes are to l>e found, and they have been 

* William of J umK'ges. 

- See Freeman's Norman Conquditj vol. ii. 

'^ "About the Calends of July, the French came into Dyfcd and Coridigion, 
which they have still retained, and fortified castles, and seized upon all the land of 
the Britons." Brut y Tywyaoijion, 1091. 


the earthworks themselves correspond precisely to the Norman 

From Ireland we obtain evidence of the same kind. The motte-and- 
bailey castle is to be found in Ireland, but only in the English pale, that 
is, in the part of the country conquered by the Normans in the 12th 
century. 2 The era of stone keeps had then begun in England, but the 
existence of these castles in Ireland shows that where the same circum- 
stances prevailed as at the time of William's conquest of England — need 
of haste and limitation of men and resources — the old type of castle was 
resorted to.^ There can be no doubt that the Normans were the builders 
of mottes in Ireland, for in the Anglo-Norman poem on the Conquest 
of Ireland, edited by Michel and Wright, the erection of mottes by the 
Norman conquerors is mentioned more than once.* Richard Fleming, on 
receiving the Barony of Slane, 

Un mot fit jeter 

Pur 068 ennemis graver. 

And when Tirel was forced to abandon the castle he had raised at Trim, 

the Irish 

La mot firent tut de geter, 
Desque a la terre tut verser, 

^ Dr Christison states that there are many mottes which have no vestige of bailey. 
But it is much easier to fill up a ditch with its own vallum than to level a motte ; 
and the farmers of the Lowlands are notoriously industrious. 

'^ See Wright's Louthiava^ where plans are given of many of these mottes. The 
small size of the area they enclose is remarkable ; it i^oints to the smallness of the 
force at the disposal of the builder. Two of them which have square baileys 
(Castletown and Mount Killaney) do not cover as much as an acre. 

^ Mottes with wooden bretasches were undoubtedly built in the 12th century in 
Plngland, when circumstances compelled. Very probably Ralph Flambard*s original 
castle at Norham was of this character, as the ground plan is certainly that of the 
motte and bailey, and the earthworks and general treatment of the position are what 
Mr Clark calls *' thoroughly English " ; so of course he introduces a previous Saxon 
occupation, though Simeon of Durham exf)ressly states that there had been no 
fortress there before, to resist the incursions of the Scots. (Simeon, 1072.) 

** Quoted by Mr Round in the article on English Castles, QtuirUrly Rcinew for 
July 1894, already referred to. Mr Round remarks that the description of the 
levelling of the motte after burning the buildings is conclusive as to the character 
of the fortress. 


after they had set fire to the wooden buildings which stood on 

I have already remarked that the word mote is used for these fortresses 
in Scotland. In Ireland also, as we are informed by Dr Joyce, large high 
mounds are often called mota,^ Wales also retains the same Norman 
word in at least one district. " Moat in the Englishry of Pembroke," 
says Fenton,2 " is often used for castle, when there is one of the flat- 
headed tumuli with a ditch roimd it." The word mota is of course the 
Low Latin for motle, and it was in common use in early mediaeval times 
for castles of this construction. Thus the iigreement between Henry II. 
and Stephen speaks of the Mota of Windsor and the Mota of Oxford;^ 
at both places there are mottes. And one of the Close Rolls of Henry 
IIL's reign orders all those who have mottes (motas) in the valley of 
Montgomery to strengthen their mottes with gooil bretasches without 

We will now turn to the evidence which we get from the castles 
which are known from our early records to have been built in the reign 
of William I. or William Rufus. And as, in drawing an inference from a 
multitude of facts, there is no method so clear as that of tabulating 
them, a list is subjoined of all the castles which good contemporary 
authority states to have l)een built in the perioil indicated, that is, before 
the close of the 11 th century.^ The iirst table (p. 271) has already shown 
that the motte is not found on the sites of the burhs of Edward and 
Ethelflcda, except in cases where a Norman castle has been built there 

1 Quoted by Dr Christison, p. 11. 

' HUtorieal Tour in Pembrokeshire, 1811. 

^ Rymer's Foedera, vol. i. 

* " Precipimus tibi quod ex parte nostra finniter preci2)ias omnibus illis qni motas 
habent in valle de Muntgumery quod sine dilatione motas suas bonis bretaschiis 
firmari faciant ad securitatem et dcfensionem suam et partium illarum." — Rot. Glaus. 
9, Henry III., quoted by Clark, i. 106. 

* William of Malmesbury and Ordericus Vitalis, whose authority I take in one or 
two cases, may not be strictly called contemporary, but they were both bom before 
the end of the 11th century, and their authority is so good that they arc among our 
best sources for the history of that period. 


in the midst of the townsmen with whom they had to live. This fact 
alone speaks strongly against the theory of a Saxon origin for these 
castles. In not one single case is the keep now on the mottc of early 
Nonnan date ; a circumstance which certainly supports the assumption 
that the early Norman castles were usually of timber. There is no masonry 
to be found on mottes which is earlier than the reign of Henry I. 

It is quite impossible that the clearance of houses in towns mentioned 
in Domesday Book as done for the site of a castle, can refer to the add- 
ing of a bailey-court to an already existing motte. To suppose that 
mottes existed without baileys is to misunderstand the type of fortifica- 
tion under consideration. The motte and bailey formed a unit, and of 
its two parts the bailey was the more essential, for the great man for 
whom the fortress was built could not do without lodgings for his 
followers, stables, storehouses, and all the various buildings necessary to 
a castle, whicli we must remember was a self-sufficing establishment, 
carrying on a number of arts and crafts besides those relating to >var. 
The motte was chiefly necessary because the lord was obliged to keep a 
sharp eye on liis townsfolk or villagers. I do not believe that there is a 
single instance of a motte erected for defence which can be proved never 
to have had a bailey attiiched to it, unless it were some advanced outpost 
in a frontier district. But a few such exceptions would not invalidate 
the general statement that a motte with its bretasche was in fact the 
keep of a castle, and was ivs little likely to l)e without a bailey as a stone 
keep. In fact, one of the names commonly given to the motte in old 
records is the dungeon hill, and the word dungeon or donjon (which 
Skeat derives from the low Latin domnium) means the lord's residence. 

The eminent Danish antiquary, Dr Soplius Miiller, in treating of some 
speciiuens of the niotte-and-bailey which are found in Denmark, makes 
the luminous remark that these are evidently personal fortifications, 
built not for the shelter of a tribe or a clan, but for some one great man 
and his immediate following.^ They are in fact the fortifications of 
feudalism, and they cannot have arisen before the age of feudalism. 
^ For OlcUid, chap. xii. 







Shape of Bailey. 

Bnit y I'ywy&ogion 





About 1 acre 


/ Domesday \ 
1 Onlericus j 



/ Domesday ) 
\ William of Poitiers f 


8 acres 




U acres 

/Oblong, comers i 
\ rounded / 

Brut y Tywysogion 


/Original ward \ 


Anglo-Saxou Clironiclc 

Stone Keep 

8 acres 



Motte-and-bailey plan 

3 acres 




/Original ward V 
\ 2 acres? / 




\ rectangular f 

Simeon of Durham 




2 acres? 




5 acres? 



Motte— destroyed 

Bayeux Tapestry ) 

- Anglo-Saxon Chronicle J- 

Chron. De Bello ) 


3 acres 


( Domesday \ 
1 Ordericus / 


6 acres 

/ Siiuare, comers \ 
\ rounded / 

/ Domesday \ 


G or 7 acres 

Roughly square 

\ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle / 


Motte of natural rook 



Motte of natural rock 

2 acres? 

Simeon of Durham 

Motte -destroyed 

( Donie8<lay > 
^William of Poitiers'^ 
(Ordericus ) 


(Original ward I 
{ about 3 acres / 

A half-moon 

/ Anglo-Saxon Chronicle \ 
\ Ordericua / 

Motte-and-bailey plan 

3 acres? 

A half -moou 



3 acres? 

Follows ground 

(Wilfiamof Jumltgea) 
-^<'uy Mf Amiens 
(MnltrfcitB ) 


li acre 








r Original ward^ 
i 2 or 3 acres / 




3| acres 




( Domesday \ 
\ Ordericus / 




/ Inner ward ) 
(about 3 acres/ 

William of Poitiers 

Stone keep 

Rudely square 

/ Domesday ) 
\ William of Poitiers f 


( Original ward \ 
t 8 acres / 

Roughly oblong 



/ Domesiiay \ 
\ Ordericus ( 






About 1 acre 


■Hk WMnton \ 
^■^r of Henry I. / 


] ing ditches V 
( and banks ) 


^^■fen History 



^^^^^«» Malmesburv 

Motte— destroyed 



About 4 acres 

A quadrant 


2 acres? 



basis for the assumption that the motte-and-bailey first appeared on the 
continent in the 11th century. 

But when did it cross the Cliannel into England? That, speaking 
generally, it came with William the Norman, can hardly be doubted. 
But it is very likely that under the half-Norman Edward the Confessor, 
some of his Norman favourites may have brought this new thing, the 
Norman castle, into England, and that Richard's castle, Robert's castle, 
and Pentecost's castle,^ may have been earthen mottes and baileys like 
those of Normandy. Richard's castle, near Ludlow, built by Richard 
Scrob, one of these Normans, still exists, and is a line specimen of the 
■ motte-and-bailey type ; its scanty remains of masonry belong, according 
to Mr Clark, to a later date than the early Norman, so we may infer 
that it was at first a wooden castle resting on earthworks. 

The point on which I wish to insist, that these castles were essentially 
the fortifications of feudalism, is one of special importance in the light of 
recent studies. The researches of Mr Round and Professor Maitland 
and others arc tending to the conclusion that while a state of things pre- 
vailed under the Confessor which had many of the outward aspects of 
feudalism, the rigidity and definitencss which were the essence of 
feudalism did not exist in England ; and that thus the statement of our 
older historians, that William the Conqueror introduced the feudal 
system into England, is not so wide of the mark as it is assumed to l>e 
by the school of ^Ir Freeman.*- But if, as Mr Round supposes, William 
the Conqueror gi'anted out lands in England just as Henry II. is known 
to have granted out lands in Ireland, to be held as fiefs by the service of 
a round num])cr of knights, what is more likely than that these peculiarly 
feudal fortifications, the mottes and baileys which we find scattered all 
over England, were the castles by which these military tenants defended 
their new acquisitions ? Not that we are to suppose that these castles 

^ Angh-Saxoi Chronicle^ 1052. 

- Mr Round holds that "the military service of the Anglo-Norman tenant-in- 
chief was in no way derived or developed from that of the Anglo-Saxons, but was 
arbitrarily fixed by the king, from whom he received his fief, irrespectively both of 
its size and of all pre-existing arrangements." Feudal England^ p. 261. 

., *«Vvaveter*" „« lUeoiV ^*^- .ve natural 7^_^v^lo«P*** v 

(Venctal^^ T\^e V^* , „Y,\ecte i°^''* „t eatliet ^^^ ^ . the*' 

doi -ti^s-''^-^' ^r ^^^^^1 i^^^^^^ ::rt^ ».- 


at Penwortham in Lancashire, which was excavated in 1856, surpassed 
all others in interest, inasmuch as it contained the foundations and what 
we may perhaps call the cellar of the original Norman hretasche} An iron 
prick spur, found in the ruins, is evidently Norman, being of exactly the 
same type as the one on the effigy of Geoflfrey de Mandeville in the 
Temple Church.^ The top of the motte had been defended by an outer 
wall of wattles. The hretasche appears to have been round, the broken 
stumps of uprights taking that form. A motte at Hallaton in Leicester- 
shire, and the motte at Almondbury, near Huddersfield, have also 
yielded objects which point to the Norman period. 

These are the only cases that I know of in which the excavation of 
mottes has produced any results worth mentioning. I need not say that 
the mere finding of Roman or Saxon coins in an excavated motte is no 
evidence that it was thrown up in Roman or Saxon times, for these 
objects may have been lying in the soil out of which the motte was dug. 
Ancient barrows have probably sometimes been utilised to form the 
nucleus of mottes, as cases are recorded in both England and France in 
Avhich burials have been found in the heart of these mounds. But this 
very circumstance points to a late origin for the mottes, as a grave would 
never have been utilised for a castle except by a generation which had 
forgotten the use of these tumuli. 

To sum up : There is no evidence that the Anglo-Saxons built mottes ; 
there is strong evidence that the hurlis they built during the Danish wars 
were large enclosures, generally town walls or banks ; there is certain 
evidence that the Normans built mottes both in Normandy, England, 
Wales, and Ireland ; the name of the motte is Norman ; the type belongs 
to the age of feudalism, and answers precisely to the needs of the Nor- 
mans during the first period of their conquests; mottes are found in 
connection with almost all English castles known to be of Norman 

^ Transactions of Lancashire and Cheshire Historic Society , vol. ix., 1856-7. 
ITn fortunately the article is so loosely written that many important questions are 

- Saxon spurs were much shorter. 


origin ; and the evidence of excavations, scanty as it is, supports the 
theory that they are Norman work. If we weigh these facts carefully, 
we can liardly avoid the conclusion that these mottes and baileys so 
thickly scattered over England are the footprints of the Norman Con- 
queror, and an important part of the organisation by which he held 
England down. Alfred and his House, on the other hand, did not build 
little castles of wood and earth for their own personal defence : they 
saved England by defending, and thus developing, the English town. 


The fortification of Worcester is not mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle^ 
but only in the very interesting charter already referred to in the text. (Birch, 
Gartularium^ ii. 222.) Chester is not called a hurh in the Anglo-Saxon 
Glironicle, but is spoken of under the year 894 as " a waste cheater in WirraL" 
Stafford has a motte which was once crowned by a Norman castle, but as it is 
on the South bank of the Sowe, it is clearlv not the work of Ethelfleda. Run- 
cm^ at the beginning of this century had still the remains of an earthwork 
enclosing the headland known as the Castle Rock, but its very small area makes 
it improbable that it can have been the hurh spoken of by the Anglo-Saxon 
Chronicle ; more likely it was a small castle erected by the Norman baron of 
Hal ton to protect the ferry which started from that point. Ethelfleda's hurh 
would certainly have included the church, which she b traditionally said to 
have founded. At Bedford the motte which was the site of the Norman Castle 
is on the N. side of the Ouse, whereas Edward's burh was on the S. side. 
Stamford is a precisely similar case. JVorcester, CIieMer, Colchester, and Man- 
cJiester were, of course, Roman castra, which were only rebuilt by Edward or 
his sister ; Tartuvorth also had been fortified before Ethelfleda's restoration 
(Florence says urhem restauramt), as it was the ancient seat of the Mercian 
Kings, At Maldoii, JFitham. and Eddishury there are still remains of the 
ancient earthworks which enclosed the Saxon burh ; the area of which in these 
three cases is from 22 to 25 acres. Eddishury is extremely interesting, as it is 
ahuost in its original condition, except for the building of a hunting lodge, now 
in ruins, in the reign of Edward III. 

There are two cases in the list where the evidence for the existence of a 
Norman castle may not be thought conclusive : Towcester and Bakewell. I 
have not hitherto been able to find any evidence of the existence of a castle at 
Towcester except the fact that there was a lord's oven in or near the precincts of 
the present intrenchments, to which the citizens owed soke, as they commonly 
did to the ovens of castles. King John stayed in the town in 1207, and there 
must have been some residence nt to receive him. But Towcester is a case in 
which there can be no doubt wliatever what the work of Edward was, as the 
Anglo-Sajcon Chronicle teih us expressly that "he wrought the burh at Tow- 
cester with a stone wall." At Bakewell we have not only the name Castle Hill, 


but such names as Castle Field, Warden Field, and Court Yard testify to the 
existence of a castle. It was the seat of jurisdiction for the High Peak Hundred 
in mediaeval times. The Chronicle says that Edward " commanded a burh to 
be built and manned in Hie neighbourhood of BakewelL" I am tempted to look 
for this burh on the top of Carlton Hill, where the first Ordnance Survey 
marks an intrenchment But no intrenchment can be seen there now. 


In eleven of the cases mentioned in the li^t, Domesday records the clearance 
of houses to make room for the site of the Castle. (Cambridge, Gloucester, 
Huntingdon, Lincoln, Norwich, Shrewsbury, Stamford, Wallingford, Warwick, 
Winchester, York.) The Castles of Clifford^ Rockingham, and IVignwre are 
expressly said to have been built on waste or uninhabited ground. Wigmore 
has been absurdly identified with the hurh of Wigingamere built by Edward the 
Elder, but a careful study of Edward's campaigns will show what a mistake 
this is. At Chepgtoic and Nottinaham it can he seen at a glance that the original 
castle has been on the motte-and-bailey plan, though in neither case is there an 
artificial motte at present At Montgomery and Montacute the motte is of 
natural rock. HoMxngs is particularly interesting as the only case in which we 
have actual documentary evidence, in the Bayeux tapestry, that the motte was 
built by the Normans. Feveri^y was a Roman castrum which the Normans 
utilised by putting a motte and bailev in one comer of it, just as they did at 
Porchester and Burgh Castle, and at the probably Saxon burns of Wareham and 
Waliingford, At Cambridge, Carlisle, Chepstow, Durham, Hastings, Montacute- 
Rochester, Stafford, London, Oxford, Winchester, York, and probably at Canter- 
bury, the Norman castle was placed outside the town. There can be no doubt 
that the Dane John at Canterbury was the motte of the original Norman castle, 
as the name Dane Jolm can be proved to be only a corruption of Dungeoa 
(See Somner's Antiquities of Canterbury^ p. 144.) And if the theory of this 
paper be correct, there can be equally little doubt that the Boley Hill was the 
motte of the original Norman castle of Rochester, the present castle belonging to 
two later periods. At Canterbury^ Rochester, Montacute, IVardiam, and Jvin- 
Chester, Domesday records that the site of the castles was obtained from the 
church by an exchange of lands, a clear proof that no castle existed there before, 
as we never hear of »axon prelates thus entrenching themselves, though Norman 
bishops frequently did. Stafford is a case of peculiar difficulty, owing to the 
apparent evidence for the existence of two castles, one in the town, the other on 
the motte which still exists about a mile south-west of the town. Yet after 
carefully studying the arcuments in the 8th volume of the Salt Archaeological 
Society, I cannot help tliinking that the existence of a castle in the town 
is due to the fancy of antiquaries of the 17th century, (1) because all the 
evidence adduced turns on the interpretation of the word villa, which appears 
to me to be used not of the town itself, which was properly called a burgns, but 
of its liberty or banlieu ; (2) in the long series of records concerning the castle 
outside the town, it is invariably call^ the Castle of Stafford, without any 
expression to distinguish it from any cattle in the town. I believe, therefore, 
that the motte outside the town was the site of a wooden castle built by William 
I., and was the same of which Domesday says " Ad hoc manerium (Chebsey) 


Sertlnet terra de Stadford in ana rex precepit fieri castellum quod modo est 
estructum" ; and that thia castle was restored by his son Henry 1. 
The figures ^vcn of the acreage of these castles must only be regarded as 
approximate ; m many cases it has been impossible to find out whether the 
authorities were speaking of the whole area of the castle, motte, ditches, banks 
and bailey included, or of the bailey court alone. But the repeated recurrence 
of low figures shows that the original area of Norman castles was generaUy very 
small ; and that when we meet with such large areas as 12 or 20 acres, we most 
ascribe it to the addition of other courts in later times. 


B.C.L. Oxox. 

The King's Master Wright was a personage of less importance than 
the King's Master Mason or the King's Master of Work. Still, the 
history of his office resembles in many respects that of the two last- 
named officials, and we find him and his assistants mentioned from 
time to time in the early records of Scotland. The number of wrights 
in the royal employment seems to have varied considerably, according to 
the various exigencies of the Crown ; and these wrights could readily 
turn their hands to boat-building, the construction of instruments for 
military warfare, or the internal fittings of the Royal Palace. 

Some notices of the wrights and carpenters employed by the Kings of 
Scotland in early times may be found in the Exclbequer Rolls, Thus, in 1 290 
Alexander, the Carpcjutcr, receives pay for his work executed in Stirling 
Castle by the King's command. In 1361 Malcolm, the Wright, receives 
£10 from the fermes of Aberdeen, and this payment is repeated in later 
years. Between the yeai*s 1362 and 1370 Sir William Dishington acted 
as Master of Work to the Church of 8t Monan's in Fife, and received from 
King David II. the sum of £013, 7s. Od. The King also paid for 
carpenter's work at this church £6, 13s. 4d. In 1377 David Bell, Arch- 
deacon of Dunblane, receives money from the King for expenses incurred 
in connection with the building of Edinburgh Castle. John of Preston 


and Roger Hog were also connected with these works. In 1 380 Duncan 
Wright, Carpenter of Edinburgh Castle, receives £10 for his year's fee, 
and again in 1381 and subsequent years. In 1383 Dedericus (or Theo- 
doricus), the Carpenter, is paid £20 for making a great * machine ' for 
warfare. In 1426 Martin Wright receives 262 boards for the King's work 
at Eilinburgh Castle, which cost £6, 18s. 5d., besides £4, ISs. 9d. for 
carriage, etc. from Leith. In 1429-30 John Wright receives £6, 10s. Od. 
by command of the King 

The account of John Weir for works at Linlithgow Palace, rendered 
in the year 1451, includes wright's work amongst other particulars. In 
1454 Friar Andrew, the Wright, "servitor domini regis," receives for his 
yearly fee £10, and also £1, 12s. Od. for iron for the siege of Blackness 
Castle. In the same year William, the heir of (Jilbert Wright, receives 
£5 from the fermes of Aberdeen. This old payment keeps recurring 
from time to time, and seems to be liereditary. 

In 1457 the French Smith receives a cottage free for life. In 1460 
Friar Andrew, the Wright, receives £7, 2s. Od. for the carriage of the 
King's artillery from Perth to tlie port of Leitli, and thence to Edinburgli 
Ciistle. In the same year David Wright, the King's Smith, receives £3, 
6.S. 8d. in part payment of his fee. In 1462 he receives £16, and in 
1467 receives 10s. for visiting and removing lx)mbards in Dunbar. 
FViar Andrew (Lisouris), a lay brother of Cupar, is now the King's 
Carpenter, buys joists for Ravenscraig, and timber for Edinburgh Castle, 
repairs the Royal Chapel at Stirling, prepares timber for roofs in Darna- 
way Forest, and sends timber from Moray for the works at Linlithgow. 

In 1476 Robert Lourison became King's Carpenter. In 1474 David 
Wright receives the bniss for the artillery, and a grjint of £4 fi*om the 
lands of Drumtennand. He dies in 1477, when £3, 6s. 8d. is i)aid to 
his widow Janet by the King's grace, and is repeated in 1478 and 1479. 

In 1494 James IV. employed a nunil)er of wriglits in the construction 
of a large barge at Dumbarton, and he took liis wrights witli him to the 
raid of Ellem and the raid of Norham. In 1497 he had wrights at work 
on the roof of the " Hannis toure " of Dunbtir. 



In Edinburgh, as elsewliere, the wriglits were closely connected with 
the masons, and in the renowned capital of Scotland were incorporated 
into one society by charter in the year 1475, having the aisle and altar of 
St John the Evangelist in the Collegiate Church of St Giles allotted for 
their special use, with the privilege of duly maintaining the same. Some 
of the rules and regulations comiected witli this charter are curious ; as, 
for instance, that the " twa craftismen shall caus and have thair placis 
and roomes in all generale processions lyk thai haf in the towne of Bruges, 
or siclyk gud townes " : and anotlier regulation was that each apprentice, 
in case of disobedience, should pay for liis first fault one pound of wax to 
the altar of St John. 

In the early accounts — a.d. 1513-4 — for building the bridge of Dun- 
keld, by Bishop Tliomas Brown, there is mention of wrights. Thus, 
Thomas Wrycht, carpenter, was hired at Martinmas 1511 at forty marks 
yearly, and received, "in complete payment of his wage," in money 
£37, 6s. 8d. He seems also to have had a ehalder of meal and eight boUs 
of barley from tlie keeper of tlie granary. ^lalcolm and Donald Sawar 
were working with him, and besides wages, dined with the Bishop when 
he was at home, or received a penny for dinner when he was absent. 
Other wriglits, cari)enters, and sawyers were also employed on the 

In 1508 John Drummond, the King's Carpenter, receives a grant under 
the ( Treat Seal of £10 a year in consideration of his services to the 
Crown. On 23rd July 1547 John Drummond receives confirmation of 
the lands of Ballincreif and Milnab under the Great Seal. Is this the 
same person as the King's Carpenter ? 

On 22nd October 1561 John ^lyhie was made Wright in Edinburgh 

Thomas Bi*own was Master Smith in 1G26-7, and rendered accounts 
for work at Holyrood, etc. Amongst othcT smiths, etc. mentioned, and 
apparently working under his direction, arc : — Abraham Hamilton, James 
^lurray (wright), William Storii' (wriglit) and his son, Thomas Bcnnct 
and John He id. 


William Wallace, whose name is so closely associated with Heriot's 
Hospital, is frequently designated the Carver in the royal accounts, 
almost as if this were an office under the Crown. 

In 1643 Thomas Storie, wright, is found amongst the list of burgesses 
of the Canongate. In 1648 John Scott, wright, is employed by the 
Corporation of Edinburgh on 8t Giles' steeple, togetlier with John 
Mylne, Master Miison. 

In February 1668 James Bain, "His Majestie's Wright," iigrees with 
the Earl of Panmure for the execution of the whole of the wright work 
in the erection of Panmure House for 4500 merks. He also stipulated 
for a suitable lodging with fire and candle, and the Earl agreed to pro- 
vide timber and iron, requiring the " great staircase to be made up after 
the order of the staircase at I)onyl)ryssel, and what better Bain pleases 

During tlie building <»f Holy rood Palace, various wriglits were at work 
under the direction of James Bain, His Majesty's Principal Master 
Wright, whose name frequently occurs in tlie accounts ; as, for instance, 
on 4th March 1674, when lie receives £5667, 12s. Od. Scots for various 
kinds of timber. On 13th ^lay 1675 his assistants received £2850, 
158. Od. Scots as wages. 

On 23rd January 1677 Thomas Oliphant, wright, receives a special 
payment "for furnishing of timber, and making of moulds thereof 
to be patems of certain of the meason work," £14, 2s. Od. Scots. 
On 2nd March 1678 James Porteous, wright, receives £24 for making 
" a moddell of the Cupuloe of the Gate of the said Pallace, with the 
moddell of the Pedestall and Biillasterers." 

On 22nd February Jan Vansantvoort, the Carver, received £408 for 
** cutting, carving, and upfuitting of several jnccos of carved work ui)on 
the chinmey and door-pieces of His Majestie's appartement in the East 
quarter " ; and Alexander Eizatt, wright, £1360, 19s. Od. for " upputting 
of severall lyneings of windowes, doors," etc., etc. 

Sir William Binning of Waliefoord supplied twenty-nine dozen great 
joists for £2212, 16s. Od. 


John Callender was employed as smitli, and Jacob De Wett — the 
Dutchman — executed tlie principal paintings. 

James Ikin is also found . at work at Edinburgh Castle, Stirling, and 
the Bass; and in 1681 his name occui*s amongst the list of royal 
officials who claim and obtain exemption from taxiiticm. 

In 1696 a house, in what is now known as the Writers' Court, was 
purchased and fitted up for the use of the Writers to the Signet ; and 
from the Writers' Minutes it appears Deacon Paterson, wright, was paid 
£1088 Scots for his work on the same, and one dollar of drink money 
was allowed to the wrights .employed in finishing this lodging. Of 
course, the Society of Writers now meets in the Signet Library. 

In the earliest records it is often difficult to say whether the title 
** Wright" applies to the man or his office, and in the case of Friar 
iVndrew, who was a lay brother of Cupar, the real surname was 

The office of King's Master Wright is often held with some other 
office — as gunner, carpenter, or plasterer — iis will be seen by some of the 
Privy Seal Writs given below. 

We append a list of the Miister Wrights to the Crown apjxjinted by \vrit 
under the Privy Seal of Scotland : — 

1 January 1551 John Crawfurd. 
James Murray. 
4 May 1601 James Murray, younger. 

James Cokbume. 
13 February 1636 John Scott. 

He was apjwinted Master Wright of Edinburgh, 1 
February 1637. 
1668? James Bain. 

He was King's Master Wright during the building of 
Holy rood Palace. Thu writ of ai)pointuient cannot 
be found. 
19 May 1703 Andrew Paterson. 

He was appointed on the reconmiendation of James 
Scott ol L(^ie, Master of Work. 
4 March 1715 Ro!)ert Mowbrav. 
31 March 1748 George Canii)l)oll. 
24 May 1762 Charles Howison. 

29 October 1779 William Butler. 


We now give by way of example, and arranged in chronological 
order, the particulars of twelve writs of the Privy Seal appointing 
^faster Wrights and ordinary wrights, chiefly taken from the earlier 
portion of the record, and one writ of confirmation of appointment. 

It may here l>e noted that Sir Alexander Janline, knight, of Apple- 
garth, was appointed chief gunner, 3rd July 1526. His name was 
imfortunately omitted in the notices of the Master Gunners. 

Grant by Queen Mary to John liousitomu 
Ane lettre maid to Jlione Boastoun inakand him ane of our soverane ladyis Reglaterof Privy 
smythis ordinar for all the day is of his life and to have monethlie thairfore for ^\\q^^' ***• 
all the dayift of his life the soume of iij'"* x" of the reddyest of our soverane ladyis 
casualiteis to l>e i»ayit to him l>e the thesaurare now present and being for the 
tyme Be^'nuand the first payment at the first day of Marche nixt eftir the dait 
heirof with command in the samyn to our said thesaurare to ansuer the said 
Jhone of the said sowme, etc. Providing that he wark daylie heirfore, etc. At 
Edinburgh the xiiij. day of Februar the yere foirsaid — 1547. 

Per signaturam. 

tiraiiJt by Qtie^i Mary to James Hectour. 

Ane lettre maid to James Hectour makand him ane of our soverane ladyis 
wrychtis and gunnaris ordinar. And to have monethlie tliairfore for all the 
dayis of his life the soume of iij"*^ xv» usuale money of Scotland of the reddyest 
of our soverane ladyis casualiteis l>e the thesaurare now present and being for 
the tvme Begynnand the first payment at the first day of Marche nixt eftir the 
dait heirof with a)mmand in thesamin to our said thesaurare to ansuer the said 
James of the said soume, etc. Providing that the said James daylie wark bayth 
of wrycht craft ^nnar melting and castmg of gunnis and all utheris laul)Ouris 
he can do. And als that he scdbe Teddy to pas to the feildis as ane cannoner or 
to sege or to reinane in ony pairt quhair he salbe command it be our soverane 
lady or ony uther in hir name etc. At Edinburgh the xiiij day of Februar the 
yere foirsaid — 1547. 

Per signaturam, 

Grant by Qmen Mary to Thonuis Petteyrew, 
Ane lettre maid to Thomas Pettecrew gunnar and smyth makand him ane of vol. xxiv. foi. i. 
oiir soverane ladyis ordinaris and gevand to him the soume of four puudis 
monethlie in his wage during his lifetyme etc. At Edinburgh the first day of 
Aprile the yeir foirsaid — 1550. 

Per signaturam. 

(Jrant by Queen Mary to John Crauford, 

Ane lettre maid to Johne Craufurd makand him maister wiycht and gunnar Fol. 48. 
to OUT Boverane lady and gevand to him the office thairof for all the dayis of his 


life for using and exercing of the qiihilk office our soveraue lady gevia to him 
monethlie during his lifetyme the soume of viij"** vj' viij** money of this realme 
etc. At Edinburgh the first day of Januar the yeir foirsaid. — 1551. 

Per signaturani. 

Grant by Queen Mary to Adnm Uamilton, 

Vol. XXV. fol. 54. Ane lettre maid to Adame Haniiltoun makand liim ane of oure aoveranc Ladyis 
smythifl and ^nnaris and to have monethlie for his wagis during all the dayis 
of his life iiij"^ money of this realme to be payit to him be the thesaurar now 
present and 1)eing for the tyme of the reddyest of our said soverane ladyis 
casualiteis and cofferis, etc. At Lynlythqw the first day of Aprile the yeir of 
Gtod j™ v*' liij yeris. 

Per signaturam. 

Confirmation of Grant to T, Pettegrew, 

Vol. xxvi. Ane lettre maid to Tliomas Pettegrew maikand constitutand and ordinand 

'^*- ^^- him ane of oure soverane ladyis smvthis and gunnaris ordinar for all Uie dayis 

of his lyfe and for gude trew and thankf ull service done and to l)e done to nir 
grace, and to my lord governour in the said office be him oure soverane lady 
gevis and grantis to the said Tliomas the soume of fy ve pundis usuale money of 
this realme in his fe to be payit monethlie for all the dayis of his lyfe Off the 
reddicst of hir graceis casualiteis be hir hiencs thesaurare now present and 
l)eing for the tyme Begynand the first payment thairof the first day of Januar 
nixtocum. And tlmt the said lettir be extendit in the best forme with all claiisis 
neidfull, with conmiand in the eamvn etc. At Edinburgh the viij day of 
December the yeir of God j™v*^ fiftie-t^re yeris. 

Per signaturani. 

Grant by Queen Mary to Andrew Littlejohn. 

Vol. xxvll. fol. 5. Ane lettre maid to Andro Litiljohne maikand him ane of our soverane ladyis 
gunnaris ordinar and wrycht for all the dayis of his lyfe And for his gude trew 
and thankfull service done and to l)e done to hir grace And to my lord gover- 
nour in the said ottice Gevand and granUuid to the said Andro the soume of 
four" usuale money of this realme in his f e to be payit to him monethlie for all 
the dayis of liLs lyfe of the reddiest of hir casualiteis be hir thesaurar now 
present and l>eiug for the tyme Begj-nnand the first payment at the first day of 
Januar nixttocum to be had the said office of gunnarie with the said soume of 
four" of f e to be payit [to] the said Andro in maner foirsaid for all the dayis of 
his lyfe frelie ([uietlie etc. At Edinburgh the xij day of Februar the yeir of 
God i™v*^liij yeris. 

Per signaturam. 

Grant by Queen Mary to John DicJcerton, 

Vol. xxviij. Ane lettre maid to Johnne Bickertoun makand him ane of oure soverane 

fol. 85 ladies gunnaris and sniythis ordinare and gevand to him the offices thairof ffor 


all the dayis of hb lyfe and for using and exerceing of the samvn offices (as heir- 
eftir he salbe requirit and in sic places or partis upoun the feildis or uthirwayis 
as hir grace sail command and think gnde) hir hiones gevis and grantis to him 
the sowme of fyve pundis usuale money of hir realme to be pay it to him 
monethlie in his feis and waigis for all the dayis of his lyfe be hir Uiesaurar now 
present and Ijeing for the tyme Off the reddiest of hir hienes casualiteis and 
dewiteis the first payment begynnand at the day of the dait heirof and that 
the said lettre, etc., with command to the said thesaurare to mak thankful! 
payment, etc. At Newbotle the first daye of August 1557. 

Per signaturam. 

Orant by King James VI, to John Leischman. 

Ane lettre maid to Johne Leisclunan Smyth at the Calsayheid makand him Vol. xivi. fol. 35. 
oure soverane lordis smith for schoing of his majesteis horss and ^evand to him 
the office thairof for all the dayis of his lyfe with all feis and dewiteis l)e]anginff 
and pertenyng thairto with power to the said Johune to use and exerce the said 
office in tyme cuming siclyk as ony utheris hes servit in the said office in tyme 
bygane With all feis and dewiteis usit and wount^, etc., with command thairin to 
his majesteis comptrollar present and being for the tyme and utheris appointit or 
to be appointit for payment of feallis To answer and mak payment to the said 
Johnne Leischman of all feis and dewiteis usit and wount perteining to the 
office foirsaid during his lyftyme etc. At Striviling Castell the xxvij. day of 
Auguf^t the yeir of God j"™v*^ tnrescoir nynetene yeiris. 

Per signaturam. 

Grant hj King James VI. to James M array ^ Elder. 

Letter to James Murray, elder, present principal master gunner to his majesty, ^jr s^t vol. 
ordaininff him overseer and attender on all his majesty's works of reparations, ' ^^* 
eta, for life, and in succession to the late Sir William M'Dougall. Fee £10 
monthly, with stand of clothing yearly. Dalkeith, 4th May 1601. 

Grant by King James VI, to James Murray^ Younger. 

Letter to James Murray, younger, making him principal master wright and 
gunner ordinary in the Castle of Edinburgh, and in all other castles, etc. On 
dimission of the office by James Murray, elder, his father, his majesty's present 
wright and master gunner, with all rights and privileges " as the said James 
Murray elder or umquhile Thomas Craufurd " or other master wrights enjoyed. 
Fee £10 montlily, and stand of clothes yearly. Dalkeith, 4th May 1601. 

Grant by King James VI. to John Sc4)tt. 

Letter to John Scot, wright, apix)inting liim his majestv's master wheel- vol. cvii. fol. 94. 
wright in Edinburgh Castle, and in all others of his majesty^ castles, etc — the 
office being vacant oy the death of James Cokbunie, last jjoseessor thereof. Fee, 


£8 monthly. Preaented for the office by Sir Anthony Alexander, H.M. Maste? 
of Work, and Snn'eyor-Qeneral. At Edinburgh, 13th February 1636. 

Gift by King George III. to George Campbell to he His Majedi^s Howe 
Carpenter and Plaisterer in Scotland. Given at S, Jamts^ 31 March 1748. 

George, etc. 
Whereas we Considering tliat our Royal Predecessors have been in use to finrant 
commissions to such tradesmen as ^'ere thought fit for their service in Scotland^ 
and we being well informed of the sufficiency and ability of Qeorge Camplxilly 
House Caq^enter and Plaisterer there. 

Tlierefore ^-it ye us to have nominated, constituted, and appointed, Likeas 
we by these presents nominate, constitute, and appoint the said George Campljell 
to be our House Carpenter and Plaisterer to all our Buildings^ Palaces, Houses, 
Forts, works and artillery, etc., within that part of our said Kingdom, and tliat 
during our pleasure only, and give and grant to the said G^rge Campltell 
during the space aforesaid the aforesaid office with all the freedoms, privi- 
leges, fees, and immunities Wlonging thereto, with power to him to exerce iind 
enjoy the said office of master carpenter, artillery carpenter and plaisterer by 
himself and his servants employed by him for whom he shall be answerable, as 
fully and freely as any others his predecessors in the said office exerced, brooked, 
and enjoyed the same office before, and to enjoy all privileges and immunities 
that are competent by law to Tradesmen having commissions from us : and ]iar- 
ticularly freedom and immunity from watching or warding within burgh. 

Given at our Court at S. James, and under our Privy Seal of Scot&nd, the 
26th day of March 1748 years, in the twenty -first year of our reign. 
Per signaturam manu S.D.N. 

Regis suprascriptam. 



MAGGIORE. Bv the Rioiit Rev. G. F. BROWNE, D.D., Bishop of 
Bristol, F. S.A.Scot. 

This is a micaceous Ixjulder on the moor near Gignese, 1800 feet alx^ve 
Stresa, at the soutli eml of I-ago Maggiore. The top of the l30ulder is 
alx>ut 5J feet from the ground ; but the ground slopes rapidly, witli the 
result that the cup-markings on the stone cover an area 12 feet from 
top to lx)ttom witli a breadth of alK)ut 6 feet. There are about 150 
complete cups, isolated and independent of one another, and a large 
number of l)roken cups, groovtjs, ovals, and cups joined by channels. 
The largest cup is about 5 inches across, the majority from 31 to 2 
inches ; the smallest is only 1 inch. They are mostly bowl-shai)ed, but 
the largest is more like a funnel. 1 show a rubbing of the whole cup- 
marked surface, taken with leaves of the Spanish chestnut on nine sheets 
of the Daily Telegraph ; a cast of the largest hole, taken with linen 
blotting-paper ; and casts of twelve smaller holes, an oval, and a 
channel, taken with sheets of the Gtiardian softened with fluid flour 
|Muste, and left on the stone to dry. I had no proper materials with me. 
I show also a photograph of the stone (fig. 1) enlarged from a snap-shot. 

The name of the stone in Italian patois, Saj di Oorone, means the 
stone of the heel. The peasant girl who told me this pointed out by her 
gestures that a heel would fit into the holes. This is curiously true of 
the broken holes, where the weathering of the stone has worn away 
some of the lower half of the rim and left the appearance of half an 

It is rather startling to find this same idea of a heel associated with a 
flat slab of mica schist 10 feet by 7 J, and about 2 J feet thick, lying not 
far from Zmutt, in the Zermatt valley (Proceedings of the Society of 
Antiquaries of LoTuloUy 8th December 1898). That stone is called the 


Heidenplatte, "the flat stone of the heatheu!" It has about 100 
circular hollows on its surface, from 8 inches to 2 inches across, and 
from 3 inches to ^ an inch deep. The tradition in Valais is that the 
Heidenplatte was the stone on which the ^mgan orators stood to address 
the assembly gathered round them, and that the rotation of the orator's 
heel produced in the course of time these hollows I In this case there is 
no appearance of the half amphitheatre, for the surface is horizontal, and 
the weathering affects all parts alike. 

Julius Caesar was much harassed by a Gaulish tribe, the Salassi, which 

occupied the Great and Little St Bernard. They or some neighbouring 

tribe of Gauls occupied the Thc^odule Pass, on which many Roman coins 

have been found, and the valleys on either side of the Monte Moro 

Pass. The Monte Moro Pass leads down to Stresa, and the Th^odule 

Pass is connected at its southern end by a very easy way with Alagna 

und the Val Sesia ; thus the geographical connection of the Saj di 

Oorone and the Heidenplatte is closer than at first sight would appear. 

^nd it is evident that there may well be a close connection between the 

j>a^n rites of the Gaulish tribes occupying the Alps in the north of 

Itioly and the pagan rites of our Celtic ancestors or predecessors who 

[xi^tde the cup-markings so frequently found in Scotland. Thus this 

ouicident tradition about the connection of a heel with cup-marking is 

'-^ll worth thinking over carefully; though it is not improbable that 

ft ^ ^«vhole subject belongs to the pre-Celtic period, and that the tradition 

o£ modem invention. 

11^ "wiU be seen from the rubbing that there are not rings round any of 
3 C5iip8. It may be added that I could not find any sign of tool 
x-k^. The cup-marked surface of the rock looked weather-worn to a 
:Mr^^ -which indicated great antiquity; but if any sharp tool had been 
d, tliere would have been marks in some of the cups. They were, 
cioTibt, produced by the rapid rotation of some blunt instrument, of 
3.^ ^yx' even of hard wood, with the assistance of sharp sand. 


KIRKWOOD HEWAT, M.A., F.S.A. Scot., Prestwick. 

My attention having l>een called some time ago to a peculiarly shaped 
stone cross found on the farm of Cairn in Upper Nithsdalc, I took the 
opportunity, while at Sanquhar recently, to pay a visit to the farm, which 
is situated some 9 miles from that town. The farm of Cairn, or, as it is 
sometimes called, The Cairn, is in the parish of New Cumnock, some 

3 miles from the village of that name which lies to the north, and some 

4 miles distant from the village of Kirkconnel which lies to the south. 
The farndiouse stands high and overlooks the River Nith. At a dis- 
tance of 300 yards from the steading is the boundary between the 
shires of Ayr and Dumfries, the same boundary wall or dyke dividing 
the parish of Xow Cumnock from that of Kirkconnel ; while not very far 
away on the other side of the Nith the parish of Auchinleck comes in. 
The Cairn farm is on the; estate of the Manpiis of Bute, and the present 
tenant is Mr James Stevenson, who received me very courteously and 
gave me a consideval)le amount of information regarding his discovery of 
the cross, which he values very highly. He told me that the Marquis of 
JUite had been informed of the find, but had not been able as yet to 
come and see it. He also told me that a gentleman from Carlisle hail 
recently taken full-sized tracings of the stone, and that a stone mason, 
who had examined it, liad n(j doubt that it was ancient and valuable. 

The cross is not entire. Two portions have been found which may 
amount to one-third of tlie cross as it stood in its entirety. Mr Steven- 
son's story of tlio finding of tlio pieces is that about tbree years ago the 
little stream, which flows past his farm, came down in exceptionally high 
tlood, and, carrying away a considerable amount of soil, laid bare one of 
the portions of the cross. This was pretty high up on the hillside. In 
the haugh below, while some large stones were being removed to make 


way for the plough, the other i>ortioii was discovered about the same 
time. Doubtless in some previous floo<l (or in the same flood) it had 
been carried down the stream. 

The two portions of the cross thus found are apparently the base of 
the shaft and one of the arms. The base of the shaft measures 22 inches 
in height by 15 inches in breadth and 6 J inches in thickness. The front 
(fig. 1) is ornamented with an interlaced pattern which has doubtless 
extended all the way up to the head of the cross. The lower part of the 
shaft is plain, the ornament beginning about 9 inches from the bottom, 
this part having been probably sunk in a socket. The sculpture is in- 
cised, the background of the panel and the spaces between the strands of 
the interlaced-work being merely picked out with a pointed tool, and the 
pattern thus left in semi-relief. The pattern is an interlacement of two 
strands, each strand duplicated by a line along the middle, with a loop at 
the bottom, and rings interlaced round each crossing of the strands up- 
wards. Tlie photograph fails to show the pattern of the reverse face 
clearly, but it seems to have a square of four triangles, made by double 
diagonals interlacing in triangular loops at the lx)ttom, and over that an 
interlacing pattern of double triangular knots facing to right and left. 
The edges of the cross-shaft have each a simple plait of two undivided 
strands running upwards from a square-ended loop at the bottom. 

The arm (fig. 2) shows a rope moulding round the margin on lx)tli 
sides, the obverse and reverse faces having each a double triangular loop 
of interlacement of two strands not divided along the middle. 

If the arm and shaft are parts of the same cross, it must have been a 
cross of the form which ha.s a large shaft carrying a proportionally small- 
sized and ccpial-arnied cross-head of the sections found. 

But how came such a cross to be in this part of the country ? Tradi- 
tion siiys tliat a cliapcl, <»r religious house, stood where the larger portion 
of the cross was found. At New Cumnock, 3 miles further up the Nith, 
tlnTo stands tlie ruins (^f a pr(;-K(;forniation church, and near Kirkconnel, 
4 miles further down the rivur, there are the ruins of another pre-Refor- 
mation church. Stuart, in the second volume of the Sculptured Stones of 



SroUand, figures 21 erass-slab with interkfed-work found near Mansfield 
Iloustj, and the finding of this sculptured cross at Cairn shows that tliere 
wen? ecdesiaaticid aitefl in the? district of older origiji than even these 
ruined pre-Keformiitiuu chuR-lies. Possibly some pious monk or priest 
cjf the aiirly Church, or some chief of the trilw&a owning the land heiT% 

Fig. %, Arm of Croaa foumi at Cmrut Nuw Ctnunock, (From a photograph by 
Mr J. Mafic WilsouO 

may Imve set ix\t the cross to mark a siM^t a pee in Uy eacreil, or to mark 
the lx)undary of duireh himb, or the limits of a Siinctuary girth. But 
without theorising any further, we nuiy con duel e that tlicsc earvcil sUmes 
]m¥e come down fix>ni a far remote past of wtiich we have now no other 



Monday, 9^^ April 1900. 

Mr THOMAS EOSS in the Chair. 

A Ballot having l)een taken, the following Gentlemen were duly 
elected Fellows : — 

George Macdonald, M.A., 41 Lily bank Gardens, Glasgow. 
Andrew Thomson, Glendinning Terraa*, Galashiels. 

The following Donations to the ^luseum and Library were laid on 
the table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By Rev. J. B. Mackenzie, F.S.A. Scot., Kenmore. 

Large and tinely-shaped Axe of Greenstone, 11^ inches in length, 
found among ruins at Risklmie, Colonsay, in 1864. [See the sul)sequent 
Communication by Rev. J. B. Mackenzie.] 

(2) By James Bruce, AV.S., F.S.A. Scot. 

Perforated Hammer of greenstone, 3i inches in length by 1^ inches 
in breadth and i\ inches in thickness, from Bisset Moss, Forgue, .Vber- 
(leenshire. Pair of Barnacles, from Abenleenshire. 

(3) By the Hon. Hew Hamilton Dalhymple, Vice-Presuhnt. 

Portion of an Encaustic Tile, with horsemen in relief, from the 
Dormitory, (Uenluce Abbey. 

(4) By Rev. (;eor(;b C. 1>axteh, F.S.A Scot. 

Cui)-marked Stone, from (lallowhill, Cargill, Perthsliirc. This fine 
specimen of a cujvmarked stone has been described and figured by Rev. 
Mr Baxter in the Prorcffh'iKjft^ vol. xxxi. p. 290. 

(5) By the KxEcuToRs of Dr Joseph Stevens. 

Parochial History of St Mary Bourne, Hants. By Joseph Stevens. 
Imp. 8vo ; 1888. 


(6) By the Nurdihka Musbbt, Stockholm. 
Publications of the Nordiska Museet, 1895-98. 

(7) By the Authorities of the Museum, Sarajevo. 

Wisscnschaftlichc Mittheilungen aus liosnicMi uiid der Heraegovina, 
Vols, i.-vi. 

(8) By Mrs Balfour, Balfour Castle, Shapinsay. 

Ancient Orkney Melodies. Collected by Col. David Balfour, of 
Balfour. 4to ; 1885. 

(9) By Messrs Johnston <^- CIreig, the Publishers. 
Shetland Folklore. By »7ohn Spence. 8vo ; Lerwick, 1899. 

(10) By F. C. Keleh, the Author. 

Reservation of the Holy Eucharist in the Scottish Church. 4to ; 

(11) By the lion. John Abeucromhy, Vire-Presuhjif. 

Catalogue of Antiquities in the Museum at Devizes. Part 1. 8vo ; 

(12) By the Ix)rd Provost, Ma(;istrates, and Council. 
City of Edinburgh Old Accounts, vols. i. and ii. 4to ; 1899. 

(13) By 1). Eraser Harris, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 
St Cecilia's Hall in the Niddry Wynd. 8vo ; 1899. 

(14) By Rev. David Imrie, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 

List of over 500 IWks, Pamphlets, etc., printed in Dunfermline from 
1729 to 1894, now in the Library of the Dunfcjrmline Archncological 
Society. 12mo ; 1894. 



(15) By the Keeper op the Records op Scotland. 

The Accounts of the Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, vol. ii. 
Edited by Sir James Balfour l*aul, F.S.A. Scot., Lyon King-of-Arms. 

There were Exliibited : — 

(1) V>y the Most Hon. The Marquis of Bute, K.T., LKIX, 

F.S.A. Scot. 

A Collection of Carved Stones and other Objects found in excavations 
at St Blane's Cliurch, Bute, with Illustrative Plans and Drawings. By 
R. W. ScHULTZ. [See the subseijuent Communications by Dr Joseph 

(2) By Mr William Dunn, through Rev. J. B. Mackenzie, Ken- 

more, F.S.A. Scot. 

Small Stone Cup, 2^ inches in diameter by IJ inches in depth, with 
remains of the handle at one side, ornamented with horizontal lines 
round the circumference, and short vertical lines (m the lip and the 
rounded edge of the bottom. It was found on the top of Schiliallion 
in 1899, and is the property of Mr Dunn, factor to the Marquis of 
Bn^adalbane. [See the sul^sec^uent Paper by ]{ev. J. B. ^lackenzie.] 

The followiii<' Communications were read : — 



OF BUTE. By JOSEPH ANDERSON LL.D., Assistant Secretary and 
Keeper of the Museum, 

St Blane's Church, in the parish of Kingarth, Bute, is now a roofless 
ruin, consisting of nave and chancel, mostly of * Norman ' work, but partly 
of inferior masonry and rubble work, which has been supposed by some 
writers to be the remains of an older and ruder edifice, but is considered by 
!Macgibbon and Ross to be due to a later reconstruction.^ St Blane, tlie 
nephew of St Cathan of Kilchattan, and a contemporary of St Columba, is 
chronicled in the Irisli Calendars as of Cengaradh (Kingarth) in Bute, and 
the founder of the ecclesiastical settlement which bore his name there. 

In 1896, in consequence of the serious disintegration of the building, 
I^ord Bute gave instructions to Robert Weir Schultz, Architect, to have 
the walls thoroughly examined and repaired. Some parts were so unsafe 
that the only course possible was to take them down stone by stone and 
rebuild them. In doing so some sculptured stones were found to have 
been used in the foundations of the so-called * Norman * work ; and these 
were taken out and preserved. 

While the work at the church was in progress the attention of Lord 
Bute was drawn by Mr Schultz to the remains of the thick wall of en- 
closure of the precinct, locally known as *The Causeway,' and it was 
resolved to try to trace it right round. On the south side no traces of it 
were vi8i])le, and in digging trenches to discover the line of the wall, the 
remains of a series of foundations of early dwellings were discovered, ex- 
tending over a considerable area south of the churchyard and inside the 
enclosing wall of the precinct. During the summer a considerable por- 

* See Mr Galloway's accouut of St Blane's Church in the Archceohgia Scotica, 
vol. V. p. 317 ; Bute in the Olden Time, by Rev. J. King Hewison, vol. i. ]>. 182 ; 
and Macgibbon k Ross's Ecclesiastiad Architecture of Scotland, vol. i. p. 295. 


tion of the site was uncovered and the various objects which were found 
are now described and illustrated. At the close of the season the work 
was stopped, and the foundations again covered over. Lord Bute had 
intended to examine the excavations and eventuaUy to explore the whole 
site, but nothing further has been done. 

The remains indicate that in all probability the original site has not 
been changed. About 50 yards to the west of the church, a line of cliff 
forming one side of the little valley runs nearly north and south, and 
along its base is an irregidar talus of rocky fragments, mixed up with 
which are here and there remains of rude dry-built walling, apparently 
forming parts of roughly constructed chambers of irregular circular and 
oblong forms. Nearly 100 yards to the north-west, and close under the 
shelter of the cliff, is a larger dry-built structure much more solidly and 
regiUarly built, consisting of a wall about 9 feet thick, enclosing an 
approximately circular area of al)out 30 feet in diameter. The wall is still 
complete in its inner circumference, rising to a height of from 2 or 3 
feet to nearly 10 feet at the highest part, and showing an entrance at the 
south-east side nejirly 4 feet wide at the outside, narrowing slightly 
towards the inner side. A massive dry -built wall al)Out 4 to 5 feet thick 
encloses the jirecinct, including the church and churchyanl as well as 
the remains of dry-built constructions, and a considerable area around the 
whole group. SUirting from the clilf a few yards to the north of the 
circular structure, the enclosing wall keeps well out to the eastward of 
the church till the space enclosed between it and the cliff reaches al)Out 
150 yards in width, and then bends round to the south till it comes 
towards the clifl' again, at a distance of fully 200 yards to the south of 
the circular structure. The area enclosed is thus approximately half of an 
oval of 200 yards by 150 yards bounded lengthways by the line of the clill*, 
having the circular structure at the northern end, the cliurch and 
churchyard near th(; niiddl(^, anil to tlie soutli of the churchyard a space 
apparently unoccu[)icd. It was in this space Initween the southern 
boundary of tlio churchyard and the line of the enclosing wall that the 
princijKd part of the excavation was made. 


The following is a detailed description of the objects found : — 

Ovoid Pebble of quartzite, 4 inches in length by 1 J inches in breadth, 
and about 1 inch in thickness, bcuiring marks of use at one end as a 
lianimer-stone, and highly ix>lished by use as a burnisher on one of its 
lliitter faces. 

Oblong semi-ovoid l^ebble (fig. 1), of a reddish coloured clay-stone, 4 
inches in length by li inches in breadth, and J inch in thickness, 
flattened on one side by nse as a burnisher. 

Oblong quadrangidar Whetstone or Burnisher of quartzite (fig. 2), 4J 
inches in length by l\ inches in breadth, by 1 inch in thickness, the 
ends beveUed off, the surfaces highly iM^lished by use. 

Oblong quadrangular Whetstone of silicious sandstone (fig. 3), 5 inches 
in length by \\ inches in breadth, and J inch in thickness, worn 
flat on one face by use. 

Oblong quadrangular Whetstone or Burnisher of hard micaceous clay- 
stone (fig. 4), 5 J inches in length by 1 inch in breadth, and J inch 
in thickness in the mid<lle of its length, tixpering to both ends, and 
pierced at one end for suspension. 

Oblong ovally rounded Pebble of greywacke (fig. 5), 3{ inches in 
length by J inch in breadth, and § inch in thickness, slightly polished 
on one face by use. 

Oblong quadrangular AVlietstone or Burnisher of hard micaceous 
claystone (fig. 6), 2| inches in length by | inch in breadth, and J inch 
in thickness in the middle of its length, and tapering slightly to l)oth 
ends. (Jn one side there is a groove as if by sharpening a wire or pin. 

Broken ijortion of an oblong quadrangular Whetstone of hard 
micaceous claystone, 2 inches in length by 1 inch in breadtli, and § 
inch in tliickness, highly polished on all sides by use, and having at one 
end the commencement of a hole for suspension. 

Broken portion of an oblong quadrangular Whetstc^ie of silicious 
sandstone, 2 inches in length by 2 inches in breadth, and 1| inches in 
thickness, highly polished on all four sides by use. 

Portion of a Polishing Slab of red sandstone, 5 inches in length by 

30G rKOCKEi^i^^'- 

XUeve were Kxl""' 

(1) I'.y l^"' ^• 

at St VAMii-- t 1 

(2) l-> '■ 

Snuill S. 

in \^''- 

I I 


3 J inclies in breadth, and l\ inches in thickness, with three grooves 
less than \ inch in width and depth on its upper surface made hy point- 

Whorl of steatitic stone, IJ inches in diameter, and | inch in depth, 
with a central hole for the spindle, J inch in diameter. 

Portion of a Mould of sandstone, measuring 2 inches in length by 1 J 
inches in breadth, and 1 inch in thickness, having on one face part of 
a mould for ingots, J inch in width, and ^ inch in depth, and on the 
other face two moulds for circular objects, partly broken away. 

Portion of an Armlet of jet, alK)ut 2 J inches in diameter, the interior 
surface flattened, the exterior rounded. 

Portion of a roughly-shaped and flattened King of shale or cannel 
coal, apparently in course of being made into an annlet. 

Five portions of similar roughly-shaped and flattened Rings of shale 
or cannel coal, varying from 1 inch to J inch in the width of the 
band of the ring, and apparently in course of being made into amdets. 

A complete Ring of shale or cannel coal, 3 j inches in diameter, and 
J inch in thickness, flattened on both faces, and roughly rounded on 
the outside edge, having also a perforation 1^ inches in diameter, 
roughly cut through the centre from l)oth lines, with an incised line cut 
round it at a distance of i inch, so as to extend the aperture to a 
diameter of 2 inches, thus indicating the mode in which these armlets 
were fashioned out of the rough shale. 

Piece of rough shale, unshaped, but with a circular button-like piece, 
IJ inches diameter, and nearly i inch in thickness scooped out of the 
centre, and a circular hole bored in the middle of the scooped out hollow, 
apparently in process of fonnation into an armlet. 

Two of the irregularly rounded button- shaped pieces, scoojied from 
pieces of shale like the one last described. 

Small Ring of shale, 1 J inches in diameter, and J inch in thickness, 
with a central perforation j; inch in diameter. 

Thin splinter of shale, nearly 1 J inches sijuare, with an incised cross 
on one side, and on the other the letters J) A (see figs. 7 and 8). 


Triivugular portion of slate, 5 inches in length by 3 inches in breadth, 
covered on both sides with rudely scratclied scrolls. On one side there 
are also a number of letters in old Irish script. (See figs. 9 and 10.) 

riece of slate (fig. 11), measuring 5| inches by 4 inches, having rudely 
scratched on one side a number of letters in old Irish script. 

Piece of slate, having a peg hole through it, and one edge trimmed, 
and on one side, between the peg hole and the upper margin, a pattern 
of Celtic knot- work ^ rudely scratched in the surface (see fig. 12). 

Piece of slate of triangular form, 4 J inches in length by 3 inches in 
grcat(»st breadth, having on one side a small sfjuare panel of Celtic 
knot-work, and alongside of it a letter or monogram with one leg 
lengthened, and terminating in a beast's head (see fig. 13). 

Piece of slate of irregular form, 3 inches in length by 2 inches in 
l)readth, with a figure of an animal rudely scratched on one side (see 
fig. U). 

Piece of slate of irregular form, 7 inches in length by 3 inches in 
greatest breadth, having on one side the rudely scratched figure of a 
running dog (?), and on the other side a stag hunt, with a single dog 
following the stag (see figs. 15 and 16). 

A roofing slate, entire, of coarser texture than the foregoing fragments, 
measuring 13 inches by 5 inches, and i inch in thickness, with a peg 
hole J inch in diameter in the middle of the breadth, and 2 inches 
from the top of the slate. A series of 19 lines radiate from the hole at 
irregular distances, meeting an arc of a circle on the lower part about 
3 inches from the hole. 

Piece of a circular (Jrindstone of red sandstone, 8 inches along the 

* There is in tlie British Museum a *'flat piece of slate of irregular form found 
alx)ut 1830 at Kilaloe, Limerick, during excavations for a public work. On both 
8i<les were sculptured intricAte interlaced patterns, consisting of animals and other 
ornainents, in the style which prevailed in Ireland durin>( the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries." It was supposed to have been used by some sculptor or metal worker to 
trace out patterns which he intende<l to execute. Proc. of the Soc. Anf. Londmi^ 
vol. iv. (1858) p. 171. Sec also a similar piece of slate, with interlaced patterns 
and rude spirals, found in a craunog near Clones. Journal of the Royal Society of 
AntiquarUs of Irclnml, vol. xxx. p. 210. 



curve, 5 inches in diameter, and 3 inches thick, which has been much 
used for grinding and point-sharpening. 

Quadrangular piece of sandstone, 5 inches in length by 4 inches in 
breadth, by 2 J inches in tliickness, the edges much grooved by poiiitr 

Portions of a large Vessel of reddish pottery, 6 inches in diameter, 

Fig. 17. rortioii of Cross-shaft of sandstone. (J.) 
tlic sides almost cylindrical, and covered inside and out with a black 
glaze. One portion sliows a part of the lip. It hiis a heavy doubhi 
moulding 1 inch in dopth, and a flat brim fully 1 inch in width, which 
shows the brick-liko. colour and texture of the iwvste. 

Portions of Water-jars of reddish ware with a greenish glaze; of two 
small Crucihles ; and of horns of the red deer and roe deer. 

The following is a description of sculptured stones at St Blanc's, of 


which drawings were also exhibited. Those represented in figs. 17, 18, 
25, 26, 27, and 29 were found during the repairs on the church. The 
others were previously known. 

Portion of Cross-shaft of red sandstone (fig. 17), 9 inches in length by 
4 J inches in breadth, and 2 inches in thickness, having on both faces a 
pattern of interlaced work. Found in the north wall of the church. 

Portions of Cross-shaft of sandstone (fig. 18), 2 feet 2 inches in length 
by llj inches in width, having on one side an angular pattern of inter- 
laced work of four strands ending in circular loops. Found in the 
north wall of the church. 

Grave-slab (fig. 19), 6 feet 10 inches in length by 2 feet 10 inches in 
breadth, bearing on the upper part a cross forme<l of interlinked oval 
rings, with tenuinals of Staftbrd-knots, and a central boss with four 
smaller bosses in the intei'stices. 

Headstone (fig. 20), being a cross with ])Iain shaft and a circular head, 
the cross-form defined l)y four oval sinkings. 

Tliree circular Cross-heads (figs. 21, 22, and 23) wanting shafts, the 
cross-form defined by four oval sinkings. 

Cross-head of circuLir form, showing part of the shaft, the cross-shape 
resembling a wheel with four spokes (fig. 24), and having a diamond- 
shaped l)oss in the centre. 

Portion of Slab, 2 feet 6 inches in length by 13 inches in breadth 
(fig. 25), having on one side a plain Latin Cross with double incised 
outlines. Found in the north wall of the church. 

Portion, probably of the shaft of a cross, 1 f<x)t 8 inches in length by 
13 inches in breadth, having on one side (fig. 26) a man on horseback, 
and on the other (fig. 27) a rude figure of a man armed with a short 
sword, and having in his right hand a spear, and in the left a small 
circular target or shield. Found in the north wall of the church. 

Grave slab (fig. 28), 3 feet 8 inches in length, 12 inches in breadth at 
the head, tapering to 9 inches at the foot, having a defaced panel in the 
middle, with a pair of shears at one side, and two panels at the ends with 
oval rings intersecting diagonally. 



//' '/ 


I at St \',\m.'' C. .; . ■:.'-. :■.... 
k iiiY\i.lA v.- M- .'. V.'. -.;. . './, 


I : 


PKnCKEiaNCtS OF THE SOCIKTV, APlUt- fl, 1900. 

Large ti rave-slat", lirokou ncrciis the luithlle, 5 feet in len^tli hy 1 foot 
3 indies ill lireadtli at the on els, having circles nf 6 iuelitis diiuat^ttiT at 
each of the fuur (^omers. The surfaee tif the slab (tig. 29) m fUvji{«} 
into three paneli^. In the upper yutuei is a Celtic Crijss iiiciaeil, li.iviii|; 
a circle connecting the ^mn^ sli^tft, mid summit ; on either siide itt 
shaft tlie space ntukr th*^ armn h HUed with lines, which set^m tu 1 
intended to outline n pattern of angular iuterbced work^ though the 

strands do Tiot iuterlacc i 
a pattern of fivtwi^rk, *" ; 
in tliree of which the ornamcin; ih 
obloug aiul i.>oiuteil riu^s 
space iMween tlie eJirlcK ai 
incited eroasess of aimjile short li 
other vertically. 

Portion of a Slah (fig. 
breadth, having in a ]Ninei on 
a helmet and ^i^ear, the poitu 
fore legs, A j martially di 
flight, appean* ht^lore the face ul 

dlo panel there i:^ a suggi^ation *jI 
I »an e 1 i h d i v iiled i n to four q oar t*« m, 
£ai;*^d, while the fourth ^howis two 
idiagoual interbceinent In %\m 
md iKitttjm of the skli are plain 
\w one cHJJSi^iin^^ ol»litiuely tuid tlie 

iuehes in length by 10 J inche* in 

>er part a figure of a horsemau witli 

s[jejir !i PI waring between th*5 ht>r»e'e 

e, suggeetive^ perhaps, of a liinl iii 

hoi^iuiku. ITmienienth is atiofcher 

panel, tilled with liiagonal ciiequera with a dot in the centre of eadu 

Portion of a Cross-shaft with semicircular iioUowe at th« ititejs*ecti*mi 
(ti^r 31), tljc arms and t^unimit broken nwny, a boss in the eentn* *»f iV 
uj>per part, a murginid border of lines crossing ea(4i other diagoniilly, ^^ 
on the lower |>art the figure of a nondescript aninml, with tlefaeed Oi||^tii# 
over it, 

(Intvo-slah (fig 32), 6 feet 4 inche^s in length hy i^Ti hiclic* in htT-a^Uli 
at the top, uu<l 22 inches nt the foot, having in tliu upper pail a i^n^ 
18 inches scpiare, sulMlivided intij four squares, in each of vthi^ 
two iival interlinked rings, placed iU^igonally with ii duunn 
in the centre. 

Gmve-Blub (% 33), 4 feet in lengtli by 21 ijieh*,- 
figure of broadd>lade4 ^wonl 30 inches in Imijk'th, 
guanl and yhdvuhir ponnneb 


Grave-slab (fig. 34), 5 feet 10 inches in length, but imperfect at the 
lower end, 1 1 inches in width at the head, tapering to 9 inches at the 
foot, the edges bevelled and ornamented with a chevrony running 
pattern, on the lower jmrt a square figure with triangular ornament 
round the margin, over that a pair of shears, and over that, occupying 
four-fifths of the length of the stone, a stem with alternating branches, 
all set at the same angle and each terminating in a quadrilobate leaf. 
Over this branching stem is a circular interlacement of four oval rings 
with a geometrical quatre-foil, the whole forming a symbolic cross with 
a circular head, in the manner frequently seen on the grave-slalxs of the 
West Highlands of 13th century or later. 

Fip;. 36. Book-clasp of Brass. 

Grave-slal) (fig. 35), 6 feet 4 inches in length by 1 foot 9 inches in 
breadth at the t<»p, and 1 foot 6 inches at the foot, having in the upper 
])art a panel 16 inches sfpiare, sub-divided into four squares like the last, 
in each of which are two oval interlinked rings placed diagonally, with a 
diamond-shaped boss in tlie centre. The rest of the stone seems to have 
been covered with foliaccous ornamentation. 

Not the least intens^ting among tlie many relics recovered during the 
l)r()gress of i\n* excavations is the book-clasp of brass, here figured 
(fig. 3G) of tlie actual size. It measures 1 J inches in length by ^ inches 
in breadth, thus indicating a volume of considerable thickness. The 


ornamentation, which consists of a scroll of foliage, prettily arranged, 
with an oval in the centre enclosing a peculiarly shaped cross fitchee, 
seems to indicate a date somewhat later than the majority of the other 
articles found. 



In the Proceedings (vol. xxix. p. 94), I have described a remarkable 
cup- and ring-marked boulder discovered in 1894, on the slope of the hill- 
side of the Braes of Balloch, a little more than 1000 feet above sea- 
level, and about a quarter of a mile to the east of the house at Tombuie. 
Its precise situation is about 100 yards to the south of the fence which 
separates the arable land from that portion which was partly arable, 
but mostly moorland pasture, and witliin a few yards of the old road 
from the arable land to the liill. The boulder, which is about 4 feet in 
length, and the same in breadth, is of a hard, coarse schist, presenting 
a fairly level surface, which is almost completely covered with boldly 
marked sculpturings of concentric circles surrounding small central cups. 
The manner in which they have been pecked out by a pointed instrument 
is clearly visible even in the small-sized photograph, of which a reproduc- 
tion is here given (fig. 1) from the previous volume of the Proceedings, 

Since then I have frequently visited the site of the boulder, and 
examined its neighbourhood, because 1 felt sure that it must be associ- 
ated with something older if I could but light ujK)n it ; but it was only 
this summer that I found at least a portion of what I expected. Not 
far from the boulder, on the toj) of a knoll, the rock comes to the surface, 
and here I found two rows of cups of the ordinary plain pattern (fig. 2), 
deep, large, and well marked, ])ut without enclosing circles. It was only 
by peeling off the turf which had almost covered the flat rock surface 

326 PKOCEEDlKGa OF THE StXIETY, ArUlL \\ 1900. 

Ftg. 1. Bouhlei with tn)>- euuI riii^ muikiii^Hj <jii Him^^ of Ballots b« 
From u photo^rnijih l>y Rev. J. B» Maeken/ie. 

Fig. 2. Two 1-0 via of ciijwi in n imV-aurfRCP mi Braes of Ballocli* 
From a pUotojjrajib by Rev. 4. H. Mackenzie, 


"t; hat I camt.» \i\\on them, lii the one I'ow tliere are four cnpa, and in the 
« '■ther five. From these cups the seuljitured bouMev is distant 80 feet 
T^} the aouth-wost, and the ruin of a l>eehive-slia|Kjd huikling 300 feet 
£90uth. The latter is not nearly so j>erfect as when I first saw it. The 
^rabbits have taken up their abode among the rubbisli, and in digging 
"^em out many of the stones have Iwen displaced from their former and 
sipparently original position. 

These rock cups appear decidedly morc^ ancient than anything on the 
lK>alder which I have pre>'iously described. The sculpture on its upjK»r 
3)ortion seems more archaic in cliaracter than those further down, while 
lowest of all, and apiwirently unconnected witli what is above, there is 
a symbol which is often introduced among sculptures of thi» Christian 
period. The work done on the lower lialf of tlie stone is almost as fresh 
08 when newly executed, and shows quite distinctly the marks of the 
UxA used. A tool like the iiifKlern granite pick would leave marks of 
a similar kind. This {K)rtion is thus distinct, because soon after it was 
iinished it got covered up by the soil as it is now. One cannot look at 
it without asking oneself: How came it alnrnt that this lalwrious work 
is no sooner finished than it is al)andoned ? War or some such catas- 
trophe dispersing the trilxi may have been the cause ; but 1 rather incline 
to the opinion that it was the advent of Christianity which led to the 
abandonment of the old high place, and to the building, in its stead, of 
a Christian church on Sybilla's Isle in the lake IkjIow. The old high 
place is now lonely enough on the edge of the heathery moor, but it 
was not so in even comjMiratively motleni times. On all sides you see 
the ruins of hamlets and wide traces of formcjr cultivation. Then, also, 
till quite recent times, the main road from Crielf to the far highlands 
passed it closely by.^ After this the old road went on past the circles of 
upright stones at Croftmorsig,- and at that point entered what is 

* It is from this 8iK)t that Sir Walter Scott, in The Fair Maul of Pert h^ makes the 
Glover get liia first view of Loch Tay. 

* These are figured at p. 356 of vol. xxiii. of the I*ro<:e€di7i(js, Most likely they 
are moonmeDtal, but no one &in say, till the spade is freely used in its exidoratiou. 
The name means the Croft of the littlo priuccss, and (toints that way. 



now tlie park of Taymouth Castle, and crossed the Tay at the ferry 
of Muttonhole, a little ahove the present New Hall Bridge. Further 
on, it passed another group of standing stones, five of which are still 
erect, before it crossed the Lyon and merged into the present liighway. 

But to return to our high place, not only is it central among the 
mountains of the district, but it was the centre round which the native 
spirits of the old mythology grouped. The only one of the seven chief 
ones whose place of abode is not in full view is " Kelpidh," called " Kel- 
pidh an sput " (Kelpie of the waterfall), and it is just round the comer. 
Kelpidli was the spirit of the raging flood, and when things were going 
quietly abode among the waterfalls of the Moness Bum, issuing forth 
in gleeful triumph when the floods were high, and sweeping away flocks 
and crops and the alx)des of men — if themselves, so much the better. 
She was not truly malevolent, only glad when her work was 

The next spirit was " Brounaidh an eilan " (Brownie of the Island). 
In some parts of the country he is more commonly known as " Ourisk." 
His passion was for work, and it was always much easier to set him 
agoing than to stop him. Any work which seemed of human origin, 
yet which appeared altogether too stupendous for mere human 
labour to eff'ect, was ascribed to him. Here he is located on Sybilla's 

The next spirit was " I^rg luath na Leitir " (swift footprint of the 
Leitir). Leitir is the name of the wind-swept slope of Drummond 

^ This island, on which there are the ruins of the well-known monastery, is about 
100 yards from the shore of the lake. When the lake is at its lowest this channel 
is not more tlian about a foot deep. The island is on the outer edge of a sandbank, 
and about an acre in extent. About fifteen years ago, a large portion of the island 
was levelled and cleared of rubbish. The workmen having slightly miscalculated their 
level, opened up two or three pits down to the level of the lake, filling them up with 
stones and using the soil for surfacing. I was often on the spot and saw that tbey 
nowhere came to any natural layer of gravel or sand : all was artificial. From tliis 
I felt satisfied that the whole island was artificial, probably at first only a lake- 
dwelling of the ordinary type, but extended from time to time as it grew in import- 
ance and more space was reiiuired. In locating "Brounaidh** here there seems to 
bo preserved a tradition of its artificial character. 


facing the island and the lake. Here was the special home of the 

The next spirit was " Trusdar Fhartingall " (the rascal of Fortingall). 
This spirit is our modern devil, and why he is located at Fortingall I 
have never heard. ^ 

The next spirit is " Paterlan na Fhearnan " (I'aterlan of Feaman). 
His special abode was Alt Phaderlidh, a wild mountain stream a little 
to the west of Fearnan. I have never been able to ascertain what were 
his characteristics beyond having some connection with rain and snow. 
Neither can I make out his identity with any of the ordinary spirits of 

The next spirit was " Sligeachan a Bhlarmlioir " (Scales of Blairmore). 
His abode was among the waterfalls (near the lake on the farm of Blair- 
more), on a stream which issues full grown from a rock half-way up Ben 
Lawers, and rushes straight and foaming to tlie lake beneath. He was 
undoubtedly the Dragon of mythology and exercised the usual functions 
of a dragon.^ 

The seventh and last was Fuadh Corry nan ghaimhne (hatred of the 
corry of the deer stirks). He was the spirit of cold (fuachd), and was 
much feared. In Gaelic there is a play upon the words for hatred and 
cold, so that at times one hears him called Fuachd Corry nan ghaimhne. 
The former is, however, his correct designation. I have not been able 

* I have, however, sometimes heard him called ** Truis du " (black trousers). It 
may be but another way of referring to the same gentleman in black, but more 
likely a mere accidental corruption. It surely cannot have been with any intention 
of getting rid of the old gentleman, for a district which prides itself on being the 
birthplace of Pontius Pilate would certainly conserve its interest in black Donald. 

^ Although the dragon had his lair among the water&Us of this stream, they were 
not his work, as those on the Moness Burn, where she abode, were the work of 
Kelpie. These are in Gaelic called *' Obair phealidh " ( Al>erfeldy), the ivork of Kelpie. 
Neither had he anything to do with the remarkable spring whence it issues. It was 
under the guardianship of '* Cailleach bhere'* (the old lady of the thunderbolt) — a 
very subordinate spirit with no initiative power as the seven hatl. She had merely 
the delegated duty of covering up the spring at sunset. On one occasion she failed 
to do so (being tired with hunting she fell asleep), when it burst out, and before it 
could be checked by the returning sun it had dug out and formed Loch Tay. 


to asc<Ttaiii the oxact iKxsition of tlie Corrj which was his chosen home. 
The wliolo of this district was aiicieiitl}' a r<\yal deer forest, and it must 
liav('< Ikhmi souk? sixjcially cold ami dismal glen to which the young deer 
W(?re driven by the older and stronger. 

Many ages nnist have elapsed since the ideas represented by these 
IH^pular myths were re^d here in the lives of men and women like 

l>ut to r(»turn to the sj)ot from which I have been looking at the cup 
marks at my feet, I am struck with the extreme scarcity of any real 
tradition regar<ling them. Only once do 1 rememlier hearing anything 
genuine. Tiu^re had lH?en a gotxl deal of illness in some miserable old 
hous(»s where I was visiting, and in s|>eaking to an old man a1)out it, 1 
expH'sscd my wonder that the j>eople did not remove some boulders 
which obstructed the light of the small windows, and the drainage about 
the dooi-s ; and a<lile<l, that it couhl easily \ye done and would make the 
houses more healthy. No doubt it would, he agreed, but then it would 
not do to destroy these old worship stones (clachain Aoraidh). He said 
that there had l>een one near his own door which was very much in the 
way, but that he had, with great lalnmr, dug a hole into which he had 
let it «lroj> and covered it up, for it would never do to incur the anger 
of the spiritual beings by breaking it up. This was more than thirty 
y«'ars ago. The iKuddcrs seemed to me natural and of no significance; 
l»ut my attention In'ing thus called to them I found similar stones at 
almost every old house or site — many of them, undoubtedly, placed 
tlu-re of intention. Some of them hail cup marks, but on many 1 could 
liiid none. I aisn found that any sort of hollow in a stone, even when it 
siM-nu'd to me natural, wa< sutlieient to give it a sacreil character; and 
tliat anuu' nf these stones wei*e undoubte<lIy ancient boundary mark^ 
wliile ntluTs lia«l K»en used in the pre|xiration of food stuffs. AH have 
.1 rcrtain mystery aUnit them, and several still preserve around then 
traditions of i]w [H^i^^ssion of su|ieniatura] powers. 

So till as I have examined them, these stone^MM to ftll into tbnt; 


Tlie first group consists of the rock cut cups, often single, but more 
generally in groups, with at times (piite an elaborate arrangement of 
cirttles and connecting channels. The meaning of these is very obscure. 
Nothing which 1 havci ever liwircl seemed authentic or simple enough — 
very sim[)le the ideas must have been, or they wouhl never have been 
so common or wide-spread. 

In the second group, the stones present a natuml hollow, smoothed and 
shaped a little by art. This fonn may have been used, among other pur- 
jxises, for the ix)unding and rubbing down of grains before the invention 
nf the cpiern. 

The third group, which is almost certainly of later date, comprises the 
entindy artificial stone cups (smidl ones are oft(*n called elf cups) and the 
y^tone basins used for the manufacture of pot barley. 

The hist two groups have generally some tradition associated with them. 
Many of these have been collected. They most fre<piently relate to the 
jKDwer of curing different kinds of diseases possessed by them. This, how- 
ever, was not by any means their only power. There is one belonging to 
the second group, in a rock near Scallasaig in Colonsay, and the tradi- 
tion with regard to it is, that by means of it the chief of the MThees 
could get south wind when he chose. Hence it is called "Tobar na 
gaoith deas " (the well of the south wind). One of the third group is 
at Riskbuie, also in Colonsay, near the ruins of an ancient ecclesiastical 
building. Nothing now remains but a heap of rubbish with no history, 
yet at one time it must have been of considerable importance. Over a 
well quite close to it I found more than thirty years ago as a roofing slab, 
a stone with a well-cut sculptured figure, which some have supposed to 
be of Christian origin, and others to be a representation of Thor and his 
hammer. It is figured at p. 121 of vol. xv. of the Proceedings, I was 
also told of another sculptured stone which hiul been taken from this 
ruin, and built into one of the ohl cottages in the vicinity. It was 
known as "iomhaigh na leasg" (the image of laziness). There was a 
well-known stone called by this same name in the Castle of Carnassary 
near Kilmartin. I once hunted it up and found it in a rockery, in the 



neglected giYjund& of tlie old mansion-house of Largie. It had appiirently 
been ft gni'goyle, and prtjliably tli© one at Riikhuie may have once served 
tli« same useful piirjjo&e. 

Among the ruins at Eiskbuio, au<l lying on the surface, I found, in 1869, 
a fine atono celt (lig, 3), which I liave now presented to the National 

Fig. 3. StoEiD Axe from Kiskbnie, Qolun^ay. (|. ) 

Museum as an exceedin^^ly iuteresting example, hotli on account of itg 
mzB and its iiei-uhar shaiw. It \a of greenstonej 11^ incht»a in length by 
4J inches across the cutting face, the edge of which is romided, and 
slightly expanded beyond the width of the body of the implement, 


which is almost circular in section in the middle of its length, tapering 
to a conically-i)ointed butt. The surface is not polished, but bears the 
marks of picking all over it, as if it had been reduced to shape by this 

Another of this tliird group is at Kilchattan, also in Colonsay. Like 
the one at Riskbuie it is of the pot barley type, and cut out of the solid 
rock. It is near the ruins of the Church of St Chattan, and of the house 
of the chief of M*Mhurich (Currie), who owned this portion of the island. 
His house was called "Tigh an torn dreis" (Bramble Knoll House), and 
according to highland custom he himself was generally known as "fear 
an torn dreis." As chief of the more fertile moiety of the island, 
M*Mhuri(!h was, of course, a much greater man than MTlieeat Scallasaig. 
If MThee could get south wind, M*Mhurich could by means of his rock- 
basin get any wind he liked. The basin was called " Cuidh Chattain." 
It is quite a mistake to say, iis I have heard at times said, that any 
Currie could operate the well. It was only " fear an tom dreis " himself 
who could do it. He could get the wind to blow from any quarter he 
wished, by the simple expedient of clearing out any rubbish which it 
might contain on to the side from which the wind was desired. It was 
sure to come and blow it back again into the Imsin.^ 

According to Adamnan, St Columba did not even need to change the 
wind, but showed his superior power by sailing rapidly in his boat on Loch 
Ness, against the strong adverse wind which the Druid Broichan had 

Before passing from the subject of rock basins and cups, I may mention 
as bearing on the subject a tradition which I heard from my friend. Rev. 
J. M*Lean of Grantully. We were about half-way up Glenlyon, when 
he pointed out to me some isolated patches of rock by the road side, 
remarking that they indicated the limit to which the plague had reached 

' Originally I am persuaded it was not any accidental rubbish which was cleared 
out, but (with undoubtedly certain ai»j)roi)riate ceremonies) the ofFering of food to 
the supernatural powers, which had been left in the basin when last used for its 
primary purpose of making i)ot barley. 


in the glen ; St Adamnan, it seems, stayed its further progress by boring a 
hole in one of these rocks — catching the plague and stopping it up in the 
hole. In the time at my disposal 1 could not find on any of the rocks 
any artificial markings which might have started tliis tradition. 

A short time ago, ^Ir Dunn, factor to the Marquis of Breadalbane, 
showed me a small stone cup (fig. 4), a regular elf cup in the popular 
estimation, which was recently found by a shepherd close to a sheep-path 
near the top of Schihallion. It is of very hard stone, with a simple orna- 

Fig. 4. Stono Cup found on Schihallion. 

mental pattern running round the outside. At one point there is a 
projection wliich looks like the remains of a handle. There is no jmssible 
natural use, of which I can think, which could induce any one to carry 
sucli a vessel to near the top of a very high hill. It must surely have 
been in connection with the idciis wliich they entertained of the super- 
natural, that our remote ancestors were impelled to cut out these cuj>s in 
the rocks, ])Iace them in their graves, and carry tliem up to the high 
places of the earth. What were tliese ideas? 



Captain J. H. ANDERSON, F.S.A.Scot. 

Rock-Basins. — At a camp in the hills about 70 miles north of Rani- 
khet, I found a rock with several l)eautifully-rounded " pits " or " rock- 
basins," about 6 J inches in diameter and 6 inches deep. None of the 
other rocks were marke<l in any way, and as this occurred at the junction 
oi two streams (always more or less a sacred spot to Hindus), I came to 
the conclusion that there might be some similarity l)etween these " pits " 
and the Scotch cup-marked rocks. But alx)ut 30 miles further on, 1 
found other pits of the same kind, which required no theoretical explana- 
tion, because I found them in use. They were simply a kind of primitive 
mortars for shelling rice. The rice is put into the rock-basin, and is 
pounded and worked round by an iron shod beam about 3 inches in 
diameter and 6 feet long. Afterwards I found many more of these 
mills in use, and, on my return journey, found the old foundations of 
several huts, that I had not ol>served at my first inspection, hidden in 
the brushwood close to the original pit-marked rock. 

Ring-Marked Stones without Cenlral Cujys. — In a Hindoo temple 
inclosure near Dwarahat, a small town about 13 J miles north 
of Kimikhet, in the province of Kumaon, I found a stone with 
two concentric rings, incised, to the depth of about half an inch, 
• the channels being a little wider than their depth. The inner circle 
was 23 inches in diameter, tlie outer circle 6J inches in iliameter, and 
from it there proceeiled a "duct" 11^ inches in length. The stone is a 
slab al)out 23| inches by 17 inches, and is lying face uppennost on a 
j)il<' of loosely built up stones, and is very much weathered. The 
inclosure contains numerous stones more or less ciirved, chiefly of the 
usual Phallic types, but there are only two othei-s, broken and very 
much defaced, which at all resemble this one. 


In the Terai near the Hundspoor camping ground, about 18 miles due 
east of Huldwani, I found another stone with a single ring incised, the 
channel being about | of an inch in depth and J an inch in width, and 
the interior diameter or space enclosed by the ring 1 inch in diameter. 
From this ring tliere proceeded a " duct " 8 inches in length. The whole 
was surrounded by an oval channel of about f inch in width, narrowing 
towards tlie outer end of the " duct." There is no temple or any other 
carved stone in the neighbourhood. The stone was propped up against 
a tree, and is evidently still held in veneration, as there were numeroiLs 
rags and threads tied to the branches of a tree close by. The few native 
cowherds who live near for a few months in the cold weather professed 
to know nothing about it. 

Though I examined many stones, more or less carved, over a very 
wide area, these are the only ones I found presenting these particular 

^^Dug-Out" Canoes, — On the Sarda River, which for part of its course 
forms the boundary between Nepaul and British India, I found numerous 
(lug-out canoes in use. 

One I examined, in the neighbourhood of Tanackpur, was about 36 
feet long, 2 feet wide, and over 18 inches in depth. Both ends 
were neatly rounded, and tapered oft' from underneath. It was made 
out of a single log, and I was told was hollowed out and shaj>ed entirely 
with the ordinary native axe. 

I imderstand that when the river is in flood, two of these canoes arc 
lashed several feet a})art by bamboos at the bows and stern. 

The canoes are propelled by long poles in shallow water, and by 
paddles in the Canadian fashion in deej) water. 

In this ncighbourhuud (Tanackpur), I found the natives storing their 
grain in large vessels often 4 feet high. These vessels are constructed of 
onlinary basketwork, covormI with slime (mud), and then dried in the .sun. 

FishiiKj. — Abuiit 20 miles south of Tanackjjur, in the Chouka River, a 
triVnitary of the Sarda River, a sluggish stream with large weed-covered 
pools, the native method of fishing is curious. 


A small erection of piles is made in the i)ool, just far enough out to 
emible a man to wade out to it waist-deep. The fisherman sits, or rather 
squats, on the pile erection, and has at his right side, floating on the 
water, alxiut a dozen lengths of thin ])amlK)<)s, roughly shaped at the ends 
to allow of their l>eing jointed into wich other. 

The hook is baited with a paste of coarse flour. The line fixed to the 
end of the first bam]x)0 length allowing al>out 4 feet of free line, the 
remainder of the line is coiled up on the seat l)eside him. This first 
length of l)aml)oo is now pushed out and rested on top of the thick bed 
of weeds. Another length of himhoo is jointed on and jmshed out and 
so on till the made up ro<l measures 45 t<» 50 feet, al)out 4 feet of the 
first point projecting btiyond the weed lied, thus allowing the sj)are end 
of the line and the hook to Ikj susi)ended in the open water on the far 
side of the weeds. Pei'sonally, I never saw any fish caught, hut was told 
tliat they were frequently up to alxKit 2 feet long; and that when 
hooked they were simply hauletl in over th<^ weeds — the line being pulled 
in and coiled with the left hand, while the right hand disjointed the rotl 
as it came back, the joints Ixjing allowed to float in the water close at 
hand and ready to be used again in making up the rod. 

Methods of itnarinf/ mid animals. — When on a shooting trip in March 
1 900, on the borders of the liickaneer Desert, 1 found the natives snar- 
ing black buck and chinkara (or ravine deer) in two ways : — 

(1) /n pitfalls. — These are deep holes alMjut 8 feet deep and al)out 4 
feet by 5 feet. They are either dug in gaps in thoni or grass-wattle 
fences or else on the far side of a low part of the fence, so that the decir 
just clearing the fence will jump into the hole. The pits are covere<l 
with tliin brushwo(xl, over which Siind and loose earth is carefully spread. 

A very similar method for catching wild elephants was carried on in 
the Kumaon Terai, till stop[)ed many yeivrs ago ])y the British CJovoni- 
ment. I have seen the remains of many of these old pits, which app<iar 
to have l^een generally in groups of four or five. I was informed by the 
mahouts and natives that these pits were covered with brushwood, with 
a layer of alxmt 6 inches of fine earth on the top. This was then sown 

vou xxxiv. r 


with rice, which began to grow alK)ut the rainy season, and attracted the 
elephants right on to the pitfall, the sides of which were too steep and 
deep to allow t)f the elej^hant scrambling out. 

(2) By means of tuiares. — The second method is by means of an 
ingeniously contrived snare of peculiar construction, a specimen of which 
I have presented to the Museum. It consists of a hoop of bamboo, 7 J 
inches in diameter, covered witli skin, and having a large number of slim 
l)egs of wooil set radially within tlie hoop, these pegs being firmly 
attached to its inner circumference, but free in the centre. This appara- 
tus is attached by a rope of sinews with a running noose at the end to 
a rough piece of branch. The method of its use may be thus described : 

A round hole is dug in the earth al>out a foot deep and just large enough 
round to support the " disc " part of the snare, which is placed so that 
the small sticks forming the rays are inclined downwards. The noose 
of twisted sinew is carefully adjusted round the cii-cumference of the 
disc, and attached to an " anchor '' consisting of a rope of hair, or some- 
times hair and hemp mixed, about 1 J to 2 feet long, fixed with the aid 
of a short stick, placed crosswise, tinuly and j)erpendicularly into the 
ground. Sand and tine eartli are then scattered over the wliole con- 

AXHion a deer places its foot on the disc, the rays (or spokes) give with 
the weight and the foot sinks through into the hole. On the leg l>cing 
withdrawn the disc remains, the spokes catching hold of the leg, thus 
supporting the noose on the leg. (_)n the leg being carried forwaixl or 
shaken to try and kick oft' the ilisc, tlie noose is drawn tight, and the 
deer snare<l. These snares are i)laced just outside the croj^s, or on paths 
leading through the crops, and in groups of five or six. Although 1 
never personally saw an animal snared, I was a^isured by tlie natives that 
they caught a great many by this method. 

Since writing the above I have come across an interesting notice by 
Sir Samuel Lkiker ^ of the use of a trap of precisely similar con- 
struction : — 

' IVild Beasts mid Tlicir IVaya. l>y Sir Samuel Baker, 18^0, p. '196, 




The valley of Qiiarff, in which tlie pre-historic remains were found, 
is situated where tlie mainland of Shetland contracts to its narrowest 
dimensions, one other place only excepted. The trend of the valley is 
east and west, and it may he descrihed as a ravme in the range of hills 
which terminates in the promontory of Fitful Head. These hills are 
among the highest in Shetland, and carry their bulk upwards to the 
rounded summits, which slope gradually away to the moorlands beyond. 
The rocks which guard the eastern entrance of the ravine are buffeted 
by the waves of the North Sea, whilst the strand at the western extremity 
is washed by the waters of the Atlantic ; the distance between the two 
seas being so short that small ])oats are sometimes dragged overland 
from one to the other. 

From time immemorial this valley has l)eeu inhabited. On either 
side, at greater or less elevations, " tonus " or hamlets are dotted down. 
These are the dweUings of crofters, and in close proximity are the crofts 
or pieces of land allotted to each tenant. 

Until very recently all the land was prepared for crops by the slow 
and laborious method of delving; now small ploughs are being intro- 
duced, and the ponies of the country are utilised for the work. It is 
probably owing to this innovation that the antiquities now submitted U* 
the Society were discovered. The crofter upon whose land they were 
found adopted the new system of i)lougliing, ])ut a certain mound on one 
of the " rigs " proved an insurmountal>lc obstacle to his ponies, and he 
resolved, with the help of his sons, t(» clear the obstruction away. He 
and liis forefathers, for generations, toihng with the spaile on the stime 
land, had always been confronted with this mound. They dug around 
its base, and finding only gravel deemed it a wortldess heap. Year 


after j-ear it was left un(listurb(»(l, and doubtless would have been passed 
by, in like manner, for years t<> come, liad it not proved a hindrance 
to tlie plougli. 

The work of levelling; down the heap havinff l>een l^egini, the 
laljourers soon found that tliey had struck u|x>n something else than 
a mere hillock of gravel. After a porticm of tlie surface had been 
removed to a depth of al)out 18 inches, a stone slab was laid bare, which, 
on lieing lifted, disclosed a cist, in which were found a skull and jmrt 
of a steatite urn (fig. 1) measuring 13 J inches in diameter at the mouth. 

Fig. 1. Urn of Steatite found at Quarff, Shetland, (i.) 

and partly broken away at one side, the more entire side being about 5 
inches high, and the eilge nearly an inch and a half in thickness, and 
roughly smoothed and rounded. 

A further clearing away of the material of which the mound is fonned 
brought to light more of these cists, in one of which the fragments of 
another steatite urn were found, but no human remains; and on raising 
the cover of one of the smaller cists, another urn, apixirently made of 
clay and full of ashes, was discovered. This urn (fig. 2) is quite whole, 
and in a gootl stiite of preservation. It measures 9 J inches in height, 
and 9J inches in diameter across the mouth, having a rounded taper to 
the l>asc which measures 4] inches in diameter. The lip, which is ^ inch 



in thickness, is ])e veiled inwards, and the upper portion of the exterior 
is smooth and blackened. Clay ums are of very rare occurrence in 
Shetland, wliihi urns of steatite are common. 

So far as the work of excavation has lx»en carried, there have Ixjen 
eight of theses stone cists unearthed. Two of them, unfortunately, have 
been so desi)oiled by the workers that nothing can be said regarding 
them; the others, which have not been broken up, I have carefully 
examined and measured. Their dimensions are as follows : — 






4 feet 

2h feet 

2 feet 


24 V 

18 inches 

18 inches 


2 „ 

18 „ 

18 „ 


22 inches 

14 „ 

18 „ 


About the 

same as No. 4. 

Fig. 2. Urn of Clay from QuarlF, Shetland. {\,) 

The covcrin<^ slabs were in no case more than 2 feet beneath the sur- 
face. A (listaiico of Ixitwcen 2 to 3 feet separates the cists. They have 
been carefully made, as all the apertures, formed where the uneven etlges 
of the stones meet, arc Idled in with clay. A rim of clay had also been 
placed upon the upper edges of the cists before the covering was placed 


in ix)sition — with a view, proliably, of making the cover so close fitting 
that water would be excluded. 

Looking at the cists Jis they stand enibedded in the gnivel, 1 am 
inclined to think that the stones of which they are composed were set 
up, the ashes of the dead, alone or inclosed in an um, deposited within 
the chaml)er, the cover adjusted, and this being done gravel was then 
carried from the sea ]>each and piled around and over the cist. 

If this were the mode adopted by the people in connection with their 
interments, then the artificial nature of the mound would be accounted 
for— and that it is artificial hardly admits of doubt. It does not consist 
of the i^eaty soil of the surrounding land, but of sand and pebbles similar 
to those found on the shore, about a quarter of a mile away. 

The slabs of which the cists are built must also have been brought to 
the spot with great labour, as there are no stones of a like kind to be 
found in the neighbourhood. 

I have closely inspected the slabs to see if they bore signs or marks of 
any kind, but found nothing. 

It is to be regretted that the skull, which was found in the largest 
cist, fared badly at the hands of the labourers. It was thrown into a 
burn which flows past the place. Afterwards it seemed to occur to the 
men that they had not dealt in a seemly way with the relic ; and resolv- 
ing to give it, what they considered, decent burial, it was cast into a hole, 
and covered with stones. I had these stones removed in the hope of 
recovering the skull, but found it in fragments, and quite useless as an 
anatomical subject. 

One tooth, a molar, was found in the jaw, and is now l>eing carried 
about in the pocket of the crofter, airefully wnipped in paper — perhaps 
as a charm. The tooth is in a wonderfiUly sound condition. 

The aslies found in the clay urn were treated with almost as little 
(ceremony as the skull, having been scattered at the side of the cist. 
Enough, however, remained for the purpose of examination. They were 
dark in colour, and intermixed with white particles which had quite the 
appearance of calcined bones. 



A layer of earth of a bright tf^i colour was foimd near oim of ihv idsia 
which^ I t.liiuk, i?t ('(mi;*ojwMl of |it}Lit allies. There is a ccrtaiti kind of 
peat ill this ili^^trirt, whicli, ftri Imn^ humt*d, Imvtv^ h**!ihul «i rtwl iish^ ttJiil 
which Viecoiuffs iioo|i«*r in colour when auhjccttKl to mtniitun?. 

If tin* inhahiuuits f4 this eoiintry hi pro-historic timc8 i!idi>os<Hl nf th^ 
dead l^y the [mK^esst of cwmatioD, one might ex j wet U* find tnu'i»s of tlw* 
fuel empioy^'d, and as Shetkml h a treeteaa rej^non, that tnvl ^rouJil, of 
necessity, ha peat or heather, poa h. 

[Tbrutigh thci cfond ofHt^es of tht i Mr ,Iohnston, the (/tinrfiT nm*» 
have Ik^cii actjuirnl for the National (Mini,] 



? AND ITS NEIGH nor Rtioon, 



Tht^ town of Kl^n and surrounding^ district is rich in objects of 
antiquarian interest^ *;s[>et;ially in ancient euclesiastical hull dings. 
Intimately associuted with fchej?e are the sculptured eimts of amis, %vhirli 
form so imiiortiint a feature in their decoration, and tlie t^fubsUMi^ 
which vfftwn record valuable genealogical infommlion. 

With the object of examiuirtg thest^ I spent some time in tlie tlistrict 
in the autumn of 1899 making rubbings or sketches and copying inscrip- 
tions. The results I now submit to the Society with short descriptive 

Tlie idea of putting my notes in any ])ermanent fonn was not |>re- 


sent to me at the time, otherwise the particulars might, in some instances, 
have }>een more comi>lete. 

The descriptions of the carvings ami the bhizons of the arms are given 
jis they are actually seen, and do not procisel}' correspond in all cases with 
the illustrations, f)wing to the mechanical difficulty of rejiroducing neces- 
sarily imperfect ruhlungs. 

The Cathedral. — The cathedral heing conspicuously the central 
feature of the district, on which the other ecclesiastical edifices all more 
t^r less depended, we commence with it. 

It consists of nave, choir, and transepts, with octagonal chapter-house 
on tlie north side of the choir and l^idy chapel on the south. At the 
west end are two great square towers and at the east end two octagonjil 
turrets richly decorated. There was also a central tower which fell in 
1711, greatly damaging the nave and transepts, tlie north wall of the 
former being almost levelled with the ground. 

( )f the architectural features of this or other buildings it is not my 
province to speak ; for full detiiils I may refer to the two invalua])le 
works of Messrs !Macgibbon & Koss, viz., 'The Castellaietl and Domestir 
Architecture of Scotland, in five volumes, and the Eccledadical Archi- 
tecture of Scotland, in three volumes. The cathedral is described in tlio 
latter, vol. ii. p. 121. 

Commencing with the west front and its two nuissive towers, we find 
l>etween them and al)ove the great west window three shields. The one 
to the dexter (fig. 1) l>ears: — Three cushions lozengeways within a royal 
treasure. It issusixindwl by the guige from a branch of oak, and the 
arms on it are those }x)rne originally by the family of Kandolph, and 
afterwards adopted by that of Dunbar on succeeding to the Earldom of 

The shield in the centre (fig. 2) bears : — The royal arms of Scotland. 
It is suspended by the guige from a branch of oak. 

The shield on the sinisti»r (fig. 3) bears : — A lion rampant within a 
Iwrdure charged with eight roses. It is couchc, though shown erect in 



thtj illiisitmtionj and is ^u^iM^udi^l bj^ a long giiige ; li^hind thf abield Is 4 
cFoaier» The ai'iiu^ aiv the orij*iiial |iatenjal iiinia of the fiujily wf I>uubaT, 
rtiul luv (ihikiUly tlioBt^ iif Bishop Ccilumba I>«nlxir(1429-35)» 

AUivt; the r'iintnil |Hllar af the ilocirway u i\ vesicii'SlirnHHf sj^rwi? now 
fib Ilk, Imt siiid to liavf^ ct)nt4iiuiHl a fipiro of the Yirj»i»i and ChUil, on 
fiju'h siilo iif wUicli kiioeis an angt4 waving a thuriljlu. 

Fig^ 1,%S, Arms above the West Window of Blffiti CnthedmL 

Entering by the great west door and keeping to the left iheie is nothing 
of iniix>rUince in tlie north aisle of the nave, the north wall of which, as 
above stated, is ahnost completely demolished. 

In the north transept, on the west wall, is a stone (31 inches by 24) 
with two sliields at the top, a sknil and thigh bone between them, and 
an inscription lK?neath (tig. 4). The arms on the first shield are not 
properly marshalled, but may Ix* descril^ed as : — Three cushions lozenge- 
ways (Diinkir), imjHiIim/, throe lH)ar heads erased (Gordon or 
rnpihart ?), awf Mwem thesp ^oafs: — Throe buckles in bend (I^slie). 

Tho arms on tho socoml shiohl aro : — Throe cushions lozengeways 
(Ounbar), inipah'jhj, A star in chief and a eresoeiit in base. 


1-1 ■■' ^tf r^ 


Fi^. 4 Tombilone of Jolm Dunbar of Benuetficld. 



The inscription in Roman capitals is:— 

IT . 2 . DER« . 1590 . ET . MAR . 
1570 . ET . 4 DERSs 1603 ET . NICOL 
QVI . OBIIT 31 . lANR' 1651 . ET . GR 
OBIIT . 21 . IVLI . 1648 . ET . lONE . 

In Stodart's Srottish Anns, vol. ii. pp. 6-1 8, there is a valuable notice 
of the heraldry of the family of I)unl)ar, by ^^i^ Archibald H. Dunlvir of 
Dufrus, the in'osent barunot. On ]>. 15 it is siiid that the fii*st shield 
al)()ve mentioned "suj^gests that jH)8sibly the mother of ^Ir John's first 
wife may have been an rnpihart, and tliat tlie motlier of his second wife 
may have been a Leslie," but it s(;ems more natural to supi)ose that the 
wives themselves may have borne these names. The second shield is 
said to be "probably f«»r Nic<»l Dunbar and his wife (Jrissel Maver." 

(hi the north wall are two rcK'umbent ethgies : — The one of a knight 
in armour enslirouded in his cloak. The other of a knight in armour 
having on his breastplate (lig. 5) :— Three cushions lozengeways (Ihmbar). 
Said to be the statue of Sir Alexauder Dunbar of Westfield, knight. 

lUiilt into the wall, behind these statues, is a stone without inscription 
or initials, bearing on a shield (13 inches in wi«lth at the top) the arms 
(tig. 6), viz.: — A fess between three geese passant in chief and in Uxsui 
a cushion an«l a star in fess, inijtuHiKj, Parted i»er fess, a hen head erased 
in chief and a cock i»assant in base. Above the shield is a helmet with 
mantling (omittecl in illustration) and wreath but no crest. 


.VJ >"— 

\ I 








On the c<ist wall a stone with the following inscription is built into 

an aiimrv : -- 




PRINCEPs 1675. 















Opposite th(* cast wall of the transei)t and in a line with the north 
wall t>f the chancel is a ccltic sculptured stone of giimite, figured in 
SLuait's Snil^ftured StoiicSy vol. I. \)\. 16. 

77/'' ClKi}if(-r-}nm'<e is octaj<«nial and has a central pillar also octagonal 
witli st<Mi<' desk for a readtT (on the west and north-west sides). On the 
ei<;ht faci's nf the cai»ital, comniencin^' with the c»ne opposite the entnince, 
are the followin^^ seulj»tures : — (1) Shield (oj inches hroad) with the ro^-al 
anus of Scotlancl {\vj^. 7), tlie toj* of the royal tri'ssure beiiig omitteil. 
{'!) Sldelil with instninients of the Passion, similar to those descrilKnl 
JM'lnw. (3) Slii<'ld (5] inclies at top) with arms of IJishop Andnnv 
Stewarl. (1 lSL>-ir)01) <»f tlie family of Lorn (li^^ 8), viz. :— Quarterly, Ist 
and llh, A lymplia<l ; 2iid ami ord, A fess eluMpiy. Ahove the shield a 
mitiv. (I) Shii'ld {1\ inelu's at. widest) liearing (li^'. 9): — the Cros.s with 
till' Cinwu of tlmrns and piercrd ln-arL, 1' A feet. (5) St An<li'e\v 




•« r^^z*^^^'\ «p ^' " 







Fig. lli. 







Fig. 16. 
Frgs* 15, 1^. Siualda of A^rtua ia the Chapter Hoiuie, Elgui Cathedrals 

35G rROCEEDIXOS of THK society, APRIL 9, 1900. 

On the oast wall i8 a monuiuent t'outaiiiing two tablets divideil by 
Pinal's. Oil the onv is the followinj^' instTiption in Roman capitals, viz. : — 



















On the Other tablet the inscription is: — 










(V/d/i'v/. — In ihi- u«'iih wall is an aivhetl rwess for a tomb in which 
.III' pi.iced three iletaehed siiMies, pn»lnil)lY i«rts of tomlistoiies, beariiig 
.iiniN hill without ins^Tiptions. (1) A shield ^14 inches at top) bearing 
^tii;. 17) :— A fess ehargixl with two hiicklcs between alien head erased 
in v-liief and A star in base (King), ic "o, A lion rampant with- 
in .1 Kuxhm' chargeil with [eight f] r . (2) Arms: — A stag 
h. 1 1 e.iK'ssiHl, 1)otwoen tha attinf 4ueld a hehnet 



with mantling and wreath but no crest, over that the motto COELUM 
FIDE CERNO and at foot the initials ^^^'^ ^"^ M^M (3) Shield 

(10 inches at top) bearing : — On a chevron three stars. 

The three stei)s up to the high altar remain in situ. Where the altar 
stood is a granite monument in memory of the Rev. I^achlan Shaw, the 
historian of the Province of Moray. 

Fig. 17. Shield of Arms in the Chancel. 

In the south wall has been a sedilia of four seats. In front of it lies 
a detached stone with shield bearing arms, viz. : — Ermine on a fe^s three 
crescents (Craig). Initials J. C. and M. I. ?. Crest, on a helmet with 
mantling and Avreath, a stiig head. Motto undecipheral)le. 

Near to the south wall <)pi)osite the entrance is a large blue stone, the 
matrix of a brasvS, siiid to 1)0 the tombstone of Bishoj) Andrew Murray, 
whodietl 1242.^ 

St Marifs aisle or tfie Ladt/ chapeU — On the north wall are two 

monuments, viz. : — 

' Keith's Binhftps. 


(1) At the west end, on entering, a recessed tomb. The recumbent 
effigy rests on the ground. At each si<le of the head there remains 
part of a shickl, that on tlie dexter showing : — A lion rampant 
within the royal tressure — hut that on tlie sinister not noted. In 
the Guide to Elgin Cathedral (1897), by Mr James S. Pozzi, p. 34, it is 
said : — " The figure on the tomb is that of a mitred abbot. It has also 
l)een called the tomb of Bishop Alexander Stewart, 1482-1501," but in 
the Proceedings^ vol. xxix. p. 358, it is stated that the " mitre is of the 
type prevailing in the 13tli or eiirly 14th centuries." 

(2) Near the east end the recessed altiir tomb of Bishop John Win- 
chester (1437-1458), with an inscription in decorative Grothic letters 
on the bevelled edge now almost illegible. 

There are shields at each end of the arch, but no arms have been 
carved on them. On the arch within the recess are traces of frescoed 
angel figures in black outline. 

On the south wall are two monuments, viz. : — 

(3) Marble monument to Her (Jrjice Henrietta, Duchess of Gordon, 
who died 1760. 

(4) Marble monument with following inscription in Roman capitals : — 








WHO DIED 28th MAY, 1836, 





(5) On the floor ;it the cast end is a sijrcoi)hagU8 tomb with recum- 
luMit <^lliuy of the first Earl uf Huntly in his cloak. Koiind the 



margin (Imt not at head or foot) is this inscription in Gothic 
letters: — 

bic tacet nobilia et potent bne alleiaOet cordon ptfmud cornea de buntlie bne 
be dotbone et bab3enocb qui obift apub buntlie \5 iulii anno bni t470. 


Fig. 18. Date on the Tomb of the First Earl of Huntly. 

The (late, it will be ol)8erved, is in Arabic numerals (tig. 18), an early 
example of their use in such inscriptions. On the front of the sarcopha- 
gus has been inserted (probably in tlie seventeenth century) a coat of 
arms, viz. : — Quarterly, 1st. Three boar heads couped (Gordon) ; 2nd. 
Three lion heads erased (Badenoch) ; 3rd. Three crescents witliin a royal 
tressure (Seton) ; 4th. Three fraises (Fraser). The four quarters within 
a royal tressure. Aljove the shield a coronet, over that a helmet with 
mantling and wreath, and thereon for crest a stjig heiul. Supporters, 
two hounds collareil and leashed.^ Underneath is his title, now nearly 

On the floor are ten other tombstones. 

(6) Stone with sliield bearing arms : — Tlirec lx>ar heads. Underneath 
are emblems of mortality, viz. : — Bell, sand-glass, coffin, skull, and bones. 
The marginal inscription is hi Roman capitals, viz. : — 



(7) Stone (77 inches by 41) with shield l)caring arms (tig. 19), viz. : — 

rruixeifiti'jftf vol. xxix. {k 303. 


ri:tX^EKI»INT,S OK Till 

•' IfKK). 

(1) At tllO west Oiul, im rllli 

v\\\\;y it'sts III! tlu' i^rouiul. A 
]»art of a shicM, that on 
witliin \]\v roval tivssun' — i 
iho (f #//./«• to Kii'>- 
s;iiil : " Tho li^m* mi i\w u 
Uvii »m1Km1 the t<mih of 
t!u» Pn^^ee^Nutjii^ voL xx., r 
lyjH* pri'vuilin^ in tbt* 13tb 

(2) Noar the 
oliosior (U37-M 
oil iho Ivvclleil 

Tliori' an^ sliirktu ^ 
carvinl on I hem ' ' ■ 
iuigol ti^ures in 

Oil iho !«outh 

(3> Marbli" \ 
whoilu-a 1760. 

(4^ Marblr • 

.;i); 2ml. Tliir^- 

'.vitliin a royal :rr 

ilu' shit'Ll a cmhoik-:. 





Some distance beneath this is a skull with legend round it, "MEMENTO 
MORI." The marginal inscription is : — 



DEPERTIT . YE . lANVAR. 1622. 

(8) Stone with marginal inscription only, in Gothic letters, viz. ; — 

bic • tacent • nobilis 

ailia • et • robert • frat • [eius] • cantor • orate • p • aia 

(9) Stone with shield (25 inches in width) bearing impaled arms (fig. 20), 
viz. : — Three holly leaves (Irvine), impaling ^ Three boar heads couped 
(Gordon). Initials I). I. and E. G. Some way beneath the shield a 
skull and thigh bone, and under that the date " 1603," which is really 
the conclusion of tlie following marginal inscription, viz. : — 







(10) Stone with inscription recording the burial here of the five 
successive Dukes of Gordon. 

(11) Tombstone of Thomiis Calder, precentor of Ross, with marginal 
inscription in Gothic letters, viz. : — 

bic facet venerabfUa vix mgt tboai? calbar quoba pcetot xo^sc 

Q. obiit t^ifi Ne 
mens ^c be . . . bcr a© D» 1519 


(12) Blue stone, the matrix for a Ijriss, siiid to cover the remains of 

three bishops.^ 

^ Oaide^ p. 34. 

Fig. m. Furl of Buriifcl SLub in St Maiy*^ Aialt;, Elgiu C^thedtmL 



(13) Stone (36 inclies in widtli) witli cross in centre having ends of 
liead and arms l»e veiled off, and foot encircled by wreath which rests on 
four steps. Above the arms of the cross are two shields, each bearing the 
same arms, viz. : — A bend (charged with three buckles (Ijcslie). Below 
tlie arms of the cross are a chalice with paten on the dexter side and 
ail open book on the other. The marginal inscription is : — 

bic • tacit • wnerabilis • 

t>ir • magtrter • tbomas • leflg • quonba 

rector • be • ftsn9t>rs • 

qt>i • obiit • octa^ • mot>i • an^ • bomini • m^ • ccccc^ • jv^ . 

Alonteith in his Tlieater of Mortality ^ p. 222, in giving the inscrii>- 
tion, omits the day and month. 

(14) Stone with shiehl (12 inches in width) bearing arms (fig. 21), 

Fig. 21. Shield IiniKiling Caldcr iiiul Muiiro Anns. 

viz. :— A stjig head cnui>e<l, and in chief a nmndlo lu'tweeii two 
stars (Calder), inqyalirifj, An ciigle head erased (Miinro). Above 


the shield a helmet with wreath and mantlmg but no crest. Initials 
W. C. and L. M. Two winged boys support the shield, and beneath it 
one under the other are carved : — A cherub ; an hour glass ; an escroll 
with the words " MEMENTO MORI " ; a skull ; cross bones ; and 
finally a skeleton in a coffin beneath a mattock and a shovel. Inscrip- 
tion in Roman capitals round margin : — 





( 1 5) Slab with two shields at top, (one broken off) bearing : — A l^nd 
charged with three buckles (Leslie). Inscription in Gothic letters round 
margin : — 

bic iacet 

quon6am rector 6ero 

Tlie following extract from ^lonteith^s Tlieater of Mortality^ p. 216, 
relates to this monument : — " Hie jacet Archibaldus Lesly quondam 
Rector de Rothes qui obiit 3 Julii 1520. Orate pro communi Patria " 
— the rest worn out. 

Between St Mary's aisle and the south transept are three monuments, 
viz. : — 

(1) Sarcophagus tomb with recumbent figure of knight in armour; on 
his breastplate are: — Three escutcheons (Hay). On the dexter side 
of the bevelled edge of the sarcophagus is this inscription in one long 
line in Gothic letters, the latter part being illegible : — 

btc iacet wtlls 6e le bas quo6a 6115 6e locblos QUt obttt Pitt 
bie meCbecebris aiio but m cccc ili 


Tliis inscription, though continuous in one lino, terminates on a 
s«'parate stone^ which projects ]M»yoml the feet of the effig}*^ and the 
original position of which it is difficult to understimtl. Dascril)eil and 
figured in Prorpr-Jiwj.'i^ vol. xxix. p. 393, wliere it is said the in- 
scription is " now ahnost (piite illegible." Tliis must he a mistake, as if 
it was illogi])le tlien, it must have l>een recut ; but it does not look as 
if tliis liad been done, an«l Mr Pozzi, tlie keei>er of the cathedral, who 
has l)een tliere many years, has no knowledge of any restoration. 

(2) Recumbent slab (83 inches by 30). In the centre is a cross with 
entls of head an«l arms bevelled off, tlie foot encircled by a wreath rests 
on five steps. On the dexter side is a chalice with paten and on the 
sinister an open book showing the cover. Round the margin is the 
inscrii>tion in (Jothic letters: — 

bic iacet • 

vcnerabiliB • viv . mafliftcr • pilclmua • l^el • 

quonda • Bnbbcca 

nu6 • ecclerie • motauien • q • ol>iit bic - met • anno 

^m mo . cccco 
iiit • 

(3) Recumbent slab with shield of arms, viz. : — A chevron between three 
garbs. Above the shieM a helmet with wreath and mantling but no 
crest. On an escroll above, the motto " COURAGE ", and on another 
benciitli, '' ( ;E0R( rE CUM[ING OF LOCHTER]VANDICH." 
Round the margin is this inscription in capitals : — 







t. — On the cjust wall is a deUiched HUmc (35 inches in 
of arms (fig. 22) : — Quarterly, 1st and 4th. Three 



f^tars (ruiipii); 2ml ami SnL Thrrf* l>nfii" h(^jnl« mui>f*il (Aljen^liiinlor ?X 
impaUn*j^ A t^ti'vrou l>(*twc'int thivo Itoar \muh v^mm^A (El|thiii.stoiip), 
AIhjvo tLo shiekl is aJiL^irjet witb munLtiiig, wroatli, ami for I'resta hniiiid 
lieail eolJarml. The aiipportcm art} : dexter, ti hound colhiixni, smigter, n 
savage with cIuK On an eaemll above is the motto *' [KEIP] TRAI8T/* 
The iintial?^ ni-p R, I. ami E, E, 

Fig. 2^, Armort&l Stone in Soiitli Tnascitit of Elgin Cathedral. 

The ftilluwing iivsoriptiun from Moil teith'a Timater of Moriaiiti/y p, 220, 
is prohably fn>m the nioimment (*i which the alx>ve arms fonned part : 
— **Requie.«*cimt hie Ri»bertiia Tiine^ nh eodem i^ Eli}uibetha Elphin.stone 
ejim Conjux {^111 Fatis concoaaenmt 25 Septcinh & 26 Febr Anno Sal. 
hum. 1597 ^ 1610 Ideoq^ in piam gratamci' ^feinoriam charifiaimomm 
Parentum hoc Moniimentum extniendnm curavit Rol>erti!s Filiui?/'^ 

^ Macphftil'u Pluscardht, ju 121. 



Oil tin* aniitli wall i\w two r(MM*ss<^(l altar tombs. The fii-st has a shield 
with arms on oarh si«lo, viz. : DcxtiM", shirM for Ah'xandcr Stewart, Earl 
<»f Mar an<l ljm\ of Oari<K*h. (^uartorly, 1st and 4th, A f(»ss chwjuy 
iKitweon throe oyum (•n)wn8 ; 2nd and 3rd, A \mu\ lx»tween six crc)S8 
crosslets (see anna at Bishop's House des<'rilKMl p. 381). Sinister, shield 
(tij^. 23) for JUshop James Stewart (1460). A fess cluMpiy l>etwoen throe 
o^Kin crowns: l)ehind the shiehl a crosier. His senl is descrilxjd and 



Fi^'. 23. Shield of Arms of Bishop James Stowart. 

tijj^ured hy Ilcuiry \a\uv^ in his first volume, \o. 909, where it l)enrs 
similar arms, hut with a double lim^ round them evidently of no heraldic 

Keith, in his Catalogue of S'^fitfix/i liishopn^ states that lUsht^p James 
Stewart l)elon|^e«l to a braneh of the family of I^»rn, but jud^inj; from 
the arms this do(»s not appear to have been the ease. 

The arms lx>nu^ by members of the family of Lorn are usually in the 
form (»f a fess e.hequy quartered with a lymphad. Tluwe l>ome by 


Bishop Andrew Stewart of this family have been already described 
and figured (]>. 350). The question therefore arises what family of 
Stewarts bore "A fess chequy l>etween three crowns" or similar anns? 
Five such coats are known to me, viz., those of : — 

(1) Alexander Stewart, Earl of Mar and Lord of Garioch, who lx)re 
them in the first and fourth quarters as represented on this tomb (p. 367) 
and on a stone in the bishop's house (p. 381). Also on his seal, as de- 
scribed and figured by lAing in his first volume, No. 796. 

(2) Bishop James Stewart, who bore the undiflferenced coat as on tliis 
tomb. Also on his seal. (Laing, I., No. 909.) 

(3) Bishop David Stewart, the brother and successor of the last, who 
l)ore the arms differenced by a cross crosslet instead of the lower crown 
as on stone at Bishop's House (p. 379) and at Spynie Palace (p. 394). 
Also on his seal. (Laing, IL, Nc». 1039.) 

(4) The impaled arms on the dexter shield of the tomb next following 
(p. 369), which, however, are somewhat doubtful. 

(5) A detached seal in the General Register House with a shield bear- 
ing "A fess cliecpiy between three «»pen crowns" and the legend 
" 8. VALTERI 8TKVART." This is believed to l)e the seal of Walter 
Stewart of Strathoun. Particulai's of his descent are given below. 

King RoV>ert II. luul, as liis fourth son, by his first wife, Elizabeth 
Mure, Alexander Stewart, to whom he granted, in tlie first year of liis 
reign, the lands of Stratliown or Strathavon, in the shire of Banff. This 
Alexander, known Jis tlie Wolf of Badenoch, wius afterwanls Lord of 
Badenoch, and, in right of his wife, Earl <jf Buchan. By her he had no 
heirs, but by " Mariota tilia Athyn " he left several natural children, 
among whom witc Alexander Stewart, in right of his ^\•ife Earl of Mar, 
and Andrew Stewart of Sandliakli who also is said to have |)ossesse«l 
Stratliown. The latter had a son, Walter of Stratliown. From a cai-eful 
exaniinati<ni of all the documents availal)le reganling the above gene^ilogy, 
the transmission of lands among the parties, etc., and by a process of 
elimination of th(» other Walter Stewart*^, the Rev. John Anderson, 
Assistant Curator of the Historical l)ei)artment of the Genenvl Register 


HoiiHO, is of opinion that the seal No. 5 was that of Walter Stewart of 
Strathavon, that pi-oUihly the two bishops were his brothers, and thus 
that all three who bore those arms were of the Str.ithavon family, and 
were nephews of Alexander, Karl of Mar. Further, that the three crowns 
used to dilferen(;e the Stewart arms had nothing to do with the Lordship 
of Garioch, but weni probably derived from some lands possesses! by 
Alexander, Earl of l>uchan, in Badenoch. T"n fortunately, his seal is not 
known, but it is to l>e observed that three crowns are borne by the Gmnts, 
whose pro|>erty of Bally ndala(!li is situated in Strathowne, and three 
crowns are aho quartered by the Frasers. 

These particulars are given as showing the, line in which future 
research might be prosecuted in (jrder to ch^ar up the origin of the Ijear- 
ing of the three crowns, which are combin«'d with the fess checpiy in this 
group of Stewart arms. 

Within the recess has been place»l the recumbent ligure of a knight in 
armour, probably brought from some other part of tht^ cathedral, show- 
ing on his breastplate : — Thre(^ stars (only two visil>le) (Innes). On 
the bevelled edges of the stone on wliich he rests is an inscription in 
Gothic letters, commencing at the head on the dexter side, viz. :— - 

[bic • ja]cct • nobilie • vix • robcrt9 • innee • t>c • (nnmFiBc • qui • obiit • • 

The |K)rtion on the sinister side was not tlecij)hered. The effigy is 

prolably that of Robert Innes of Innermarkye (circa 1511 to 1528),^ 

ami has evidently not been intended for its present position, Iwing much 

too short. - 

The second recessed toml> has also on each side a shield with arms, 

viz. :— I )ext<;r shield (tig. 24). A fess chequy between two crescents 

in chief and an open crown in base, inij^afinfj, A f(;ss chequy between 

two open crowns in chief and in bjise some charge broken oil*. Sinister 

shield (tig. 25). A tree (dexter sitle broken away), but on sinister a 

wjuirrel seatetl on its hind legs on one of the branches, on a chief three 

buckles. These shields, though dilapidated, are jn-obably not original, as 

' Dow^i^^ L'lrow I ijc of Scotland^ p. 78. 
- Prvcccdirnjs^ vol. xxix. p. 398. 




they arB on stones wliich afvi.iejir ti> hii%*e beeu inserted, the curving i*ii 
the liivvtiv Kules Iwing inforior to that nf the rest of the tomb, Tlicy may, 
howevt^r, be facsimik^s ijf tlie original iinntj. On tliu sjircui^hiijrin* ri^t£ 
a slalj with eftigy of a knight in armovu'. There nre no cljargea un liU 
breastphite^ hut on the iMsvelled edge of the slab hiis Twtm an ini^cription, 
in ( tothic letters, now illegible. In the Gidfh to FJffin Cathedml, ]k 29, 
the knight isi sjiid to be *^ Walter Stewmt, Duke of Allmny, who fi-oni thi^ 
anaoml bearmge must have l^eeu alltod to the fiiinily *if Miir. Ht* ilietl 


Ftgs. 2^, 25* Anns on Woat Tomb in South Tmii3e|*l. 

in the yeitr 1481." Tn the Fme^^^ingn ^ it is mud the monument is ustuUly 
ascribed to Alextmtlerj Duke of Albanj, the second eon of Jamm IL, 
ncitluM' stJiteiaeTit being very credible, 
On Uie west wjdl \^ n. sedilia of four gicats. 

South Aisle of NaVG.^-\ii ihe angle furiucd by the ^uuiL Uaixbtipt 
wall arc portions of three colossal statues believed to have formed part 
of the decorations of the central tower. 

(1) Statue of a l)is]i(»i) found at the base of the north-west pillar of 
the central t<>W(;r, and stated to be that of Bishop John Innes, 1407- 
1111 {Guih, p. 29). 

' Vol. xxix. ]). 384. 


(2) Kneeling figure of an ecclesiastic, headless. 

(3) Torso of a knight. 

Built into the south wall is a stone coffin, also two stones with arms. 
The one has a shield (10 J inches in width) bearing arms (fig. 26) : — A 
denii lion issuant from a fess of three bars wavy between three stars 
in chief and a fleur-de-lys in base (Chalmers), impaling^ A chevron 
l)etween two stars in chief and a heart in base (probably for Tares). 
Initials I. C. and B. T. The inscription beneath is in Roman capitals, 
the lines lieing often continued on the Ijevelled edge of the stone, viz. : — 






THIS . LYF . ON . THE . 13 OF 

AGWST . 1644 . ALTHO 




On the other stone is a sliield (8 J inches in width) bearing arms 
(fig. 27) : — A he^irt transfixed l)y two darts, points downward, and in 
base three stars in fess (probably for Wilson, but differing from usual 
arms), impaling, Tliree liearts (2 and 1) between two swords, points 
upward in bend and bend sinister (Boynd). The initials at side arc 
G. W. and M. B. Above the shield is a cherub and beneath is the 
following inscription : — 



Some further particulars Jire obtained from a slab on the ground 


Wi^ ±^. 




Fig. 27. 
Figs. 26-27. Shields in Soutli Aisle uf Xave ; and tig. 28, in Burying-ground, Elgin Cathedral. 


immediately in front of the tablet. The first part of tlie inscription on 
it is : — 




WHO DIED 20 FEB 17r)5 .... 

At the west end of the wall is the south doorway, outside which can 
be seen the foundations of the porch. 

Cathedral Burylng-Grounti, — On the north wall, third space from 
west end, is the monument of Alexander Douglas, said to have l^een 
removed from the old church of St Giles when it was tlemolislied. It 
lias the following inscription in capitals on three separate tablet^!, viz. : — 









DE . HVC . VRBI . 




ET . PRiEF\^IT . 41 . ANNOS . 


TI . 1623 . MAI . 11 . RELICTIS . ALEXANDRO . 




SOLEVM . STRVCTVM . EST .c^ac/3ac/3 



LA . VT . SI . XES 











riulonicatli aro four sliieMs with amis, viz.: — (1) Ermine, a heart, 
on {\ cliief tlin»o stiirs (Doujrlas), imifoling, Quarterly, Ist and 4th, Three 
stars (Inues); 2nd ami 3nl, Tliree l)oar hoixdn couped (Alierchirrler). 
(2) On a IxMid tlireo Imckles (Leslie). (3) Three cushions lozengeways 
(DuuK'ir). (A) On a l)end three binis. Tlie following extract from 
Montei til's Theater of Morfalttt/, p. 215, shows that probably neither 
the alxno inscTi])tions nor the four ct^ats of arms are those of the 
original nioniimrnt. '• Uishoj) ALEXAXI)P:K I)0rGL.\S8'8 Monu- 
nuMit, St (lih's C.'hunh. Mr Alexander Douglass, Minister at Elgine, for 
the spaee «>f 25 Years, was promoved to the see of Morray in the vear 
1606, di«Ml 162*5, was burietl in the South Isle of St(Jiles Kirk (now the 
Paroch Kirk of Elgine). He had married to his 2 Wife, Mary limes. 
daiigliter t<» K«»bert Innes of that Ilk he was Bishop of Morray 17 yeiirs. 
T1h» ins('ripti»>n of his Monument n(»l legible.'' 

In till' ci'ntre of the m(»nument alH)ve the inscription is inserted a 
stone (19 inches in length), bearing arms (Hg. 28) :— Three irushioiis 
iMzengeways within a r<»yal tressure (the latter forming the Ixiuiidarv 
line instead of a >hiil<lK IJcliind is a en»sier and l>eneath the initials 
A. P. TlieM' aif >ai«l i<» Im- the arms of Alexander Dunliar, Prior of 
Phiscanlin. ((V/vd ir».S:>-156<' > p. 409.) 

On the south sid<' of Si kum the west buttress, is a slab 


al)out 15 feet in lieight by 2 feet 2 inclies in width. It has a long 
inscription in capitals commencing : — 

DIED 4 MAY 1674 .... 

A few yards south of this is the base of what has been a cross or 
monument of some kind, which is known as the " Bishop's Cross." 

A few yards south of the west door, in the south wall of nave, is a 
recuml>ent stone (26 inches in width) with arms, viz. : — Three crescents, 
imjyalinr;, A stag head couped. The initials liave been tlefaced as well 
as the inscription round the margin, the greater part of which has been 
carefidly chiselled out. All that remains decipherable is : — 




On the ]x)undary wall, a little south-west of this, is a tablet with 
inscription in capitals (Guide, p. 51) : — 















Cathedral Precincts. — In the street bounding the north side of the 
])iiryinf?-gr()und, built into the gable of a stable nearly opposite the 
chapter-house, is a stone (20 inches in length) bearing amis (fig. 29) : — 
A lion rampant double queu(Ml. Behind tlie shield is the head of a 
crosier. This coat is similar to one on a detached stone in the chapter- 
house, only here the lion is not collared (see p. 353). 

South-ejist from the catliedral, at tlie east end of North College Street, 
still stands one of the city gates. Continuing along the street, which 
turns south as far as the end of the lx>undary wall of the house calle<l 
the " South College " (Miss Cooper's), a fragment of the massive old 
boundary wall of the cathedral precincts is seen, and beside it the dead 
stump of a lnig(; tree, which, not many years ago, was known as " the 
l)eech tree." 

The house called the " South College' " has l)een mentioned above ; 
a somewhat similar house stands north-west from the cathedral next to 
the l)ish()p*s house. It is called the North College. Both houses are 
no doul)t named from the colleges wliere the higher clergy had their 
residence, and which occupied sites north and south of the cathednd 
now forming part of the grounds of these houses. The North College 
is said to have boon the d(*anory and the South College the sub-dean's 

BisHOi*'s llousK. -Tlie bishop's house stiinds opposite the north-west 
angle of the cathedral. 

On its east wall is a panel (32 inches in height ])y 25 in width) within 

.S7<S rR()CKEI>IN(;S ok TIIK society, APRIL 9, IfiOO. 

a iin»nM«Hl Ih^nler (li^. .SO), containinj^ thn*o shiolds, one in cliief and two 
in l>asi». That in <*hi»'f Invars : — A lion ram])unt within the royal treasure 
(fnr Si'ntland). AIma'c; tlio shioM is a closetl crown, an<l issuing fr«>m 
hehiiul tlie fornior arc^ two branrlios of thistle, on each side one, oousi»tin<; 
of a hea»l, one small leaf and three* large ones, not shown in illustration. 
TIh' slii<*ld in dexter Iwise Inmrs : — A staj? head couihmI (Reid). Alxive 
the shield is a mitre with initials R. R. at sides of the last. Tlie anns are 
tluKse of R«>lH;rt Reid, Ahlx)t of Kinloss (a mitred abbot), from about 1526, 
and l)ishop of Orkney from 1540. His arms appear on the ablxit's house 
at Kinloss* and at IWuly Priory.- The shield in sinister base liears : — A 

lion i-jimpant within the nn-al tressure (for Lyon). Tlie initials / y 

•,\rv at top an<l si«les of the shielil. These are pnilMil)ly the amis of Mr 
Alexander Lyon, Master of Murray, a younger son of John, fourth I^r«l 
(llamis, who «lied in 1 54 1, and "lyeth burietl in the quire of Tnrreflt* 
whieh he built."'* Al)ove the jmnel is a dripstone ornamented with a 
vine liraneh eonsisting of a bunch of grapes and a vine lenf, Iwth repeatcnl 
alternately on each side of the stem. 

On the skewj)Ut on the east wall of the stain*ase is a Trinity 
of heads, consisting of three faces hniking to dexter, fr«3nt and 

sinister : tlM'ir arc four «'vt's. Above this is the date ,,.zl^' and 


in th«» correspiMuling position on the west side is a shield bearing anus, 
viz : — On a fcss a ri>s*' an«l in chief three hearts. The initials J. XT. are 
at tlte si<lcs in (lothic capitals. A shield with same arms and initials 
I. T. in K»unan cajutals is carve«l over the fireplace of a room on the first 
lloor, and still auntlicr example of thct^i* urms (llg. 31) but with*HU iuUf-u- 
is t<» be seen on tl*e Hutel of a lireptaco n^wdetfl^bf^l (shield 5| inehei^ in 
width). Mr 'lohu W, Siiuill^^^||||g|^ s hfw a. sketch 

<,inu' arms and itiitUls 




demolislied which stood in Clialmers' Close, Canongate, Edinburgli. If 
any information could be obtained al)out this liouse, it might help to 
throw light on tlie ownersliii) of the arms and initials. Over the fire- 
place in the small room at the top of the stair an^ the letters I. H. 8. in 

Inside the entrance door in the wall of tlie courtyard are three stones 
with sculpture. 

Fig. 31. Anns in tlie Bishop's Houso. 

That al)ove the door is rounded at top, and has in the centre a mono- 

K C 

gram, over whicli is a coronet and at the sides the initials j ^^v and , ^. 

said tf> 1x5 for the P]arl and Countess of Dunfermline. 

That on the dexter side hiis a shield (7 inches in width) with arms 
(fig. 32) : — A fess clie(juy l)etween two open crowns in chief and a cross 
crosslet fitchee in l)ase. Al)ove the shield a mitre. The same arms are 
at Spynie Palace, and are those of Bishop David Stewart, 1461-1476. 
See note to description of arms of liis brother on tomb in south transept 
of cathedral described above (p. 368). 

'^^^ ! 


The stone on the sinister side l)ears on a sliield Scotland with an open 
crown al)ove it. 

Within the courtyard there jire also two important detached stones : — 
(I) The one (27 incites by 15 within the moulding), lying among a heap 
of stones near the entrance, has on a shield the following arms (fig. 33) : — 
On a chevron two lions pulling at a rose and in base a star. Above 
the shield a mitre with the initials P. H. at sides, and on an escroU 
l)encatli the shield the motto "EXPECTO." The arms are those 
of Patrick Hepburn, l^ishop of ^Foray, 1535-1573. His seal is 
described and figured by Henry Laing in his first volume, No. 913. 
He is erroneously stated to have been son of Patrick, first Earl of 
Both well, in Keith's Bishops^ Douglas' Peerage, etc. He was really 
brother and heir to Master John Hepburn of Beinstoun,^ who was son 
of Patrick, first of Beinst<jun,*- who got the lands by charter, dated 
26th Xov. 1478, from his father, Patrick, first I^rd Hailes.^ 

(2) The other and more imi)ortant stone (37 inches in length) is 
lyhig in a vaulted passage under the main building. It prolxibly came 
originally from the cathedral, and is perhaps the finest piece of decor- 
ative heraldry in Scotland. The shield (11 inches at top) is couche, ami 
Ixiiirs the following arms (fig. 34) : — Quarterly, 1st and 4th, A fess 
chwjuy between three open crowns ; 2nd and 3rd, A bend between six 
cross crosslets fitchue (Mar). Above the shield, and strapped to it, is 
a tilting helmet with tasseled capeline, and thereon a coronet out 
of which rises the crest, two demi-serpents entwined, their heads (which 
have large teeth and eyes) looking l)cfore and behind. The arms are 
those of Alexander Stewart, natural son to Alexander Stewart, Eiirl of 
Buchan, who became Earl of Mar and Lord of CJarioch in right of his 
wife Isabella Douglas. A seal with the siime arms is described and 

^ Hef/ister of Ads aiul Decreets^ vol. iii. p. 836. 

- Acta JJfjinhiorutu Coticilu, vol. xxxii. f. 6. 

^ RegiaL Secreti Sigilfi, vol. liii. f. 176 ; Protocol 15ook of JanicH Nicolson, 
f. 5J0 (preserved in the General R<;gister House). For the relerences in these three 
notes I am indebted to Colonel the Hon. K. E. Boyle. 


Fig, 34. Arois of Atexuuder Stewart. 


figured by I-^ing, vol. I., No. 796. They are also on a tomb in the 
south transept of the cathedral (p. 367). 

Grbyfriar-s Chukch. This church is presently being restored by 
tlie Marcpiess of Bute, and Conventual buildings are being erected on the 
old foundations atljoining under the 8U])ervision of ^Ir W, Scott. 
There are several monuments in the nave of the church : — 
(1) (hi the west wall is a monument consisting of two tiiblets within 
columns, over each of which is a shield with impaled arms. The 
shield on the dexter side (13 inches in width) bears arms (fig. 35) : — On 
a fess, Ijetween a lion head erased and a star, three buckles (King), 
impaling^ Three garl>s (Gumming). Crest, on a hehnet with mantling 
and wreath, a hand holding a swonl. Motto along the top, Audaces 
Fartuna Juvat, Inscription in italics on tiiblet beneath : — 

In BesHirtctionu Beatm Spem 

ComluiUur Hie Relvinire Viri 

Dujniasimi (tulielmi King De 

Neumiln Urhis hiijm Elgini 

Quondam Prcefecti qui 27 

Septenihri^ A. .^. G. MDGGXV 

^EUUis 11 Animam Deo Reddidit 

Necnon Reliquiw Mulieris 

Spectattssinue Margaretm 

Gumming Filifs Viri meritissimi 

(ieorgii Gumming De LodUer 

Vandich Urhis etiam hujus 

Quondam Prcefecti Prcpfati 

Gulielmi King Gonjugvt char 

immoi qiuv 2 January A. .E. 

G. MDGGXIV ^Etutis 61 Animam 

efflavit Relviuifn et Liherorum 

ex his Prognatorum. 

The shield on the sinister side (lOi inches in width) bears arms (fig. 
36) :— On a fess, between a lion head era.sed and a star, three buckles 



! m fii 


,^1: ^ A 

^„-' «]©■ 11 


FiK. 3r.. 


(King), impaling, On a fess between three cross crosslets fitch^e as 
many sUirs (Tulloch). The crest and motto are the same as al)Ove, and 
the inscription beneath, also in italics, is : — 

Hie Quiescit quod Kduiuum 

est Mulieris omatimmce Anruc 

Tulloh Filiiv, Viri Sjyectatimmi 

Thoni(t Tulloh de Tanachiy 

Gulielmo King hodit d^ Neu 

Mihi Nuptam datas qua I 

Septembris A, /tL G, MDCCXVI 

u^Jtatis 21 ad Godites abiit. 

(2) On floor of north jnissage, a shield (12 J inches at top) with arms, 
viz. : — A chevron Ix'tween three l)oar lieads couped (Gordon), 
impaling, On a fess, l)etween a lion head erased and a star, two buckles 
(King). Crest, on a ludmet with mantling an<l wre^ith, a boar head. 
Motto on an escroll at k>i) "AU1)ACP:S FORTITNA JUVAT." The 
above achievement occupies the centre of the stone, the upper part is 
blank, and on tlui lower part is an inscripticm in Roman capitals, 
viz.: — 





ETIA DIED 12 JAR" 1717. 

(3) Stone on floor of south passage. It has a shield (11 inches at top) 
with arms, viz. (fig. 37) : — P]rmine, on a fess three crescents (Craig), 
impaling, On a l)end, between two lion heads erased, three buckles 
(King). Crest, on a helmet with mantling and wreath, an open 
book. An escroll above but no motto. This achievement occupies the 
centre of the stcme ; the upper part is ])lank, and in the lower part is an 
inscripticm in Roman capitals, viz. : — 

VOL. xxxiv. 2 B 










(4) Another stone further west in the passage is non-heraldic. 

Fig. 37. At Greyfriars Church, Elgin. 
(5) Stono on soutli wall of nave. The shield (15 inches at top) 
bears (fig. 38) : — ( )n a fess, hotween a lion head (erased ?) and a star, 
two Inickles (Kin<;), impalimj, Three garbs (Cuniming). A helmet 
with mantling and wreath Imt no crest. An escroll l>eneath the shield 
but no motto. Above is an inscription in capitids, viz. : — 






Xenio Potest etc 

wall of the Nave at Grey friars Church, Elgin. 


At tha sitle of the panel coiitaininfj the aniis^ the initials 1^"". K. and 
beneath the inscrii»tioii : — 

CUMMINtJ . R. K. L. K. A K. 

In thn south mthr of tlie tlomeMtic |mrt of the buihliugK tliore atv 
built into the wall two old st<.irie^ : — 

(1) A lintel over doorway with inacrij^ti on in cai>ittils : — 


(2) A stuue built into tlie wall, i\ li fch? to the west, coiisUting of 
a panel (ubout 15 iiidiea )iy 12) with u a mouhled Iwmler, which 
contjiInB a ahield beiirtiig {irme * (fif<. ^) : — Quarterly, 1st and 4th5 
A liun rampnt (Wrtlkce) ; 2nd and . d, A fpas i-hexjiiy (Liiuli*ay). 
The charges in the seetind i\m\ thin! i trtor are defectivt*, rescinhling 
a cross couped and quarterly piercer , but no dotibt reprt^seiiting 
a fesK chequy, PenOi<^d on tliy upper comers nf the shield art* twa 
papiiiga^, holding between tbeni in their beaks a horsie shoe — - an 
original ^v^ay tif repreaenting sujiporteri and creist it intended for the^tv 
Benpjith tire i^hield are the initials T, V, (for Thomas Widlaee !), 

In the room at the south- west eorner of the domestic buihlingg are 
renin ijiH of jwiinting on some of the i-afters, and niao, I understand, on the 
ceiling which is temponirily removeti 

In the street^ Ui the north of the church, on the opi^osite siiie, is a 
quaint old liuilding now used as a stiihle, hut originally connected with 

High Street of Elgin and adjoining Lanes. — Proceeding west from 
the cathedral, at the junction of North with South College Street, is 
what is known as the Little Cross, consisting of a pedestal with a round 
pillar and square ornanu'iital top. On two of the faces are rude repre- 



sentations of the Virgin and Child, on each of the other two faces are two 

crosiers, grasped on each side backwards by the Virgin and by the Child. 

Opposite this is the Museum (High Street, No. 1). Among many objects 

Fig. 39. Shield at Greyfriars, Elgin. 

of interest is an old carved chair from Dallas, which has on the back a 
shield (9 J inches in width) bearing arms (fig. 40) : — On a fess, between 
a star flanked by two garbs in chief and a cinquefoil in base, a saltire. 
At the sides are the initials R. B. and beneath the date 1620. Below 
is an ornamental panel. 



A few doors along (Xo. 7) is the house of Duff of Dipple, ancestor to 
the Earls of Fife. Over tlie dormers are, in the one case, the initials 
I. D., with date 1694 al)ove, and, in the other, M. I. with star above. 

Fi^. 40. Back of a Chair horn Dalljuu 

Xext we cninn to Dr Adani^s hom^ '*St GQcf*' (No, IS^ « ' 
now ImiMini,^ (lesi\Ljiio«l by Mr lleiton (^^H[k^_On Ihn w»U at tlie mh ' 
of tlic (Milrinco door is built ill ^^^^^^Qk^^^HllbJlOO^f^ 



It has on it a shield bearing anus (fig. 41) : — A chevron between three 
garl)s (Gumming of Lochterwandich), impaling^ Out of a fess a 
derai lion issuant and in base three stars (Chalmers). Initials I. C. 
and I. C. The date beneath the panel is 1576. The stone is said to have 
been taken from an old house in a close nearly on the same spot. 

Down a close (No. 37), opposite the County Buildings and named 
" High House Buildings," above a garden gate is a lintel having carved 
on it in the centre a hammer crowned, with date 1667, and at each 
side a shield. That on dexter bears: — Three escutcheons (Hay), with 

Fig. 41. Shield built into Dr Adam's House, Elgin. 

initials I. H. And tliat on sinister : — Three boar heads erased 
(Gordon), w^ith initials M. G. Over the lintel is a triangular stone with 
a monogram apparently for D. M. M. S., under which is the date 1688, and 
at top two fish in chevron. On the opjwsite or south side of the street 
houses from Nos. 42 to 52 rest on a series of low j)illars with arches. 

A little further along is the town cross, rising from a platform, a 
pillar with a lion at the top holding a shield (which is of 17th century 

Close to this is the parish church occupying the site of the old church 
of St Giles. When the latter was pulled down, its carved oak pulpit 
was taken to Pluscardin, where it remained till the present 'year, when it 
has been sent back to Elgin, and is to Ixj put up in a hall in connection 
with the parish church. 



Nearly opposite the cross (No. 103) is Dr Macka/s house, with a 
round tower on which is a panel, within a moulded border, containing a 
shield bearing arms (fig. 42) : — Quarterly, 1st and 4th, On a bend three 
buckles (Leslie) ; 2nd and 3rd, A lion rampant (intended for Abemethy). 
Initials A. L. and I. B., date beneath 1634. 

Again, on the south side of the street, up the close (No. 78, I think), 
there are some pieces of carving from the cathedral built into the wall 
of a house on west side of close. In the south gable of a house on the 
same side of the close is a coat of arms. 

On same side of the street (No. 150), hut entering off Batchen Lane, 
is Thunderton House, now the Gordon Temperance Hotel. There are 

Fig. 42. Shield built into Dr Mackay's House, Elgin, 
some pieces of carving at entrance and above dormer windows facing 
south. Two large figures of lieraldic savages from this house arc now at 

Nearly at the west end of the Higli Street, a little to the north, is the 
Lady hill. On the toj) are remains of the Ciistle of Elgin. In earlier 
days it had been a native strongliold ; traces of the surrounding ramparts 
still remain. 

Spynie Palace. — Here there are five coats of arms remaining. 

Over tlie main gateway in the east wall of courtyard is a shield 
bearing arms (fig. 43) : — On a fess, between three keys paleways, as 
many stars. Behind the shield a crosier. These are no doubt the arms 
of a Bisliop of Moray, but not of Bishop Innes, as commonly stated. 



On the south wall of the great keep, said to have been built by Bishop 
Da\'id Stewart (1461-1476), and comparatively low down, are a group 
of three heraldic panels, one above and two beneath. 

The upper (fig. 44) contains a shield bearing : — Scotland, surrounded 
by thistles at top and sides and resting on the back of a unicorn, couchant, 
gorged with a cro\vn and chained. 

The two lower panels each contain a shield also. 


Fig. 43. Shield at Spynie Palace. 
The arms on the dexter are (fig. 45) : — A chevron charged with two 
lions puUing at a ro6e and in base a star. Above the shield a mitre 
with initials P. IL at sides. Beneath shield an escroll without motto. 
The anns are those of Bishop Patrick Hepburn (1535, died 1573). A simi- 
lar panel in the Bishop's House is described above (p. 381), and there is a 
i^eal with the same arms described and figure^l by Laing, voL L, No. 913. 
The anns on the sinister shield are (fig. 46) : — A fess chequy lietween 
crowns in chief and a cross crosslet fitchee in base. Above the 
A mltn^ The arms are those of Bishop David Stewart. A stone 

i- [^ mii \ 

Fir?, 1 1- it; BhUUH il ^yymt Va\ml^ 




On the west wall are two stones, one on cither side of the entrance. 

Fig. 48. In the Wall at Trinity Church, Spynie. 
They have each in the centre, near the top, a shield with impaled anns, 
above which on an escroll is rudely incised the motto *' SUB SPE," under 
the shield a skull, and round tlie marj^in an inscription in Roman capitals. 
The first shield (14 inches at top) bears (fig. 48) : — Three cushions lozenge- 



ways (no royal tressure or mark of cadency) (Dunbar of Burgie), impaling^ 
Quarterly, 1st anil 4th, Three buckles in bend (not on a bend) ; 2nd and 
3rd, A lion rampant (not debruised ])y a ribl)on) (Leslie quartered with 
Abernethy). Marginal inscription continued down centre : — 






Fig 49. In the Wall at Trinity Church, Spynie. 
Tlie other shield (13 inches at top) bears (fig. 49) : — Three cushions 
lozengeways ( Dunbar of Bishopmiln) ; impaling, A cross engrailed 
between four roses (Ayton). Marginal inscription continued down the 
centre : — 

lllE SOCIETY, APRIL 9, 1900. 


■{<» . DEPARTED . THIS . 
NTH . 

— '.-. V '1. ii. p. 17, is tlie following note: — " Alex- 

•.. .-iti.-. :p>ii his chimnoypieco, l>etween initials and 

- ■ ;.: -iii^e onshions; impaling on a cross indented, l>e- 

--^•-1. .11 less point, for his wife,Margaret Aytoun." 

uviv monumont. The upper part, wliich is tri- 

:- *:uL v»f the inclosure and has on it an achieve- 

.- L-.-*.L The shield hears: — Six buckles in l)end 

»;.:. - v'\»mKitiUit (intended for I^slie quartered Avitli 

• Lir -liiield a helmet with mantling and at the sides 

.. . 1. The lower part of the monument consists of 

Ar< with the following inscription in script : — 

Here Lyes 
' ./«'»; Leslie Esq'' of Findrafsie 
ivbo was Heir Male 

;.■ ^'b Earl of Rothes bis Lordsbi^ 
■ f J hatber of T{obert Leslie tbe 
" ^s: :^' tbe Family of Findrafsie 
:i: died at Findrafsie House 
26 May 1793 
. hid to the Mewo7'\ of an 
. Iffectionate Husband 
Ibis Monument is erected by 
Mrs Jea^' ^ '^> bis iridoiv. 


Lhanbryd Church. —This churcli has also now disappeared, but the 
churchyanl remains. 

On the east side is the Innc^s inclosure. On its east wall is a recessed 
tomb witli recumlxint effigy of a knight in armour, with hehnet open 
from brow to chin, lion at feet, sword at side, and on his bretistplate an 
escutcheon and a star (but no charge in l>ase). 

On the south wall is a stone with two shields. The one l)ears Innes 
arms, viz. : — Three stiirs within a l)ordure. The other ]>ears the arms 
of the Earl of Iluntly, viz. : — Quarterly, 1st, Three boar heads couped ; 
2nd, Three lion heads erased ; 3rd, Tliree crescents within a royal tres- 
sure ; 4th, Three f raises. The inscription commences as follows : — 

On the north wall is a large stone having in the central space near the 
top a shield bearing the arms of Tnn(»s, viz. : — Three stars. With initials 
A. I. at sides. Round the margin is an inscription in Roman capitals 
commencing at foot of the dexter sid(», viz. : — 




SIT . G . OCTOB . 1012 . SV 

E . VERO . .ETATIS . 80. 

In an inclosure a Httle east of the gate in the north wall is a stone 
with arms (fig. 50) : — On a fess of three bars wavy, a lion passant 
contounie and in base three fleurs-de-lys. The inscTiption records that 
it is " Tn memory of »James Chalmers, eldest lawful son to John 
Chalmers, sometime in little Coxton died the 9th of Decem- 
ber 1766 " 

CoXTON ToWBK. — Less than half a mile west of Lhanbryd and about 
three miles east of p]lgin is Coxton. It is built of stone throughout, the 
ceihngs vaulted alternately at right angles to each other, and the roof 
covered with stone. 



There is a s^uai^ o):iening in the centre of each floor, closc'd by a ^tone 
which fits in, TJie ontmnce is on the first st<;n'y, an*i is iiroteoted by a fine, 
iron yett with an ofik door on the outuide almost touching it, Tfie pre- 
sent stair up to it ia tin addition, a ladder having lieen originally use^L* 
Over the entrmice is a cnat of arm»/^ viz, r— Quarterly » Ist, Three stairs 
(Innes) ; 2nd, Three Ktarw (Innes) ; 3nl, A j?tiig Lend conj.*ed (Reid) ; 4tb, 
Three boar hc^ids erased {tJoTdon), Above the ahield is a coronet, ami 
there are ff>nT sets of initials, two al>ove and two beneath, viz. : — 
R. I,, A, J., R., tmd K, (?. The coat is evidently composed of the 

Fig. 50. At Lhanbryd Church, 

arms applicable to these four sets of initials. Above is an older stone 
with the date 1641 between two sets of initials, the same as appear above 
the shield, viz. : — R. I. and A. I. In the first floor room over the window 
in the south wall is another coat ])earing (fig. 51) : — A stag head cabossed 
with star botwoen the attyres, on a cliief three stars. There are no 
initials or date. 

BiRNiK Church— St r»iiKN'nAxs.— The Norman church of St Brendans 
at Birnie, 2^ miles sDUth of Kli^in, was founded aWit 1160.^ 
* Casttflatfif ntui P^>m(Mttr AirhitectHr>\ vol. ii. p. 23, 

5 IVseribovl in A\v'. Arxh., vol. i. p. 21 S. 



The most noteworthy objects in it are : — 

The chancel arcJi, which is in perfect condition. 

An txrtagcinal stone font with hemispherical basin undecorate*!. 

A Celtic })ell, rectanj^ukr, with rounde<l corners, formed of two pieces 
of iron riveted t4:)gether down the sides, with handle at top, and which 
appears to have been plated with bronze.^ 

A bronze han(l-])ell of usual shape. 

Fig. 61. Shield in Ck)xton Tower. 

On the north wall near the west end is a monument with .shield (12 J 
inches at top) l>earing arms (fig. 52) : — A chevron couped between 
three crescents (Sanders), impaling^ A heart with a falcon head issuing 
therefrom (Falconer). At the sides of the shiidd are a cofhn and hour-glass, 
and alwvo it Mr. W.S., M.F., the last four letters forming a monogram. 

' This bell has beou figiircil and described with other Celtic bells, by Dr Joseph 
Anderson, in Scotland in Efirfy Christian Times, i». 178. 


rr c 



The whole is inclosed in a semi-circular headed frame, outside of which 
are the initials W. S., and on a slab beneath the inscription : — 
This pulpit the corps of 
M^ W"™ Sanders lait . min- 
ister . of this parochin 
who deceased . the 13 of 
may 1670 & of Kather- 
in & Elspet sanders his 

Fi^. f '2. On a Monument in Hiinie Church. 
In the churcliyard near the west f^ato is a granite ]>oulder with 
incised symbol. 



IviNi.oss AnnEY. — lii the Ecrleaiastieal Architecture of Scotland^ vol. i. 
I». 416, is <,qv(Mi a doscriptiou of all that remains of this building,^ and 
of the a])]M)t's house adjoiuin^i,', toj^ether with a sketch of the panel over 
the door of the latter, which contains the arms of Ahlx)t Robert Reid, 
viz. : — A stag heiul cal)ossed. Behind the shield a crosier and at the 
top the initials R. R. 

Fig. 53. Shield at Burgie House. 

Burg IE Castle. — This castle is described in the Castellated and 
Domestic Architecture of Scotland, vol. ii. p. 260. 

The arms there referred to as over the great fireplace in the hall 
(p. 260, fig. 715) api)ear to be those now built into the outside wall at 

L (p. 260, fig. 

ftlso Stuart's Records of the Monasierif of Kinloss, issued by the Society, 
1872, 4to. 


The whole is inelosti*! in a aemi-Dircalar headed fmme:, out^^it- 

are the initials \V, S,. and oti a ^hih betieuth tlii? )Tisc*rlpt,inn 


ThiB j>ulpit i\m oorpB nf 

M^ W"^ Sautk'rK la it . jni«- 

ister . tjf this p^irothiti 

who dec.'4au£e4l . tlie 13 of 

^may 1070 ^i oi KathtT- 
in k Elflpet aaudertj hi^ 

In the chuKhyfinl tr 
incised syml)ol. 



head between the lettei-s K. R. in base ; })eing the arms and initials of 
his father and mother, Mr Alexander Dunbar and Katherine Reid ; and 


Fig. 51. Shield and Monogram at Burgie House. 

below, outside the garter, R. 1)., his own initials ; all the al>ove in relief ; 
the date 1602 is cut into the stone. This Robert Dunlwr of Burgie 
married — first, in or l)efore 1609, Isobel, daughter and co-heir of Sir 


i'i:(h;eki>in(;s of tmk society, a 

the side ni the stair leading to the entrance 

Th«* shiolil is partial jM*r fess. 7;i /7if<^/', Tli 
(Duuhar) : witli initials ^f. A. I>. Iji />««(% A 
with initials K.U. Ahnvo thn shioM n liehii 
iK'hind the helniot an«l surmundinj^ tho shieb 
OuUido of this and at foot are the initials i 
motto, '• MANET 1MMVTA151LP: YIKTV.- 
ZKIKIS." This is evidently copied fnuu 
into the wall of the trench snntnindin*; tli- 
and rlose to the front d(K)r. Tt has a 
and initials, and may 1h^ deserilK'il ; 
o})lon«< panel (Hi inches by 81) willii- 
per fess. In rhipf. Three cjnshions ' 
M. A. J)., the fn-st letter within Xhr 
In hasp^ A rttii^ heml (eras(;d ?). " 
shield. At the foot and outside tin* s^ 

A coat now huilt in cUwe t»» th> 
in width) with arms (fiy. 54):— Th' 
inipalvif/, A hand holding; a sw(»nl e^ 
of the initials K. I)., I. S., and I'.u- 

The followin«^ notes are tii-m >: 
15. "Mr Alexander Dunhai, 
f«)rmer Dean Alexander), mIso ^! "" 

the Senators (»f the (.'ollem» of J- 
Katlurrine Ki»id, sister-i^i'MiKii 
Kinlc^ss, ami niere of Kuln'i 
Ahhot (»f Kinloss. Tlu' !»•■ 
three cushions within th" 
Pa-e. 10. ''KoIhtI I>m,I. 
of I)('an Alexanihr. ': ■ ' 
wilhin a j^arter, l"---- 
tlih'.- rii^hioii^, \\V' 



St Michabl^s Church, Ogbtox. — On the site of this church is a 
mausoleum, recently erected with stones said to be from the old church 
of OgstonJ 

In the churchyard are a numl)er of 17th-century stones. There is one 
bearing arms (fig. 55), viz. : — A saltire couped between a star in chief, 
a hunting-horn in base, and two crescents in flanks,- impaling^ 
Three birds passant. 

Fig. 55. Shield at St Michaers Church, Ogston. 

()\i the dexter side of shield is a scythe and hour-glass and on the 
sinister a spade and mattock in saltire. Beneath is an escroll with 
initials T. Z. and M. W. Under that an anchor between two axc^, then 
a blank jKinel, and at foot a skull and cross bones with the motto 

' Eccl. Arch., voL iii. p. 554. 

- These bear uo resemblance to the usual arms uf Youug. 



John Sharpe of Houston, knight, lulvtJCiitf. TTjB 
nion^igtum of thoir initiali? R. IK, I. S., unil 
euBbions ; impling a ilext*^r hanil ho Ming a cliJ 
id the ckt*' 1621— all in relifif." 

IiurFus Castlk. — ^TUiH must iutt'toatiiig ; 

reiufiiiis. It iH «leacril*od in tlic Cwtf/^llnit^ 
vol i, n. *279. 

8t 1'kti^k's CutmoH, Uuffus. -Thin churcli 
In the eentre of the chiircJiyard is a curio«> 
shaft alwut 12 foet high^ fixed tn aaockpt**.! t 
tlie base, ftUtl with au oniamoutiil toju Theril 
all very nmch overgrown with moaa, hut tiosi 
only decoration being ikiills with rroas l*cmi»j 
T aside the ehiirch are two shields on orunniAfl 
a monument. They aji|iear to 1^ Keith coiit 
CEOsa cfosatetB fitchde, on a chit^f thre« ]iti] 
Throe piles eupfrailed^ in point, ou & zbiei thf^^ 

tiURBoNHTiiWK HouHK. — The princiiml fnf| 
arc two full acliievement^. That to the fi^t ' 
Lennox, viz. :— Quarterly, 1st, Tliree boar hi. 
heads enused. 3rd, Three crescents within • 
fraisiis, impaling^ Quarterly, l^^t and 4 th, 
bonlure charged with eight buckles ; 2nd i 
II Ijonliire engrailed. 8urtout, A mltire (i^u^ 
Crest, on a helmet with mantling (and 
portersj twti hounds collared. Tlmt 
lluntly and Times quartered, viz, :— 1, 
boar ]\i\uU i-oiiprd. 2ud, Three Hon he*n 
IV i thin a rtiyal UessiurLs ithj Tiiree fn 
iSurtout, thi? lutdge of a bartrnet of Natj 
with MinnlHiig ;iTid wrnith, a mhHt i 
a hinind niid u s;tva;:f- with rhib, etc* 



Pluscardin Priory. — The architectural features are described in the 
Ecclesiastical Architerturey vol. ii. p. 146, and other particulars are given in 
TJi£ Rdigums Hou^e of Pluxeardiiiy by tlie Rev. S. R. Macphail, or in 
its abridgment the Guide to Pluscardin Priory, 

On our way to the church we jwss tlie Dunlwir vestry which stands in 
the angle l)etweeu tlie dioir and north transept. On its central boss is a 
shield bearing anus, viz. : — Three cusliions lozengeways within a royal 
tressure. I^hind the shield is a crosier and on each side a draped 
figure. There are also initials.^ The arms are those of the last prior, 
Alexander Dunbar (1533-1560), who built the vestry. He is supposed 
to have l>een a descentlant of Mr Patrick Dunbar, chancellor of Aberdeen 
and Caithness, who was sixth son to Sir Alexander Dunbar of Westfield, 
and died 8th Septeml)er 1525.- Another stone with his arms is 
described under Elgin Cathedral burying-ground (p. 374). The lintel of 
what was formerly a doorway into the choir is formetl of a tombstone 
with incised cross of somewhat unusual pattern.^ 

Entering the church by the north door of the north transept, we find 
in its eastern (and only) aisle some tombstones on the floor. The most 
imix)rtant of these is that of Sir William Byniet (fig. 56). The slab is 
34 inches wide, and the part remaining is 44 inches long. In tlie centre 
of the stone is a cross with arms pointed, and a circle at the intersection 
containing the Oothic letters 1 b B- At the sides a chalice and closed 
book. The inscription round the margin in (Jothic letters is : — 

bic : iacet 

bii5 • ttilbclmuB • &c • bgrnet • • 

• if • ano &ni • m*^ cccc*^ octogcrD<> ^ 

Another stone, the upper part of which only remains, has no lettering, 

* Figured in Macphairs PltiscartHVf ]>. 121. 

2 IbOl.f p. 127, and Stodart's Scottish Arimff p. 15. ^ Ibid.^ p. 162, fig. 

* Ibid., p. 164. 

• ' :!£TY. APKIL 9, 19<X). 

■ -> with anns crossleted, luargiiia] 

-^. 11' 'FH uuKlern in date, and all i>f 










^ I. s;i'».it Pluscanliu Priory. 

-. .' • -I'l'-. The iiiseriptious in Kuman 



EUARY 28 1715 

The inscription reads round the margin and then down the centre of 
the stone, beneath are the initials I A. I M., and immediately under them 
and at the foot of the stone a panel with emblems of mortality. 
The second stone has the following inscription : — 

THE . 12 . OF . APRIL . 1703 
lA . IM. 
The third stone is inscribed : — 



GOD 1722 lOB THE 





.... WORMS DE . . . . 
WD I - 
1 — 
Beneath is a panel with emblems of mortality, similar to that on the 
first stone ciIkjvc mentioned. 



In the choirs uear the ceutre, lie two stones aide hj side, Oae (74 
inches by 27) lias ld the upper ]K>rtion a ahield (fig, 57) with initials A- 0, 
at top and L R. ^t l^wt, the anna on which nre : — A lion mm|iiuit (not 
passant) (for Clgilvy), impaling, Tlin^e (jiciwcts or tadpoles T) {Russell?) 
The lower portion has on it a skull with an escroU, alwve, inscribed itt 
Roman capitals, *' MEMENTO MORI. ' Round the niai^nn (coTomencing 
at the lower left hand tionier) ifj tl^- iiisr-^-^tion in Roman cupitals : — 

. . . . Kt: [.YKTU . ANE . HON'Ei^T . 1 S'DROW . tKIILBY - Q 


18 I 

Fig. 57- Shield OD Sppukbral Skb at Phiitcarilin Priory. 
The otlier stone has rotuid the margin the following in^riplion in 
Roman capittds :— 



KD . THE . » . DAY OF . (I)VLIK THE YEARE . OF GOD . 1643 

EN . ALR . 

. KD . I DO. 

Initials in centro. 'VUvw aiv still Ugilvics in the glen who claim to 
helong to tho snnn' family. 

' Fi^:;iiicd in Macpliail'is J'li(i>C(inUn, p. 168. 



A roughly dressed blue stone lies on the north side near the entrance 
to the choir. It has on it an incised cross, with top and arms bevelled, 
on a base of four steps. On either side of the cross above the arms are 

Fig. 68. Sepulchral Slab at Pluacardin Priory. 

the Gothic letters g & and below two objects somewhat resembling a 
heart and a knife or ploughshare.^ 

In the crossing under the tower two stones have been discovered, 

' Macphail'a Pluscardin^ p. 168, 



■'I'll xrtttv ^ftl 'T^ 


:.-± .»oi 

JU, rr-u. -l 

■ ' *^ -^ !:ro!iii — 

..I lTlTWi« »f -. 

i^'-t-i. •ir. 


eontiiins a uuiiibt»r of recumbent tombstones, all incised, of which the 
following are the most interesting : — 

(1) Nciir the east end a stone (39 inches in width), the upper 
portion of whicli is occupied by a sliield bearing arms (tig. 59) : — 
Three cushions lozenge ways (Dunliar), impaling^ A stag salient 
(Strachan). Initials A.I), at top and M.S. at sides. Lower down 
are the words "MEMENTO MORI" with skull and cross bones. 
Inscription round margin in Roman capitals, viz. : — 





(2) Stone (61 inches by 30), near centre of chaiKjl, with incised cross, 
the head and arms bevelled, resting on three steps. Inscription round 
margin, in Gothic letters, in relief, viz. : — 

bic : iacct : 

bonotabilis : vtt : alesan^et : &ubat 

: &C : &Unir : Ct 

blaw : &c : plufcartc q o : a<^ : &* : m<^ : q : V : 
c» : b : m* : r* - 

(3) A stone at the west end has in the upper part a shield in relief 
bearing arms, viz. :— Three boar heads eraied contoum^e and in base a 
chevron couped and inverted (Urquhart), impaling, A stag head cabossed. 
Initials at sides I. V. and I. B. In the lower part are a skull and cross 
bones with two hearts at their intersection. The marginal inscription 
is in Roman capitals : — 




* Figured in Macphail's Pluxardiv, p. 171, fig. 

- IhUL, p. 172, fig. See remarks. ' Ibid,, p. 174. 

;^ ^ij^iitj.^- <vu^y»» 

Fig. 59. Sepukbnil Slab it PhiRcardm Priory* 



(4) A large slab (74 inches by 40) with incised design and inscription 
now broken and some parts lost. It formerly lay at the door opening 
into the cloisters, but has recently been fixed to the south wall of the 
chapel close to its old position. The centre of the stone is occupied by 
a cross on a base of five steps with curved ends, the head and arms 
also ornamented with curved lines. Above the arms of the cross the 
dexter side is broken away, but on the sinister are the Gothic letters 
VXV^, over which are faint traces of an indented line. Beneath the 
arms of the cross, on the dexter side, is a shield (fig. 60) bearing : — 
A cross between two crosses pattee in the first and fourth cantons and as 
many stars of six rays in the second and third, all within a bordure (the 

Fig. 60. Shield on Sepulchral Slab at Pluscardin Priory. 

cross and bordure, which are of double lines, may simply be intended to 
divide and bound the shield). The initials i I are at the sides of the 
shield and t I below it. On the sinister side of the cross are a skull (?) 
and leg bone. Round the margin of the stone is the inscription in Gothic 
letters : — 

[Die iacct bo]norabiliB vir 

5acobu0 : l[8Cl (?) qui o]biit : viii : 5bU0 : aprilis : 

a[nno ] : p[ 

]ra : /ft"^ : ccccc"^ : fit : IRobart^ : iBCl : [ ] 

In the centre of the base of the cross is a hole in which is an iron bolt 
perhaps for a ring by which to lift the stone. ^ 

^ Figured in Macphail's Pluscardin^ p. 173. See remarks. 



A stone in Elgin Cathedml ta William Lyol, died 1^04, k dtsscriljQAl 
above, p. 3G5. 

South of tlic! Lady Cliapel k the Chapter-Hoiise with central ptlkr^ 
Next that is a |mssage in which are deposit ^ various objects of interest 

Fig. 61. Shield in the Chapter-House, Pluscardin. 

found during the excavations and alterations presently in progress. 

Among the carved stones there is only one which is heraldic, viz. : ^A 

slab with a shield (8i inches in width ^||n) bearing arms (fig. 61) >^ 
On a chevron three niascles. Beb ^^^^■t-u -~ j^ crosier 


crowned (Ogilvie) ; 2iid and 3rd, A cross 

fo//j Quarterly, 1st, Three boar heads couped; 

erased ; 3rd, Three crescents within a royal 

fraist^a (bring the arms of the Earl of Huntly). 

iieatli, LAVB DEO. 

liR'Ms is an insifL-ription in Gothic letters, viz. : — 

\b ^ a [est ' ogilup ^ne • ^e finMater beros 
^0port5c ■ cle^abctl) oor^on vtrumq^ • eabat 
fucsi&c ^ prrls btstcr • pwrifg^ ^uobus 
baa ificiiit cOcs - iwtus vterg^ • plus • 
iniGravut c? bac luce • bic bie 4^ mefis fuUf 
1554 5lla Me mefis • • • • 155 • 

On the opi)osite or south wall is a handsome gallery of carved oak, 
having tw<» shields witli arms carved and coloured on the front, viz. : — 
The dexter. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Argent, a lion passant gules 
crowned or (Ogilvie) ; 2nd and 3rtl, Argent, a cross engrailed sable 
(Sinclair). The sinister. Quarterly, 1st and 4th, Argent, a heart 
gules, on a chief (depressed and resembling a fess) azure three stars of 
the field (Douglas) ; 2nd and 3nl, Argent, on a chief from which issues 
tliree piles gules, two stars of the field (Douglas of Locldeven). The 
arms of an Earl of Morton ? 

On one of the pillars is the date "18. AP. 1608," beneath that a 
shield, and under that arms not on a shield (fig. 65) ^ : — A crescent 
between tliree stars (for Innes), with initials I. I. 

The enti'ance from the church to the south transept or St Ann's 
Chapel is by an arch, and on its west wall is another arch over what was 
formerly the recessed tomb of John Duff of Muldavit, who died in 1404, 
and whose efiigy was removed to Duff House, near Banff, in 1792.- There 
are numerous inscriptions about these arches and in other parts of the 

^ Ecd. Arch., vol. iii. p. 404, fig. - ProceeduujSj vol. xxix. p. 336. 

'* Jbid., vol. ix. p. 278. 



Outaide the church on the fiouth wall of the choir are threa eont^ 
vbi, :— West shield. Qimrterlyi 1st and 4th, A lion passant crowtied ; 

Fig. 66. Shield in Korth Wall of Cullen Church. 

•Jiul ami 3nl, Thivo Kxir heads coui>ed. MotU) "TOVT IO\T^/' 
Initials I. O. 

Contn* shioM. Quariorly, 1st and 4th, A lion pa.ssant crowned: 
•Jiul and 3i\l. A vvoss oui:r.uK\l, ///?^'(l/^'^;, Quiirterly, 1st, Tliree boar 


heads couped; 2nd, Three lion heads erased; 3rd, Three crescents 
within a royal tressure; 4th, Three fraises. (The Huntly anns). 
Motto "LAVS DEO." Initials L. O. 

East shield. Quarterly, Ist and 4th, A lion passant; 2nd and 3nl, 
A cross engrailed. Motto "TOVT IO^^l." Initials A. O. 

Against the north wall of the church are two tomhstones with arms. 
One is at the east comer (fig. 66), and has the shield parted per fess. In 
chiefs Three boar heads erased contoumee (for Abercrombie). With 
initials I. A. In hase^ Three stars and between them a crescent (Innes). 
With initials I. I. This is a somewhat unusual arrangement for 
the arms of husband and wife, the correct method being that of 
impalement Two similar examples at Burgie Castle, with arms of 
Dunbar and Reed, are described above, p. 404. The inscription is in 
Koman capitals, but is, unfortunately, much damaged, the commencement 
round the margin of the stone being quite indecipherable. The latter 
part above the shield is as follows : — 

HIC . ETIAM . lACET . 10 
T . 2 FEBR . 1603. 

The other stone is near the west end, and has in the centre a shield 
bearing arms, viz. : — Three cushions (Dunbar) and round the margin 
an inscription in Roman capitals, which was not copied. 

Deskford Church. — The old chuich, in the village, is now roofless.^ 
It contains two objects of interest which are well protected, each 

being inclosed in a wooden frame with padlocked door. Both are on 

the north walL 

The more important is the Sacrament-house, which is close to the east 

end of the church, and is described and illustrated in the Proceedings, 

vol. XXV. p. 109, and also in EccL Arch., voL iii. p. 406. In 

' EccL Arch., vol. iil p. 406. 


the lower compartment are two shieldB side by side. The <me 
bears: — Quarterly, 1st and 4th, A lion passant crowned; 2nd and Srd, 
A cross engrailed. With initials A. O. and motto "TOVT lOVB." 
The other bears : — Quarterly, 1st and 4th, A lion passant crowned ; 
2nd and 3rd, A cross engrailed (same as above), impalmg^ Quaxteilyy 
1st, Tlireo boar heads couped; 2nd, Three lion heads erased; 8id, 
Tliree crescents witliin a royal tressure; 4th, Three fraisee. With 
initials E. G. and motto "LAYS DEO." The same coats are on the 
monument to Alex. Ogilvy and his wife Elizabeth Gordon in Cullen 
cliurch, described alxjve, p. 421. 

The oUier monument (fig. 67) has for its principal part an oval pointed 
at top, with a shield (9 inches at top) in the centre bearing arma, via. : — 
A lion passant between a star in chief and a (dagger 1) in baae. Initials 

y at top and sides and a rose above the M. The inscription, which 
is in Roman capitals, is arranged in (me and a half concentric lines, vijs. : — 


and is continued in an oblong panel beneath 

ANO . DV . 1658. 

Close to tlic north-ciist augle of tlie church is a fragment of the old 

Ciistlo of Deskford. 

IUnff. — At the comer of tlie main upper street or High Street and a 
steep narrow lane called Straight Path is an old house, said to be the town- 
house of Ogilvy, Lord Banff, but described as the town-house of the 
Bairds of Auchmeddeii by ^lessrs Macgihbon and Roas.^ 

( )ver the entrance to the courtyard in Straight Path is an oblong panel 
wit) I moulded sides and base bearing arms : — A lion passant between two 
crescents in chief and a rose in base. Above the shield a helmet with 
^ CfisUUated aTid Domestic Arch, of Scot,, voL ▼. pt 88. 





Fig. 67* Otia SUbut Deakford. 


mantling and wreatli, thereon a lian<l holding a palm bmiich, Alwv<* 
that an escmll with the niutto "SEC . DAT . VERRA , F[T>Ea" 
Beneath the shield the initials T» 0. and E. 0. Above the oblong iwiiiel 
is a triangular one, with moahled sides and onmment at top and sides^ 
inclosing a toonograni of the letters T. E, (J. between a star at the top 
and two fleur4ie-lya at the aides. 

There are three dormer windows to the High Street^ all with more r»r 
less triangular-shii|>ed oniamuntal pedlmentB over thenuieeoratedasfoUowsr 
— (1) A rose ui eight petak, beneath the initiidw T* (.>,, and under that 

"THOMAS OGILVy," with the date jTsj-M at the sides ; (2) Mono- 
gram of the letters T, E, O. ; (3) A ahitdd hearing:— A lion pas^jit 
with a creeeent in ehief.^ 

The house forms the west side of the courtyuiHl, In u recently 
erected building on ita nortli ^de are inserted three other sculp- 
tured stones with the foUoi\4ng *Ie vices, ™. :— {!) Monogrmm of 
the letters T, E. 0.; (2) A slneld Ijearin^ a lion passant with n 
crescent in chief ; (3) A shield 1 muring the cre^t, a dexU^r hand erect 
holding a jialni branch with the motto on an escroll *' SEOUKDA BAT 

In a biitMiiiL-^ ^m the east side of the court opposite the honsu> i^ 
inserted a triangular stone with moulded sides and scroll ornament 
inclosing a rose of twelve petals, beneath the initials E. O., and under 

In the lower town on a gable next the County Police Buildings in 
Low Street are inserted tliree i)ieces of sculpture, viz. : — The Virgin 
witli Child on right arm surrounded by an aureole of tongues of flame — 
the arms of the burgh. Above the foregoing is a very rude figure of 
the Virgin with a very small child on her left arm, the date beneath 

being |l628|. The other is a full achievement of the Royal arms ^vith date 

The churchyard is in tlie low town. Near the centre is a vaulted aisle 

^ Castellated and Ihrncstic Arch, of Scot. ^ vol. v. p. 84, 


containing a recessed tomb. Within the recess, on a semi-circular slah, 
is an inscription in capitals, viz. : — 

ANO . DNI . 1558 . NOVE 





EI' . SPOSA . OBIIT . 25 . IVLII . ANO . 1557 . 

At the top are two small shields. The first bears : — A lion passant 
(Ogilvy), with the initials V. 0. The other bears : — Three birds (for 
Pepdie, part of the Hume arms), with the initials A. H. At either side 
of the recess above the pillars are two coats. The dexter bears, A lion 
passant, with a helmet over the shield. The sinister bears : — Quarterly, 
1st and 4th, A lion rampant (Hume) ; 2nd and 3rd, Three birds passant 
(Pepdie). At the fess point something like a star. 

The above inscription is quoted in Douglas' Peerage^ vol. I. p. 191, 
and also that on the lower portion of the tomb is given as follows : — 


The said Alison Hume is stated to have been daughter and co-heir of 
Sir Patrick Hume of Fastcastle. 

Other tombs that may be mentioned are : — A recessed tomb containing a 
recumbent effigy said to be of one of the Bairds of Auchmedden. A table 

tombstone to " John Junes of Knocko volte, who died — day of , and 

Margaret Gordon, his wife, daughter of Sir John Gordon of Park." 
It has two shields bearing arms, viz. : — Dexter^ Three stars within 
a bordure chequy (Innes of Knocko volte). Sinister^ A mailed arm 
embowed issuing from the sinister, holding a sword erect between three 
boar heads couped (Gordon of Park). 

On the outside of the wall surrounding the churchyard are three 
armorial stones, viz. : — 



On the cast side next the river Deveron a shield bearing armfl, vix. : — 
A fess between two cross croeslets fitchk-s in chief and a star in \ma/e. 
Above the s^liicld a pheon point upwards. Above that the motto '* FERIO 
SED SAKa'^ Beneath the shield the name ** ROBERT SHARP," said 
to be the father of the Archbishop of St Andrews. 

Above the gateway at the south-west mrner yf the buryiug-ground n 
shield suinx)Tted by two strap** bearing Jirms : — A chevron between 
three boai- heads erased. At the sii" ar tht"* fwit of tlie shield the 

initials I. A. and l>oneath tliat the na: AKKT AnKHCR03rBYK-*^ 

A few feet to the east of thia i rge tiibkt (42 inches by 24) 
is inserted in the wall It has in th^ 
arms : — A fess charged with a heart, in 
ermine, with initials at top and sides 
capitals is : — 

ower part a shi*d«i bearittg 
uf three Htars and the hme 
A* D, Tlie inscription iii 







And beneath tho sMeld- 

CIO . DC . L 

1 . 6 


5 , 8 

I I 

On a wall nearly opposite the above tablet^ on the other side of thi* 
open spaci , is an achievement hearing impaled arms on a shield : — 
A buckle lutween tlime Tniar h^^dsernijed (Gordon), impaluifj^ A chevron 
between three crescents (Sanders ?). With initials beneath shield I. G. 
and I. S. Crest, on a helmet with manthng and wreath, a three- 
masted ship with sails set. Motto ^' YIRTUTE NIL ^VRDUUM." 
Date, "1675." 



V Tf*.* •'*—.« 


^t^^fi^. -*^^>«w^^«<.V^<ii^^.^ 


,AMNO "-.^ 

:Ji» ^«^5'8' 

Fig. 68. On a Slab at Banff. 


Monday, UtJi May 1900. 
Sir AKTHUR MITCHELL, K.C.B, M.D., LL.D., in the Chair. 

A Ballot having been taken, the following Gentlemen were duly 
elected Fellows : — 

James W. Drummond, Weaterlands, Stirling. 

Sir Kenneth J, Mackenzie, Bart., Queen's and Lord Treasurer's 

Rev. Robert Scott, M.A., Minister of Craig, Montroee. 
Rev. James Primrose, M.A., 27 Onslow Drive, Qlasgow. 

The following Donations to the Museum and Library were laid on the 
table, and thanks voted to the Donors : — 

(1) By Dr K. de Brus Trotter, Perth. 

A pair of Draught-Ox Shoes, from Killin, Perthshire. 

(2) By Rev. W. E. Scott-Hall, F.S.A. Scot. 

The Oxfor<l Portfoho of Monumental Bnisses. Part ii. Folio. 
Oxford Journal of Monumental Brasses. Vol. ii. No. 1. 8vo. 

(3) By W. Bruce Bannerman, F.S.A. Scot. 

The Visitations of Surrey, 1530, 1572, and 1623 (Harleian Society). 

(4) By tlic Master of the Rolls. 

Calendar of State Papers, Colonial Series, 1685-88. 
Calendar of State Papers, relating to Ireland, 1599-1600. 
Year Books, PMward III. Vol. xvi. Part ii. 


(5) By the Kebpbr op the Records op Scotland. 

Calendar of State Papers relating to Scotland and Mary Queen of Scots. 
Edited by Joseph Bain. Vol. ii. 1563-69. 

(6) By Lieut.-Col. William Johnston, M.A., M.D., F.S.A. Scot., 

the Author. 

Some Account of the last Bajans of King's and Marischal Colleges, 

(7) By Dr William Cramoxd, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 

Old Memories — a Walk in the Churchyard of CuUen, 1899; Rothic- 
may House, 1 900 ; The Truth about ( reorgc Wishart. 

(8) By James M. M*Bain, F.S.A. Scot., the Author. 

Eminent A]>erbroathians — being Sketches Historical, Genealogical, and 
Biographical, 1178-1894. 4to; 1897. 

(9) By Rev. James Primrose, ^f.A., the Author. 

Strathbrock ; or, The History and Antiquities of the Parish of 
UphalL 4to; 1898. 

(10) By the Trustees of the British Museum. 

The Book of the Dead, folio, 1899 ; Description of Anglo-Gallic Coins, 
4to, 1826; Catalogue of books printed in Iceland, 4to, 1885; Term 
Cotta Sarcophagi, folio, 1898 ; Designs from Greek Vases, folio, 1894 
White Athenian Vases, folio, 1896; Ancient Greek Inscriptions, folio. 
Parts ii. and iii., 1883 and 1890; Antiquities from Benin, folio, 1899 
Catalogueof Greek and Etruscan Vases, Vols, ii., iii., and iv., 4to, 1893-96 
Catalogue of Bronzes, 4to, 1899 ; Catalogue of Sculpture, Vol. i. 
8vo, 1892 ; Handbook of Coins of Great Britain and Ireland, 8vo, 1899 
Catalogue of Greek Coins, 5 vols. 8vo, 1892-99 ; Catalogue of Seals, 
Vols, ii., iii., iv., and v., imp. Bvo, 1892-98. 


The following Articles acquired by the Purchase Committee for the 
Museum and Library, during the Session 25th November 1899 to 14th 
May 1900, were Exhibited :— 

Fabricator of brown flint, 3 1 inches in length by yf of an inch in 
breadth by ^ inch in thickness, found at Cranloch, Lhanbryd, Moray- 

Urn of clay, 9\ inches in heiglit and 9| inches in diameter at the 
mouth, tapering to 4^ inches in diameter at the base, the lip slightly 
bevelled to the inside, and the exterior plain, found in excavating a 
moimd at QuarfF, Shetland. 

Portion of a Vessel of steatite, 1 3 J inches in diameter at the mouth 
and 4 J inches in height, tapering slightly to a rounded base of 11 inches 
in diameter, and having a lip 1 1 inches in thickness, part of one side 
broken away, found in excavating a mound at Quarflf, Shetland. 

Four portions of a Vessel of steatite, apparently about 17 inches by 
14 inches when com])Iete, with a groove round the edge, and a portion of 
a smaller vijssel, also of steatite — all found in excavating the same 
mound, at Quarff, Shetland, as described in tlie previous paper by Rev. 
David Johnston, minister of (JuarlF. 

Seven polished Stone Axes, viz. : — (1) Of indurated clay-slate, lOi 
inches in length by 3 J- iiiclies in breadth and 11 inches in thickness, 
from Cruden, Aberdeensliire ; (2) of gnionstone, with a roughish surface, 
10^ inches in length by 3 J inches in breadth and 1| inches in thickness, 
with pointiMl l)utt, from Aberdeenshire ; (3) of greenstone, with a 
roughened surface, 8 J inches in length by 3 inches in breadth and IJ 
inches in tliic.kness, from Inverkeithny, Banflshire ; (4) of greenstone, 
rough surface, with a (lej)ression in the centre on each of the broad faces, 
and pointed butt, 8^ inolies in length l)y 2 J inches in breadth by IJ 
inches in thickness, found at Benachie, A]>erdeenshire ; (5) of indurated 
c!ay-slate, smooth surface, and pointed butt, 4^ inches in length by 2|- 
inches in breadth and 1^ inches in thickness, from Aberdeenshire ; 
(G) of indurated slate, with a polished surface, 4| inches in length by 


2 inches in breadth and | inch in thickness, from Aberdeenshire ; 
(7) of grey flint broken, and butt wanting, 3 J inches in length, locality 
unknown, and possibly Danish. 

Three Stone Balls, with projecting knobs or (liscs round the circum- 
ference, from Aberdeenshire, viz. : — (1) Of greenstone, 3^ inches in 
diameter, with six projecting knobs ; (2) of greenstone, 2J inches 
in diameter, with six j)rojecting discs ; (3) of greenstone, 2| inches 
in diameter, the surface divided into four circular discs, with four 
triangular spaces between. 

Three Arrow-heads of light brown flint, barbed and tanged, from 
Gordonstown, Banfl*8hire. 

Twenty-four Arrow-heads of flint from Banftshire, viz. : — One long 
and narrow and hollow-based, eight barbed and tanged, and fifteen 

Twenty-two Arrow-heads of flint, from Aberdeensliire, viz. : — One 
small and hollow-based, seven barbed and tanged, and fourteen leaf- 

Two small Cores, three Flakes, from Aberdeenshire, and one Scraper 
from Bisset ^[oss, Forgue, Huntly. 

Thirteen Beads of glass or vitreous paste, jet, etc., from Aberdeenshire, 
viz. : — (1) Dark blue, 1 inch in diameter, with rings of white, each 
having an amber-coloured centre ; (2) flattened bead, black, with bright 
yellow streak ; (3) triangularly compressed, blue, with a yellow spiral on 
each of the three sides ; (4) flattened bead, greyish, with narrow perfora- 
tion ; (5) small octagonal bead, blue ; (6) of jet, double-cone shape, 1 
inch in length; (7) cylindrical, black, with white and l)rown wavy 
streaks ; (8-13) smaller glass l>eads, various. 

Whorl of fine-grained sandstone, li inches diameter, deeply lined 
round the middle of the periphery. 

Nine sniiill clay Tobacco Pi[)es, found at Cloister-Seat, Udny, Aber- 
deenshire, and Orchardtown, Bantfshire. 

Oblong round-backed C(mib of horn, 8 inches long by 2 inches wide 
in the middle, inscribed "John Chalmers, Logiemar, 1793." 

VOL. xxxiv. 2 E 


Long-handled or Weaving Comb of deer-hom, 4J inches in length, 
with a saltire-shaped marking scored in the butt end of the handle, found 
in Shetland. 

Stone Axe of greenstone, 7 J inches in length by 3 inches in breadth 
and 1| inches in thickness, made from a naturally shaped boulder, from 
Kirkton of Aberlemno, Forfarshire. 

Stone Axe of mica-schist, 6 J inches in length by 3 inches in breadth 
and 1 1 inches in thickness, found at Balglossie, Aberlemno, Forfarsliire. 

Thirteen polished Stone Axes from Peeblesshire, viz. : — (1) Of serpen- 
tine, 6 inches in length by 2| inches in breadth and If inches in 
thickness, from Stobo; (2) of greenstone, 5 J inches in length by 3 inches 
in breadth, from Spitalhaugh ; (3) of indurated claystone, 5 J inches in 
length by 2 inches in breadth and I^ inches in thickness, from Garvald, 
Dolphinton ; (4) of indurated claystone, 5 J inches in length by 2 J inches 
in breadth and IJ inches in thickness, from Harlaw Moor; (5) of serpen- 
tine, 5 inches in length by 2| inches in breadth and IJ inches in 
thickness, from Scarlaw, near Biggar; (6) of serpentine, 4 J inches in 
length l)y 2J inches in breadth and 1 inch in thickness, from West 
Linton ; (7) of felstone, 4 inches in length ])y 2 J inches in breadth and 
I inch in thickness, from Hare Stanes, Castlecraig; (8) of felstone, 
35 inches in length by IJ inclies in breadth and J inch in thickness, 
from Hare Stanes, Castlecraig; (9) of felstone (broken), 5i inches 
in lengtli, from Dolphinton ; (10) of indurated claystone (broken), 4 
inclies in length, from Wester Pentland ; (11) of indurated chiystone 
(broken), 4 J inches in length, from Drochil ; (12) of felstone (Imiken), 3i 
inches in length, from Xoblehouse ; (13) of indurated claystone (]>roken), 
3i inches in lengtli, from X()])lehouse. 

Nine iM)lislied Stone Axes, from Lanarkshire, >nz. : — (1) r)f indurated 
claystone, 8| inches in length by 2 J inches in breadth and li inches in 
thickness, from Caniwath ; (2) of felstone, 8} inches in length by 2i 
inches in lavadth and IJ inches in thickness, from Carnwath ; (3) of 
greenstone;, nearly cylindrical in the cross section, 7f inches in length by 
2i inches in l)rea(lth and 2 inches in thickness, from an earthwork near 


Libberton ; (4) of felstone, 5 J inches in length by 2J inches in breadth 
and 1 J inches in thickness, from Carnwath ; (5) of felstone, GJ inches 
in length by 2| inches in breadth and 1| inches in thickness, from Mill- 
rig ; (6) of claystono, 5| inches in length by 2 J inches in breadth, from 
Crawfordjohn ; (7) of serpentine, 3| inches in length by 2 J inches in 
breadth and J inch in thickness, from Bissbery ; (8) of serpentine, 2 J 
inches in length by IJ inches in breadth and | inch in thickness, from 
Braid wood ; (9) of serpentine, 3 inches in length by li inches in breadth 
and f inch in thickness, from Coulter. 

Adze-like Implement of felstone, flat on the under side, convex both 
ways on the upper, narrowing in the middle of its length, and having 
both ends slightly expanding to a rounded edge, from Easter Cairnhill, 
Peeblesshire. Similar imi)lements are already in the Museum : of flint, 
from Ferny Brae, Slains; and of greenstone, from Little Barras, 

Bronze Sword, (imperfect), 18 J inches in length, wanting the point 
and three-fourths of the handle plate, found at Auchencorth. 

Flat Axe of bronze, 5 J inches in length by 2 J inches in greatest 
width, with incipient flanges, and the flat faces ornamented with a 
chevTony decoration, much worn, from Harlaw Moor. 

Bead of pale green glass, J inch in diameter and J inch in thickness, 
ornamented with intersecting lines of red and white, from Lesmahagow. 

Three Beads of jet, J inch in diameter and J inch in depth, from 

Eight Stone Whorls, all flat and undecorated, and varying from | inch 
to 1 J inches in diameter, all from Peeblesshire. 

Smoothing Stone of black Iwisalt, 5 J inches in length by 2^ inches in 
breadth and 1^ inches in tliickness, from Broughton, Peeblesshire. 

Three Stone Moulds, f<>r buttons, circular discs, and bullets, from 
West Linton and SUnv. 

Four Stone Balls, from 2 J inches to 1^ inches diameter, all plain, from 

Stone Hammer, of reddish quartzite, 3 inches in length by 2^ inches 


in breadth, having the perforation begun on both sides, but not carried 
through, from Whitfield, West Linton. 

Oval Disc of greenstone, 3 inches in length by 2 inches in breadth 
and I inch in thickness, perforated from both sides, from Castle Law, 

Rudely circular, water-worn Pebble of greenstone, 3J inches in lengtli 
by 3 inches in breadth and 1§ inches in thickness, having a sluillow, 
circular, concave depression in the centre of each of its flat faces, from 
Noblehouse, Peeblesshire. 

Large Whorl of red sandstone, 2| inches in diameter and 1;^ inches in 
thickness, from Blyth Bridge, Peeblesshire. 

Two oblong water-rolled Boulders of greenstone, 11 inches in length, 
and one 5^ inches in lengtli, with grooves round the middle, from 
SherilT Muir, Stobo, Peeblesshire. 

Seventeen Arrow-heads of flint, from various localities unspecified in 
Peeblesshire and Lanarkshire. 

Fifteen Flint Implements, mostly Knives and Flakes^ from Peeblesshire. 

Six Saws of flint, mostly found in the neighbourhood of West Linton. 

Twenty Scra]>ers of flint and a quantity of flakes, trimmed and 
iintriinined, fnun the neighKiurhootl of West Linton. 

SktMiOHlhu, the Made 3 J inches in length and notched on the back, the 
haiulle 3 inches in length and (Ornamented with studs and a small shield 
of brass, ftnnul on ilie wall-liead of an old house at Roslin. 

The followiiii; IxH^ks for tlie Library: — 

l>er Honiisehe Limes in Ostereich, Heft 1; Small's Scottish Market 
Crosses: Thipsou's Choir-stalls and their Carvings; Cormac's Glossary ; 
Koi-sviirs Beauties of Scotland, 5 vols. : Handbuch der Waffenkunde 
Von Wendelin Rrhmen : Catah»^e of the Sculptured and Inscribed 
Stones in tlie Cathedral Library, Durham ; Wagner's Tranalatioii of 
the Islendinua^ok : c1ephan*s I>efensive Armour and Wespon% and 
Lupines of War of Moilit'eval Timea^ and the Benaiiwance. 

Til'' f.'lL'wiiiu' Comr 


DUMBARTON ROCK. By JOHN BRUCE, F.S.A. Scot., Helensbukcil 

Position and Const iiMction, — The structure, which from its proximity 
to the Hill of Dumbuck lias been called tlie Dumbuck Pile Structiu-e, is 
situated about 1 mile east from Dumbarton Rock, and 4 feet above 
low- water mark and 5 feet below high- water mark. At high water or 
during spring tides there is a depth of water on the structure of 5 to 8 
feet from present level, and 12 to 18 inches additional down to the 
wooden floor, the difference l)eing made up of a deposit of sand and mud. 
This part of the river bjink from 1 )umbarton eastwards to Dunglass is of 
gravel and sand and a thin toj) layer of mud deposited within the last 
thirty to forty years consequent on the polluted state of the river. 

When first discovered a few of the toi)s of the ring of oak pile stumps 
were just visible protruding from the sand and abraded to a point by the 
action of water and age. There are twenty-seven of them, embracing a 
diameter of about 50 feet, and spaced from 6 to 9 feet apart. No gaps 
occur, all the original piles appearing to be in position. They are not 
placed in a peri>endicular position, but have a bias or lean, which is very 
perceptible towards tlie inside. Within this circle, and at a depth of 
from 12 to 18 inches, is a kind of flooring of horizontal timbers in three 
layers crossing each other at right angles. Some of the timbers of the 
top layer are curved in keeping with the circumference. The ends of 
those which protrude all round the structure at tlie outer edge show 
signs of fire. At all the piles a larger tree than those fonning the floor- 
ing proper has been used, either with the natural knee or fork, or a 
similar recess mortised to fit the pile ; and to make the locking more secure, 
stone wedges or jams have been used. The floor is entirely of fir, alder, 
and birch, which is so permeated with water that the spade cuts through 
it all with the greatest ease. Underneath this timber flooring is a bed 


of blue clay which extends all over the shore. In the centre there is a 
circular stone-walled cavity of about 6 feet diameter, inside of which 
were found remains of what seemed like wattle or basket work of hazel 
twigs and rods. From the stones lymg in and about the cavity it would 
appear as if the wall round it had been originally of some height. Round 
the outside of this centre cavity were live circular paved spaces, the 
paving raised slightly above the top tier of the wood floor, and all were 
outlined by a row of soft wood piles about 2 feet apart. The flooring 
stones had evidently been packed in with a mixture of gravel and clay. 

Midway l>etween the centre and the outside piles of the structure what 
looked at first to be tree roots or snags were noticed partly imbedded in 
the sand. On being washed of the adhering soil, holes of 12 inches 
wide by 25 inches deep were foimd cut in them at an angle, to all appear- 
ance for the insertion of struts for the support of an upper structure. 
On the outside, 14 inches down on either side, holes of 2 inches dia- 
meter were found intersecting the central hole, apparently for the 
insertion of a wooden key or treenail to retain the strut. These were 
found at intervals, and were held in position by stones and smaller 
jammers. One of the piles is now here, having been drawn out in ortler 
to exhibit the way in which they have been dressed for driving. We 
have verified the fact that these piles have been driven home, the 
striation being visible, caused by the obstruction of pebbles, etc. From 
the centre of the structure due west a belt of stones, forming a pavement 
about 6 feet wide and just a-wash with the mud, extends for about 20 
yards until it intersects a breakwater, which extended right round the 
structure at a distance of about 12 to 14 feet from the piles. This 
breakwater must have been of some height originally, iis a modern ditch 
(there seem to be different ditches, but they are not clearly distinguished 
from each other) or gullet running towards the shore, a short distance to 
the west of the structure, has ])een entirely lined with stones taken from 
it. This wall round the structure, with an outer breakwater of wix>d, 
would go to form an important defence. The bulk of the finds were 
made in the refuse that had accumulated in the space between the 


piles and this outside structure. Beyond the breakwater there exists 
a rough but systematically laid pavement with a bottoming of stone 
about 20 to 25 feet wide extending round the structure except in 
proximity to the dock and d<>ck causeway. 

Dist'overy of a Canoe, — A few days after the excavations were com- 
menced, an oak canoe was discov(»rod lying some 20 yaixls to the north- 
east, with the ])row towards the river. It was at once cleared out inside 
by myself, and in the bottom were found a spear-shaped slate object, 
similar to others found about the structure, an ornamented oyster shell, 
which has since mouldered away, a stone pendant ornament, and an imple- 
ment of bone. The ciuioe measured, when discovered, 35 feet 7 inches 
long, but between the time of discovery and removal to the Kelvingrove 
Museum, Glasgow, a portion of the prow, which tapered to a point, and 
which showed two oval hand holes, was taken away by some visitors. 
On removal the oanoe mciisured 33 feet long, 4 feet beam at the stern, 
which appeared to have l»(?en square, and alK)ut 2 feet deep. The hull 
was 3 inches thick. When in use it had l)een repaired, as the 
bottom had a rent and was held together l»y several well fitted, soft wood 
clamps. There were several plugge<l holes, and marks where the seats 
were fitted. It is the largest canoe hitherto recorded as found on the 
Clyde. On being removed it was at once seen that it had lain within a 
dock-like structure. The impression at first \\i\» that some driftwood 
had got silted up against the canoe, but on examination we found piles 
driven in at stated intervals supporting the walls, which were pjirtly 
formed of wood and stone. No stones were visible when the canoe was 
first observe<l, but we found them on further investigation. A causeway 
of timl)er and stone connected the dock with the pile structure. 

Mortised Lotj, — When excavating outside the piles immediately to the 
west and north of the smaller causeway which intersects the refuse Ixid 
and breakwater, a squared and mortised log was found. It is of oak, and 
measures 15 feet 4 inches in length, 18 inches in breadth, and 4 inches 
thick. There are six mortised holes bevelled to the extent of 3 inches. 
The first hole is 18 inches from the end. It was under this ])iece of 


timber that the large, spear-shaped object of slate was found, and later 
on one of the smaller ones. 

Animal Remains, — The remains of animals found, so far as they have 
been identified, are bones of the ox, horse, sheep or goat, swine, horns of 
the red deer and roe deer, and bones of a few large birds. The bonei* 
are mostly the long bones of the limbs, and are broken and splintered 
longitudinally, and many of them made into implements more or less 
sharpened at the points. One large pair of antlers of the red deer with 
part of the skull attached was found. One branch is complete and shows 
six tines, the other is partly broken. From tip to tip it must, when entire, 
have measured 48 inches. 

Implements ami Objects with artificial work Or ornamentation. — The 
worked objects found in the course of the excavations were chiefly of 
bono and stone. They may be conveniently classed for description in 
two categories : — 

(1) Objects of types which are familiarly known to archaeological 
science from their frequent occurrence in other sites of early occupation ; 

(2) Objects of types which are not known to have been discovereil 
elsewhere, many of which, however, bear a close resemblance in character 
to some of the o])jects found in the fort at Dunbuie. 

In the first class the most numerous are the pointed implements of 
bone. They are mostly made from the splintered long bones of oxen and 
sheep, often with the ends of the shafts left entire, while the splintered 
end is worn down to a cliisel-sha])ed edge or to a tapering point. There 
are upwards of ninety of these. 

The implements of deer-horn are portions of tines or of the beam of 
the antler cut or sawn across in lengths of a few inches, and prepared 
apparently as hafts or handles by being bored longitudinally at one end. 
Many portions of deer-horn exhibit marks of having been sawn partially 
through, and then broken off ; and one of the tines still attached to part 
of the beam of an antler shows marks of an attempt having been made 
to saw it off. 


The implements of flint are three in number. 

The first is a tiny scraper of yellow flint, | inch in diameter, showing 
the bulb of percussion on the flat side. 

The second is a hollow scraper formed in a flake, 1| inches in length 
by f inch in greatest breadth, and ^ inch in greatest thickness. The 
semicircular hollow is formed in the thick back edge of the flake. It is 
g inch in length along the edge, and J inch in depth in the width of the 
flake, and its contour is carefully worked from the flat side of the flake. 
The thin edge of the flake also shows secondary working in a kind of 

The third implement is a slender flake of brown flint, 2 inches in 
length and somewhat less than J inch in width at the widest part, 
having an indentation with a scraper-like edge in the thick part of the 
back, and the knife-edge having slight traces of use or of secondary 

A flake of a black stone resembling pitch-stone, 1 J inches in length 
with a triangular point, is marked by two parallel lines, ^ inch from 
the butt, one of which goes round on both sides, while the other crosses 
one side only, giving the suggestion of the marks of a ligature. The 
stone is very hard but shows no secondary working. 

A small water-worn pebble of yellow flint of the same quality as two 
of the implements Wiis also found. It sliows no trace of liuniau work- 

An oval wat^r-woni pebble of quartzito with flattish upper and under 
fUr&ceSt 2 J inches in length by 2 inches in breadth and } inch in thick- 
tidts, haviiig on one of iU flat surfaces a shallow, oblon^; indentation across 
tUu eiffilrD 1h»iiI obliquely to tla* axis of the pebble. This is a very 
ctitrairt^Ilirtll: tp^cim^m o{ a vari^^ty <*f stone implement of which there 

thi^ National 3iluseumt some of tliem 
0t imfrtitjiietitly found in Ireland,^ 

Qimita by Dr S. A, D*Arcy, tii the 
vot ixTii, 1S97, p. 213, wtth some 



Of other stone implements there are several hammer-stones or 
pounders ; whetstones ; oblong water-rolled pebbles with their ends 
abraded by use ; similar pebbles with grooves or notches in the side« and 
edges, probably sink-stones ; the under-stone of a quern, 16 inches in 
diameter ; and a rubbing-stone or grinding-stone, on the edge of which 
are some indistinct incised markings not unlike oghams. 

In the second class the most numerous are the implements and orna- 
ments of stone and shale. 

In the order of discovery the first of these to come under our notice 
were the spear-shaped objects of slate. The first was found in tlie canoe. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, and 4. Splinters of Slate with incised markings. (J.) 

It is a naturally-shaped splinter of bluisli slate, 7 inches long, li inches 
wide at one end, and tapers roughly to a point. On one side (hg. 1), 1^ 
inches from the tliick end, there are incised three transverse lines, from the 
centre of the lower of which two double lines run diagonally. On the 
other side (fig. 2) three transverse lines can be discerned: a mark we find 
on other similar stones and also on a lx)ne implement. 

Another piece of slate of similar shape and character, 4J inches in 
length and 1 J inches in ]>i'«»adtli at the base, differs only in having the 
sides partially smoothed and rounded by grinding. Its markings bear a 
remarkable similarity to those just described. On one side (fig. 3), close 
to the base, is a figure composed of two lines meeting in an angle at the 


top, cand fiom between them two lines slij^htly diverging are joinetl to 
the other two by sliorter lines meeting eacli other at an angle. On the 
other side (fig. 4), at 1^ inclie-s from the wider end, are incised three 
parallel transverse lines. 

There is a similarly shaped piece of slate 9 J inches long, showing some 
signs of having Ijeen ground on one edge towards the jKniit, but with no 
other marking save three dots or snudl pit-marks on its edge. 

Figs. 5 and 6. Op[K>8ite sides of a 8i>ear-8haped Implement of Slate. (}.) 

The next object of slate has been carefully dressed to shape, and finished 
by grinding. It is spear-shaped and has barbs giving it all the ai)pearance 
of the conventional barlnd spear. 1 1 nujasures 1 1 inches long and 4 J inches 
wide at the Iwirbs, and was f()un<l beneath the niortisetl log. The slate is 
of a softer nature than thcj two alx>ve described. It is ornamented on 
one side (fig. 5) with a cup-mark 4J inches from the point, from which 
lines of nearly equal length radiate, those carried up towards the point being 



longest ; to the other direction a short line more like a duct from the central 
cuivmark has been cut. At the distance of 6| inches from the point two 
similar cups are placed equally distant from each other, from which rayed 
line« are traced diagonally downwards but not upwards, the line furthest 
to the right of the one group meeting that furthest to the left of the 
other group. At the end where a handle may have been fastened (and 
that such a thing has been there is suggested by the smoother surface 
observable) there are two holes; the lower one was plugged by what 
ni>pearod to my late lamented colleague and myself to be either a piece 
of shale or thong. On Mr Miller punching it out in my presence it 

Vv^a. 7 and 8. Opposite sides of a spear-shaped piece of Slate. (J.) 

app(;ared to us under a magnifying glass to be part of an oak pin, the 
features of the oak wood being clearly discernible. On the reverse side 
(fig. G) a somewhat indeiinite figure outlined by small cups or pits is 
(liseeriiiMe ; also there are the tliree transverse lines like those already 

Two otlier s])car-s}ia])ed j)ieces of slate were found, ])artially shaped by 
artificial means, one of wliieli ])resented no jiartieular features of interest. 
The s(H'on(l, 6 inclies lon^^, lias on one side (fig. 7) in the centre a circle 
marked round a piece (»f sulpluiret of iron, with severed of which it is 
studded, and from which two rayed lines project diagonally downwaida. 

itween this and the point are five parallel markings slightly hollowed*. 



On the reverse side (fig. 8) are several parallel lines apparently artificial, 
and some others which seem to l>e natural. 

There are also two triangular stones, 5 and 6 inches long respectively, 
showing ligature marks. Both are natural stones apparently selected on 
account of their size and shape. 

A thin, nearly triangular, piece of mica-slate, 4^ inches in length by IJ 
inches in greatest breadth and scarcely \ inch in tliickness, has the wider 
end ground on l)oth sides to a curvilinear edge. 

Two implements of stone are peculiar in being inserted in bone 

Implement of stone resembling a knife (fig. 9), but too blunt to cut. 

Fig. 9. Implement of Stone resembling a Knife, in a Bone Handle. (§.) 

It is a peculiarly shaped stone, having a tapering tang-like projection at 
one end, which has l)een inserted in the hollow of the bone which serves 
as a handle, while the thinnc^r edge of the blade-like part of the stone has 
l)een ground to a kind of blunt edge. The handle is part of the inferior 
end of one of the limb bones {humerus, probably) of a pig, about a fourth 
of the length being cut off the superior portion. The tang-like part of the 
stone is merely jammed into the cavity of the bone. The stone has 
evidently been select(3d on account of its peculiar form ; and is (except for 
the grinding of the edge) of purely natural formaticm — the whole surface 
smoothly water-worn and tlie edges rounded. It measures 3 inches in 
length, the tang-like part being nearly 2 inches in length, and the blade- 
like part a little over 1 inch in length and f inch in breadth. The back 
is fully \ inch in thickness. The bone handle is 4J inches in length. 
Implement of stone, also resembling a knife (fig. 10), but smaller and 


sharper than that just described. It is also a peculiarly shaped stone, 
having a tapering tang-like projection at one end, which has been firmly 
inserted into the wider end of a tine of the horn of a red deer, from 
which the stone blade projects If inches. The handle is 3 J inches in 
length and terminates in the curved and pointed end of the tine. The 
stone blade is a splinter of hard slate, naturally formed, but having a 
curious resemblance to the round-edged point of a knife. The extreme 
upper part of the round edge has been ground, but the lower and 
straighter part of the edge retains its natural jagged fracture. 

Several stones which cannot be clearly classified as implements were 
found and retained on account of their having apparently artificial 
markings of various kinds on their surfaces. 

Fig. 10. Implement of Stone in Handle of Deer-horn. (j|.) 

One triangular-shaped block of vsandstono has four cups, three in a 
group and one apart, near the margin. It measures from base to apex 
14 J inches, and in thickness 4 inclies. The single cup is 2 J inches 
diameter by \ inch in depth — the group of three are somewhat smaller. 

Another sandstone block, irregularly shaped but somewhat circular, 
21 J inches by 16| inches, is intersected with a natural line of cleavage, 
on which some five cup-sliaped marks have been incised. On the reverse 
we find on the same cleavage line that thc^re are other small cup-like 
marks. The outstanding feature is an incision 2 inches wide at the edge 
tfipering to 2J inches, apparently formed by rublnng. 

A stone, semicircular, and polished by rubbing or grinding on the con- 
cave surface. The curve from point to point is 1 J inches. It measures 
14 J inches in length by 9^ inches wide, and tapers 3i inches to an edge 
of \ inch. 


One slab of limestone, in length 28 J inches by 10| inches, height and 
depth 5 inches. On one* side there are pitted marks which may have 
Ixjen caused by its use as an anvil. 

A piece of sandstone, 7| inches by 4J inches by 3 inches, with a cup 
in the centre. If inches by | inch deep, was also dug up. 

One small stone of metamorphic sandstone, somewhat pear-shaped 
(fig. 11), is pierced for susiKjnsion towards the apex. Round this hole 
is a ring-mark, and from the hole a line or <luct runs downwards. There 
are two groups of three and five pit-marks respectively on the surface. 

Figs 11, 12, and 13. Perforated Stones with incised markings. (}.) 

Another, measuring 4 inches by 2J inches, of red sandstone, shows a 
cup, ring, and duct. It is not pierced. 

There is another stone of similar material (fig. 12), but much larger, 
measuring 7 inches long and 3i inches greatest width, and weighing 22 
ounces. It is likewise i)ierced near the apex, and round the whole 
a circle runs which is incomplete on the under side, and through the 
intemipted circle issues a line or stem of 3J inches in length, which runs 
from the hole downwards. This line intersects at equal distances two 
small cup-like marks, and terminates in a third and similar hole. From 


between the lower edge of the ring and from the first cup-mark proceed 
five rayed diagonal lines, the centre one terminating in a smaU cup on 
the extreme edge. Towards the lower right edge on the side of the 
stone are four small pit-marks, the lower two of which are larger than 
any of the others, being | inch diameter. There are also two pit- 
marks on the lower edge of the hole. This stcine is, perhaps, one of the 
most characteristic the excavations have produced. It was found 
imbedded in the dock on the removal of the canoe. 

An oval, water-worn pebble of hard, purplish sandstone, 6| inches in 
length by 3J inches in greatest breadth, has at its narrow end on its 
flatter face (fig. 13) a pit or commencement of a perforation which has 

Figs. 14 and 15. Obverse and Reverse of perforated Pebble. (§.) 

not been carried through, with a circle round it of small indentations, 
from wliich proceeds a line downwards inclined to the left, with four 
offshoots nearly at right angles, the lower being curved to the line of 
a natural scaling oft' in tlie surface of the stone. 

A small, oval, water-rolled pel)ble, pierced for suspension, wliich was 
found in tlie canoe, presents an elaborate piece of workmanshij). Ptound 
the hole on one side (lig. 14) are two concentric, i)artial rings, and a third 
and almost complete ring forms a border right round the stone, inside 
of which there is what appears to be a canoe or boat, in which three 
men are engaged paddling or rowing, ^ the water being shown by several 

* In the Proixedings^ vol. xxi. p. 193, there is an engraviu>ij of a pendant of jet or 
cannel coal, found in excavating on the farm of Broughton Knowe, Skirling, Peebles- 
shire, on which is incised a similar figure of a boat with two persons in it. Boat- 
figures are well known in connection with rock -sculptures in Scandinavia. 


straight, parallel lines. On the other side (lig. 15) is the representation 
of a left hand with a tiny cup and ring mark in the palm. The edge of 
the stone has Ix^on ornamented with numerous small notches. The 
nature of the stone 1 have heen unable to determine. 

There is also a thin slate ornament, pierced for suspension, measuring 
nearly IJ inches in length by 1 J inches wide. Round the hole is a ring 
from which two lines diverge, terminating in two pierced holes near the 
lK)ttom edge. 

Tlie presence of carved figures of shale rei)re8enting the human face 

Figs. 16 and 17. Rude Figures of Shale, (g.) 

and figure,^ and also of what are evidently ornaments, has given rise to 
a great deal of discussion. 

The first figure (fig. 16) w^as found in the refuse heap, and got broken 
with the shovel, but is now repaired. It represents the head and 
breasts of a female, an<l is grotesque in character. It is fully 3 inches 

The second figure (lig. 17), 1^ inches long, found in the circular 
cavity in the centre of the structure, is broken, and appears to be that 
of a man. It is plain, and no attempt at ornamentation has been made. 

' Many very crudely expressed representations of human figures carved on stones 
are given by Solomon Keinach in his articles on "Sculpture in Europe " in V Anthro- 
pologies vol. v., 1894. 




The third, which is, unfortunately, broken across the middle (fig. 18), 
is rather grotesque and striking, having a voluminous beard, and the 
lower part of the body compressed into the wedge-shape of the stone. 
The hands are crossed and the toes meet at the apex. It is lightlj- 
engraved, and measures 6 inches long. 

Figs. 18 and 19. Rude Figures of Shale. (§.) 

The fourth (fig. 19) is the face of a man cut on a diamond-shaped 
piece of sluile, 3 inches by 2| inches. As in the case of the two pre- 
viously mentioned the mouth is perfonxted, and in this instance evidently 
for su.^^pension. It was dug out by myself in the month of January. 
Previous to this a similar shaped piece of shale was found, and on 


examination it fitted exactly to this last lip(nre, tlie one liaving been split 
off the other. 

The ornaments are eleven in number, and from their form, and being 
mostly perforated, are obviously suitable for suspension. 

Xo. 1 is 4 J inches long, 2 J inches in width at broadest part, and 
fully J inch in thickness (fig. 20). The hole for suspension is f inch 
from the top, and lines from the hole radiate upwards. An incised line 
a]x>ut J inch from the edge, which is rounded towards the bottom, 
where it meets and loops up towards the centre, terminating in a large 
hole nearly an inch in diameter. There is a cu|vmark near the bottom 
in line with the duct, and there is one on each side of it close to the 
curve of the line already referred to. 

No. 2, which is al)out 3^ inches long and 3i inches wide, has rayed 
hues running downwards from a ring, wliich encircles the hole at the 
distance of ^ inch. 

Xo. 3, measuring 2 J inches by 1| inches, is similar in ornamentation, 
only the rayed lines tc;rminate in little dots or cups (fig. 21). 

Xo. 4 measures 2| inches ])y 2J incHies, and has three incised lines 
radiating downwards from the suspending hole. 

Xo. 5, 3 inches ])y 2 inches, luis no small hole for suspension, but in 
the centre there is a liole measuring nearly an inch in diameter. From 
this hole there is a short <luct or channel and one concentric ring ; on 
the other side, in this case differing from the others, there are three 
semi-circular lines on one side above the hole, and several rayed lines 
running from tlie bottom edge. 

No. 6, measuring 2 J inches by 2 inches, is somewhat elliptic in form 
(fig. 22). There arc two hole^ for suspension 1 J inches apart. Round the 
topmost hole is a semi-circuhir ring. From this nni seven rayed lines 
of unequal length, one of wln'ch terminates at the second hole, and the 
others in cupped marks. A curved line, i)artly forming a border, runs 
between the cupped marks and the edge. 

Xo. 7, irregularly triangular piece, naturally shaped (fig. 23), measuring 
4J inches in length by 2 inches in breadth at the wide end. Within an 

Fig. 2r). 

Fig. 23. Fig. 26. 

Fi^s. 20-2tJ. Pieces of Shale or Cainiel Coal with incised ornament. 


inch of the broad end is a pit or partiiil perforation nearly lialf-an-inch in 
diameter, with an incomplete circle round it on the uj)per side, and three 
nuliatin^' lines pn^ee<lin^ th»wnwanls from the lower side. 

No. 8, oval piece, water r»>lle»l and naturally shaj^ed (tig. 24), measur- 
ing,' 2j inches in len«,^h and IJ inches in breadth and al)out J inch in 
thickness, piene«l towani^ the narrower end by a round hole | inch in 
diameter, sumjunde<l l»y an incise«l circle with a tangential line about an 
inch in length at the lower side, with a {larallel line of the same length 
below it from which three shorter lines go off downwards at right angles. 
No. 9, flat, «»blong piece with two straight sides almost parallel (fig. 25), 
one end rounded, and one obliquely fractured, the whole surface smoothed, 
striated, and water-worn, having on one face three parallel incised lines, 
and a fourth making an acute angle with the third. 

Xn. 10, irregukrly shaped oblong piece (fig. 26), 9 inches in length 
by 3J inches in greatest breadth and about } inch in thickness, one face 
rimgh, the other niblje«l smouth and strongly striated lengthways, having 
near the narrow end a perforation afx^ut J inch in diameter from which 
proceeds downwards a stn^ngly incise<l line, with shorter lines branching 
from it alternately at an acute angle, and at nearly equal distances apart, 
^ear the other end on one side are two roughly scooped hollows. The 
J>erfonition at the smaller end is r«>ughly scoo|ied out on \juih sides^ but 
the intervening central jiart is b*^re«l quite regularly, with straight sides. 

No. 1 1, oval-sha{>ed, 4 J inches by 3 inches and about ^ of an inch thick, 

^^ixs a hole near the centre close on one inch diameter, from which a line 

^r duct runs for nearly 2 inches. Tliere are two different cupped marks 

**tK>ut \ inch from the hole, and a line running from each towards the 

•^viter edge. 

No. 12, irregularly shai>eil, 4 inches by 2j inches, lias two holes. 
-■- here is a semi-circular line partly nuind the top hole from which two 
'■'^►jed lines diagrmally iliver^'e. 

No. 13, oval-shaf»ed, 2{ inches by H inches, very thin, pierced with 
™^le for 8Usi)ension. No ..ther marks. Evidently flakeil f»tf. 

No. 14, an irregularly triangular piece, water-rollc<l and naturally 


shaped, 2 inches by 2 inches and barely half an inch in thickness, shows 
an arrangement of dots, T-shaped, there being three across, and two 
downwards. One of the stones from Dunbuie shows a similar arrange- 
ment of dots. 

No. 15, a |X)inted piece of shale, 6 inches long by IJ inches broad, has 
on one side a line | inch long, incised from the point downwards, 
thereafter two dou])le lines crossing each other at right angles. Tliesc 
markings are indistinct. 

Three slabs of cannel coal, one measuring 12 inches long by 4 J inches 
in breadth and 1 inch in thickness, another, 19 J inches long by 7 inches, 
tapering to 3 J inches in breadth and 1^ inches thick. Tliis one shows 

Fi*(. 27. Oyster Shell with incised lines and i>erforations. (g.) 

marks of labuiiring on the sides, the edges being rounded off, evidently by 
attrition. Tlie third is 20 J inches long ])y 7\ inches, tapering to 3.1 
inches in l)readtli and li inches thick. One of the sides at the lessor 
end hius been wliittled or cut away to a de])th of 1 J inches, positive signs 
of cutting l)eing visil)le. 

Small pieces of shale or cannel coal can be picked u\) along the banks 
of the riv(!r, l)ut no pieces at all approaching to the size of those alnive 
d(\<crib(Ml have hitherto been met with. 

Several oyster shells, ornamented and pierced for suspension, were 
found, Imt only two e(»uld be preserved, the others having crumlded 
away on l)eiug exposed to the air, or broken by coming in contact with 


the shovel. The ornamentation of one of the two shells (fig. 27) 
resembles that on some of the shale ornaments. There is a hole for sus- 
pension at the narrow end, and round this, in the inside surface, eight or 
nine small pitted marks are grouped in a semi-circle, and from these four 
lines radiate towards the natural depression for the insertion of the 
muscle in the shell. Underneath are four holes perforated in a curved 
line parallel to the edge. There are no artificial marks on the outside 
surface. It was found in the circular cavity already described. The 
other shell has two holes of unequal diameter for suspension at the nar- 
row end, and there are indistinct rayed lines visible on the under surface. 
Quantities of the common periwinkle or Littorina littorea and mussel 
shells were found in the refuse heap mixed with the other debris. The 
oyster shells found are of the Ostrea edulis variety. 

Summary and Conclusions. — The situation of the pile dwelling being 

within high water mark made the work of excavation both tedious and 

difticult and rather unsatisfactory in its way. The trenches got silted up 

with the recurring tide, and about 50 per cent, of our time was lost in 

baling out water and shovelling away the sand which had been washed 

in. The wash on the shore from the large powerful vessels, which pass 

and repass every tide, did great damage to our work, and the climax was 

reached when an unlucky steamer got stranded badly on a foggy day on 

the opposite side of the bank, and during the week she lay there the 

wash of some half dozen tugs employed in getting her off undid all our 

Work. Digging so much in water led to many of the articles exhumed 

being injured by the spade in spite of every precaution. Our excavators 

deserve great credit for the careful and intelligent manner in which they 

did their work. To !Mr W. A. Donnelly, artist, Milton of Colquhoun, 

is entirely due the credit of this discovery, which was made in July 1898. 

For two years the north Imnk of the Clyde between Dumbarton and Kil- 

patrick, which is almost all of a marshy nature, was searched by Mr 

I>onnelly with the alxjve result. 

The similarity of the finds from this pile structure and those from the 
at hill fort of Dunbuie is obvious. The two erections, however. 


are not in sight of each other, a shoulder of Dumbuck Hill intervening, 
and they may not have been occupied contemporaneously. In comnion 
with Dunbuie, there is here an entire absence of metals and pottery. 
Iron we could scarcely look for unless in the form of oxide, but bronze 
would doubtless have stood the water. 

The (quantity of bones found was small, and the number of implements 
made of lx)ne seems large in proi>ortion. The number of ornaments alst> 
seems to be large. 

The presence of so much cannel coal is a curious feature. Small pieces 
are found on the river bank all down the Clyde, but the lai^e pieces 
described must have reached the |)osition where they were found by the 
agency of man. 

The discovery of this pile structure has raised many questions, and 
there are divided opinions as to its age and character. Probably at the 
moment its true position in archajology cannot be determinexl ; but time 
will show. 

In the discussion which followed, Dr Josbph Anderson said : — The 
Hociety is greatly indebted to Mr Bruce for the excellent account he has 
given of tlie investigation of this pile structure, which presents a numWr 
of unusual features lK)tli in its construction and contents. But in its 
essential characteristics it docs not appear to me to ditter more from the 
generality of other pile structures known to us in Scotland, than they 
ditter among themselves. Hence I have no difficulty in classing it along 
witli them. All the pile structures hitherto known in Scotland l>elong U> 
a comi)aratively late period, and the character of the relics obtained from 
this one agrees so far with the general character of the relics from them. 
The canoe, the (piern, the rubbing-stone, the hammer-stones, whetstones, 
sinkstones, tlic oval ])el)ble with an oblique hollow, the Hint Hakes and 
scraper, and the bono iin]>lcments arc things that have l>een frequently 
found in Scottish and Irish crannogs, and things which taken together 
may ipiitc well bo attributed to the same ju'riod as the generality of the 
Scottish crannogs. But at this point the correspondence of the contents 


of the Dumlmck structure with tliose of other pile structures ceases, and 
we have to consider the significance of a series of objects from it bearing 
incised markings in stone, sliale, cannel coal, and oyster shell, which not 
only have no resemblance to anything heretofore found in pile structures, 
hut no recognisjible alHnity of character with any objects found anywhere 
else, excepting those found in the hill fort of Dimbuie, not far distant. 
Comparing these two sets of things, from Dunbuie and Dumbuck, it is 
obvious that there is a certain affinity of character, with occasional simi- 
larities both in the fonns of the objects and the style of the carving. 
Comparing both sets of things with the groui>s of relics obtained from 
other pile structures and hill forts, it is obvious that they do not fit into 
the sequence of either series. Taking a wider area of comparison : 
ulthougli in certain points there may be some faint resemblances to 
objects from other countries, and of different periods, as, for instance, to 
the cup-markings on rocks and Iwulders, or to the incised carvings of 
American Indians or Australian savages, I do not think that such crude 
resemblances can l)e relied upon fo^ definite conclusions of age or origin. 
Remaining thus apart from all classifiable objects of cognate character, 
they give us no warrant to attribute them to any prehistoric period, or U) 
jilace them in any particular section of the archaeological series. Such 
objects of unclassifiable affinities are specially liable to have their 
genuineness called in question. This, of course, is, and must remain, a 
matter of individual opinion, and doubtless conflicting opinions will be 
lield and expressed ; as in matters scientific or even in courts of justice 
it is by no means unusual for expert testimony to l)e given on both 
slides. It is prolmble also tliat there will not be complete agreement as to 
t:hc numljer of the objects in the collection which are to be regarded an 
genuine or otherwise. For my own part I do not consider it possible 
or necesjsary, in the meantime, that there should Ik; a final pronounce- 
^lent on these (piestions. In the absence of decisive evidence, which 
time may supply, I prefer to suspend my judgment — merely placing the 
suspected objects (as they jilace themselves) in the list of things that 
must wait for further evidence because they contradict present experience. 


It has often happened that new varieties of things have been regarded 
witli suspicion on account of their lack of correspondence with things 
previously known, and that the lapse of time has brought corroboration 
of their genuineness through fresh discoveries. If time brings no such 
corroboration, they still remain in their proper classification as things 
whose special character has not been confirmed by archaeological 

L>r Chri8TI80N, Secretary, said : — hi considering the scientific value of 
tlie objects of a startling novelty found at Dumbuck it is important to 
take along with them those previously found at Dunbuie ; and on a care- 
ful examination of the whole, it appears to me that they are divisible 
into several groups, which, apart from a vague, general resemblance, are 
not closely allied to each other, and are not clearly derivable from each 
other. Thus we have not one but several sets of objects, such as I 
believe have not previously been met with ; and while recognising the 
scientific spirit and good faith witli which tliis paper has been brought 
before us, it appears to me that the difficulty in freely accepting the 
objects found at Dunbuie lias been increased rather than diminished by 
the additional discoveries made at Dumbuck. 

I)r Robert Munko, in a letter to the Secrctiiry, Siiid that it was un- 
necessary for him to do more than to refer to the opinions he liad 
ah'eady exprcj^ssed in hi.s recently published work on Prehistory: Scotlamfy 
and elsewliere : — 

" The most luysterioiis outcome of tlie Dumbuck investigations is that relics, 
entirely new to Scottish Archjuologj', but almost identical with those recorded 
as having been found on the adjoining hill fort of Dunbuie, have also been 
found among the debris of this marine site — some in the refuse heap, some in 
the canoe, and others in the empty central space. ... I have elsewhere 
given expression to the opinion that these strange-looking objecti", both from 
Dumlnick and Duiil)uie, do not belong to any known [)hase of Scottish civil- 
isation, and most certiinly not to the Neolithic ixiriod. 

" Among the genuine relics found at Dumbuck may lye mentioned portions of 
deer-horn sjiwn across, a quern, some jKunted implements of bone, like those 
found in the Lwhlee crannog, and a few i)olishfcr8 of stone — all of which un- 
mistakably indicate the media' val character of this curious structure. The 
quern or handniill was not known in Europe either in the Stone or Bronze 
Age, and none prior to Roman times has been fomid in North Britain. The shale 


and alate images and weapons, the perforated stone pendants, oyster-shells, and 
other objects ornamented with cup-marks, concentric circles, etc., would be as 
much out of place as surviving remnants of the prehistoric civilisation of Scot- 
land in Romano-British times as they are now.** — Prehistoric Scotland^ pp. 440, 

Mr Andrew Lanc^, in a letter to the Secretary, said : — I do not know 

whether it is lawful for an absent mem])er to offer any remarks on the 

topic under discussion. But, as I have taken some part in newspaper 

controversy, I should like to say that, as regards the stage of culture, and 

relative antiquity of the structure and remains at J)umbuck, I have no 

grounds for an opinion, and no special knowledge of the subject. What 

interested me was the appearance on small portiible stones at J)umbuck 

of certain decorative markings, such as cups and rings, already familiar 

to us in rock surfaces in most parts of the world. That such marks 

occur both in rock surfaces and on a kind of portable ritual objects in 

stone, among the Arunta and other tribes of Central Australia, is a recent 

discovery. In Australia the markings have a definite ritual and magical 

significance. I therefore infer : — 

(1) That i>robably the same marks once Iiad an analogous significance 
in this country ; 

(2) That a forger, presumal^ly ignorant of the recently ascerttiined 
Australian facts, was unlikely to counterfeit objects of \vhich he could 
scarcely have heard. He would have forged familiar^ not unknotcn 

The level of Australian material culture, in any cjisc, is infinitely 
l)elow that indicated by the structure at J^umbuck. 

If genuine, the marked stones of Dumbuck and Dunbuie indicate the 
survival, into a relatively cultured iige, of a singularly archaic set of ritual 
and magiciil ideas. 

Dr David Murray, in a letter to the Secretary, said : — The site is at 
the edge of what was formerly a shoal known as I)um])reck Ford, and 
was long the western limit of the Clyde Trustees* improvements. That 
limit was marked by a cairn whicli existed in 1758, and I think con- 
siderably earlier, and may have served as a beacon as well as a Ix^undary. 


Kiver cairns are commonly built on piled platforms, and my doubt is 
whether this is not the nature of the structure in question. It is diffi- 
cult to suggest why a pile-dwelling should be placed on a sj>ot dry for 
several hours every day. The so-called causeway would lx» under water 
at higli and of no use at low tide. The supjwsed dock in which the 
canoe was found would be e<|ually useless, being at one time on dry land 
and at another 12 feet under water. The canoe does not seem to have 
l)een associated with the structure. It is similar to other Clyde canoes, 
one of which was found a short distance to the east. The other finds 
are puzzling, but we need not condenm them because we do not under- 
stand them. 

The Chairman (Sir Arthur Mitchell) said : — The comments which 
have been made on Mr Bruce's paper will, I think, serve a usefid jnir- 
])08e. The fact that they have by no means been all in agreement does 
not, in my opinion, lessen their value. It seems to me that the position 
of the Society as a corporate l)ody has already ]yeeu on the whole satis- 
factorily disclosed in regard t(; tlie question, or rather the doubts which 
liave largely led to these comments. But a little more may perhaps with 
advantiigc be said. The Society as a whole — that is in its cori>orate 
capacity — has no function or duty to give a deliverance on sucli a matt<T ; 
but, of course, the individual Fellows composing the Society may hold 
opinions which ditl'er, and diller greatly. The Society, indeed, cannot put 
an end to such dilierences by any deliverance. It could not do so even 
if it wished. It is clearly desirable that this should be remembered. 
The doubts I have referred to relate U> some, but not to all of the 
objects presented to us as having been found during the Dumbuck ex- 
ploration. And it must be kept in mind that these objects are presented 
to us as funis upon such evidence as we are accustomed to accept as 
suthcient in rcganl to allcgc«l linds made during other similar explora- 
tions. It is manifestly important that this be understood and kept in 
min<l. The evidence of authenticity, in short, in regard to these doubted 
olyects fn»m 1 )umbuck is the usual evidence in such circumstances ; and 


it is desirable to remember, further, that it is precisely the same evidence 
of authenticity which is furnished in rej^ard to all the classes of objects 
found in the Dumbuck exploration — tliat is, in re{^ar<l to the canoe, the 
quern, the lx)nes, etc., alxmt the authenticity of which no doubts have 
l)cen expressei^l — as in regard to those objects about which doubts have 
})een entertained. Tliese doubted objects are new to us. They are not 
only new in connection with a pile structure, if Dumbuck really is a pile 
structure, and can l)e truly reganled as a sort of crannog, but they are 
also new in a wider sense, not having been found in connection with any 
other sort of structure, always excepting the fort at Dunbuie, which is 
in close proximity to Dumbuck. Wlien quite new objects present them- 
selves with claims to antiquity, it is certainly proj)er to examine those 
claims with care. This would be proper if there was nothing peculiar 
about them beyond their newness, that is, their not having l>een seen 
before ; but a careful examination of them l)ecomes still more clearly 
proper, if there is anything alK>ut thoir character, in addition to newness, 
raising doubts as to their genuineness. Tliero may be little or no hesita- 
tion in accepting olyects iis genuine o])jccts of antiquity, and yet some 
uncertainty as to their authenticity. It is, (»f course, a deeper doubt, 
which extends to genuineness as well as to authenticity. 

So far as concerns the action of the Society as a whole, objects brought 
before it, as these are, cannot properly l)c discarded as lui worthy of 
consideration, simply ]>ecause they are new. That seems to me quite 
clear. And it is nearly Jis clear that such treatment would not be proper, 
when to newness are added characters that give rise to doubts as to 
genuineness. Even in such ciirumstances the proi)er course, I think, is 
to do nothing more than shelve them, which with us would mean placing 
the objects in a case for preservation. We come to no other conclusion, 
in short, than that a record of the find shall be kej>t, and the objects 
preserved, and that we must wait till further exj>erience enables the 
Fellows to accept or reject either the authenticity or the genuineness, (►r 
both the authenticity and genuineness of the o}>jects. Tins experience may 
be reached in various ways. It may be derived from fresh explorations 


ill other localities, or from further explorations at Dumbuck itself, 
or from a fuller knowledge of the circumstances in which the doubted 
objects were found. It seems to mo that this is the right course for the 
Society to follow. Thanks to Mr Bruce, we have a full reconl, and oiir 
function is to preserve ])oth the record and the objects. 

I have only one other remark to make, and I am not sure that it will 
be considered of much value. It seems to me that we should, in the 
meantime, speak hesittitingly of the Dumbuck structure as a crannog. 
Xo doubt crannogs differ widely from each other, but Dumbuck has 
some peculiarities which present themselves, so far as I am aware, in no 
other structure which has been generally accepted as a crannog. 

In connection with this point, the position of the Dumbuck structure 
seems of some importance. It is situated on the Clyde, at a place which 
was at one time a ford — not a ferry. There are indeed many references 
to the Dumbuck Ford. When the Clyde was deepened, great changes, 
we know, occurred in the region of I)um])uck, the result of dredging on a 
great scale, and also of river Imildings, not far from the structure. There 
is still, I think, a guiding light at Dumbuck. It is now, if I mistake 
not, a ga5 light, but 1 think it was at one time a light from an open fire 
of flaming coal. On these matters, however, I have no certain 
information. ]>ul the history of Dumbuck as a ford seems to mo to 
deserve looking into. 

In conclusion, 1 have much pleasure in asking you to accord Mr Bruce 
a vote of thanks f<»r his pai)er, which is a carefully drawn up account of 
the Dumbuck (Exploration, and in which there is no pleading for the 
adoption of any views or opinions. He has given us what he regards as 
a record of facts, and there he leaves the matter. In this he has set an 
excellent exami)le, for which he deserves our thanks. He is a busy man, 
Imt 1 hope he may some day lind time for further work at Dumbuck. 
It has proved a dillicull and costly exploration, and what remains to be 
done will not be less difricult and costly ; but we have evidence that Mr 
Bruce has the enthusiasm, and I hope he will yet find the time to do 
more work either at l)unibuck or elsewhere. 




In July 1899, while extensive structural alterations were being made 
in the Parish Church of Longforgan, the richly decorated tombstone, 
now to be described, was discovered. These alterations were designed 
and executed by Mr Alex. Hutch eson, F.S.A. Scot., of Broughty Ferry, 
and under his immediate supervision. An apse with a three-light 
window was erected at the east wall, and the whole interior of the 
church wa.s reconstructed. The flooring was entirely removed, and while 
this jmrt of the work was in progress, the workmen came upon a very 
Imautiful tombstone, lying face ui)wards, near the supposed site of the 
altar in tlio p re-Reformation Church. With Mr Hutcheson's accustomed 
care for tlie preservation of archaeological relics, he had given instructions 
that he should be notified at once when any discoveries were made. To 
this prevision is due the protection of what is unquestionably one of the 
finest monumental stones of the fifteenth century yet discovered in 
Scotland. The position of the slab, covered as it was with earth, and 
safely preserved from injury by the flooring, has made it possible to 
bring the stone to light nearly as fresh as wlien it came from the 
sculptor's hands. Proper arrangements have been made for its future 
preservation. It has been erected against the north wall in the inside 
of the church, and placed on an entablature supported by brackets, at 
a sufficient height from the ground to prevent its mutilation by accident 
or design. 

The slab (fig. 1) is an oblong block of fine Kingoodie stone, from the 
local quarry, and measures 6 feet 6 J inches by 2 feet 10 inches at the 
top, tapering to 2 feet 8 inches at the base, and with an average thick- 
ness of 5 inches. It bears the full-length effigies of a knight in armour, 
his lady in the costume of the period, and a small figure of a youth in 
armour, either a son or an attendant squire. The figure of the knight 


measures 4 feet 8^ inches from heel to cap ; that of the lady is 1 inch 
shorter ; while the youtli is only 1 foot 5 inches in height. The knight 
and lady are l)oth represented with folded hands, their faces turned 
upward towards the Hguro of St Andrew on the cross, which is placed 
in the centre of the upper i)art of the slab. Plate armour is shown on 
both knight and s([uiro ; and so carefully has the sculptor executed the 
minute dettiils that the leather stnips and ])Ucklos by which the plates 
are held together at the joints are jilainly delineated. As usual in such 
memorials, the knight is shown with hj^ mail-clad feet resting on his 
" tall)ot " or hunting dog ; but in this ctuse the artist has departed from 
the conventional fonn, and has lirought tin; dog's head uj) on the outside 
of the knight's right leg, thereby lilling in a blank sj^ace in a most 
ingenious manner. In the similar sculi)tured stone in Creich Church, 
Fifeshire, referred to further on, the dog is shown crouching with his 
head between the knight's feet. It has })een suggested that the position 
of the dog in the I^iugforgan stone is a mark of illegitimacy, and though 
this theory is not well supportcnl })y evidence, it is i)rol>able, as shall }>e 
shown, that the I^jngforgan knight was of illegitimate lloyal descent. 

The nnnor detiiils of the sculi)ture are very ingenious and artistic. A 
rich double canoj)y appears over the heads of the figures ; that over the 
knight })eing quite different in design from the portion over the lady. 
Much ingenuity has l)een displayed in the introduction of a floriated 
background in the form of conventionalised foliage filling up all the 
interstices between the figures. Across the top of the stone there is an 
ornamented border consisting of a series of small blocks or paterae, with 
varied designs, carefully cut with the cliiscl. The figure of St Andrew — 
probably the earliest instance of the introduction of the Saint's effigy on 
a tombstone — is executed with similar precision. It measures 15 inches 
from point to point of the cross, the human figure measuring 12 inches 
in length from over the halo to the i)lane of the feet. The features of 
the Saint are unfortunately obliterated, but the outstretched hands show 
the thumbs extended at right angles to the palms. Ix>ngforgan was in 
the diocese of St Andrews, hence the effigy. On the right side of the 



knight's head a small shield bears his arms — a lion rampant — while on 
the lady's left there is a similar shield. A very minute examination 
has failed to disclose the armorial bearings on her shield, and it is 
possible that the figures incised, which look like three monograms of the 
letters C. C. set back to back and tied in the centre, are not truly 
heraldic, but either fanciful letters or merely decorative ornaments. The 
surcingle of the knight shows a succession of varied designs cut with 
minute accuracy. The sword of the knight passes behind his figure on 
the left side, and only the pommel is visible at the thigh, and part of 
the scabbard ])etween the lower parts of the legs. His dagger is shown 
on the right side. The squire's sword is plainly displayed. It is in the 
form of the period, the cross-guard })eing slightly curved and finished 
with ball-points. Around the outer edge of the stone a ribbon is carried, 
skilfully folded at the corners, and returned upon itself at the base. It 
bears the following inscription cut in Gothic letters, incised : — 


EbROKIS, qui OBIIT die MESIS .... ANNO DNI. M'\ CCCC. . . 


w. CCCC^ . . . 

There are smaller ribbons gracefully enrolled around the heads of the 
knight and the lady, which were probably intended as labels for armorial 
mottoes or for pious phrases. On one side the ribbon appears to proceed 
from the knight's mouth ; but a portion of the drapery from the lady's 
head-dress intervenes between her mouth and the ribbon on her side. 
The whole of the sculpture on this stone is wrought by delicate V-shaj>ed 
incision, not deeply cut ; and no part of the work is in relief. 

Before considering the history of this stone, it will be interesting to 
notice its points of similarity with an incised tombstone of the same date 
in the ruined church of Creich, Fifeshire. This stone is figured and 
described, from actual inspection made by me, in my work entitled 
Fife, Pictorial and Hidoriral, vol. ii. p. 334. A monumental recess 
in the north wall of the church, formed by a moulded arch bearing the 


Barclay anns on the keystone, contains a beautiful incised stone slab 
(fig. 2), with the figures of a knight in armour and his lady, sur- 


^-5 C/ 

Fig. 2. Incised Sepulchral Slab at Creich, Fifeshire. dVO 

mounted by a rich canopy. The faces have probably had brass plates 
with the features engraved, but these have disappeared, and only the 


shield-like apertures remain.^ The style of decoration is similar to that 
on the Longforgan stone, though not so elaborate. The inscription on the 
edge of the stone is as follows : — 




An examination of the Creich stone shows that it has been erected by 
David de Barclay of Luthrie at the time of the death of his wife, on 29th 
January 1421 ; and the laird had then caused his own obituary inscription 
to be carved, leaving blanks for the month and for the last figures of the 
year. The inscription on the Longforgan stone has similar blanks for the 
months and final figures of the years when the knight and lady died, thus 
showing that it was a pre-obit monument which has never been com- 
pleted. As the date of the death of Helena de Douglas on the Creich 
stone seems to be all in the same lettering, it is almost certain that it was 
finished in that year. At Iciust it could not bo near the end of the 

* Mr Alexander Neilson, sculptor, Dundee, has matlo a thorough examination ot 
the Creich tombstone. He finds that the portions of the stone correspon<Ung to the 
faces and hands of the figures are sunk below the surface nearly an inch, which, of 
course, is much deeper than would be necessary for brass plates. These cuttings 
have been carefully ** cleaned out," and the edges are cut square. Mr Neilson 
suggests that these apertures have been made for the purpose of inserting sculptured 
marble or alabaster blocks in high relief to give the features and the hands of the 
knight and the lady. This method was followed in several notable Italian monu* 
meuts, and the Creich stone appears to be the work of a Continental sculptor. If 
Mr Neilson's theory be correct, this monument must be ranked as unique in Scot- 
land. It is on record that the tomb of Robert the Bruce was of marble, and was 
brought from Paris to Dunfermline, by way of Bruges ; so that the connection of 
Scotland with the Continental art-workmen existed a century before the date of the 
Creich and Longforgan stones. The Creich stone has never been intended to lie flat 
on the ground, for the splayed edge on which the inscription is lettend has evidently 
been the front of a recumbent stone placed within a niche or canopy. It was not 
unusual to cut incised stone slabs so as to inlay the head and hands of an eflBgy in 
plates of brass or different coloured stone such as marble or alabaster, sometimes 
flat, sometimes raised and in relief. (See H&iucs* Man iml of Monumental Brasses^ 
Oxford, 1848, p. 7.) 


fifteenth century, or the letters MCCCC. would not have been cut. The 
similarity in the stylo of incision, the decorative canopy-work, and the 
lettering makes it extremely probable that both stones were the work of 
one artist. It is reasonable to suppose that when that unknown artist 
liad finished the Creich stone, he was employed (in 1421) to make the 
Longforgan stone in anticipation of the deaths of John de Galychtly and 
his lady. 

The identity of John de Galychtly has not been disclosed, despite a 
very extended research. The rampant lion in his heraldic l)earings seems 
to imply that he was descended from I'atrick Galythly, who swore fealty 
to Edward I. at Perth on 24th July 1291 (CaL of Doc. Scot, ii. p. 124), 
and who was a competitor for the crown of Scotland in 1292, claiming as 
tlie son of Henry Galythly, alleged to be the lawful son of William the 
Lion. His propinquity, however, has not l)een proved, though the fact 
that he bore the Koyal Arms, and was in armour and attended by a 
squire, as a knight should be, though only described as a simple " laird," 
makes it strongly probable that he was one of the quasi-Royal descendants. 
If the position of the dog's head implies illegitimacy, John de Galychtly 
must have aliandoned his claim, though he retained the Koyal cognizance. 
It is a further indirect proof of his connection to find him located so near 
Perth, where Patrick CJalythly resided; and to discover that he held 
lands immediately contiguous to those which three other competitors for 
the Crown — BaHol, Bruce, and Hastings — had inherited by descent from 
David, Earl of Huntingdon, brother of William the Lion. The name of 
Galychtly or Galythly still survives in Perth, the Carse of Gowrie, and 
Dmidee, in the corrupted forms of Galletly, Gellatly, and Golightly. 

The lands of Ebrokis cannot now be identified, as the name has dis- 
appeared from the locality centuries ago. The name seems to be the 
original of the variants of Ebrux in Roxburghshire, and Ibrox near 
Glasgow. Through the courtesy of George Paterson, Esq., of Castle 
Huntly, I have had the privilege of examining many of the old deeds and 
charters connected with the barony of Longforgan, some of which are 
included in the printed volumes of the Regist^ of the Great Seal. The 


earliest document containing the name "Ebrukis" is the charter by 
James FV., dated 7th January 1508-9, by which he incorporated certain 
lands to form the barony of Langforgund, and confirmed the barony to 
Andrew Lord Gray. In an inventory of old writs made out in 1778, 
this charter is described, but the name is there spelled " Ebrox." On 
13th July 1613, an Instrument of Resignation of the lands of Castle 
Huntly was drawn up, when Patrick, Earl of Kinghome, obtained the 
barony, but Ebrokis is not mentioned at all, so that the identity of the 
property had been lost before that time, having disappeared in the 
century from 1508 till 1613. The Galychtlys of Ebrokis had apparently 
become extinct within that period. It is a curious fact that the first 
recorded proprietor of Longforgan barony was Sir Andrew Gray of 
Broxmouth, in Roxbuighshire, who had a grant of the lands from King 
Robert Bruce, and who may have named a part of his new estate 
" Ebrox " after his earlier property. Sir Andrew^s grandson. Sir Patrick 
Gray, died in 1421, and was therefore contemporary with John de 
Galychtly of Ebrokis. 

When the sculptured stone Wivs discovered in tlic cliurch at Longforgan, 
the fragments of a Ijaptismal font were also found. It had, apparently, 
l)ecn an octagonal basin mounted on a shaft, with eight panels around 
the sides giving sculptured rej)resentations of incidents in the life of 
Christ. The fragments preserved (fig. 3) show Christ bearing the Cross, 
the Scourging, the Crucifixion, the Entombment, the Return from Hades, 
and the Resurrection. These fragments have been put in a place of 
safety within tin* church. 

For the following information regarding Longforgan church I am 
indebted to Mr Alex. Hutcheson, tlie architect : — 


We have no information as to when the first church was founded at 
Longforgan. Previous to the Reformation the church and its emolu- 
ments belonged U) the Priory of St Andrews. Down to about 1794, 


when extensive alterations were made, practically tantamount to a new 
edifice, the people worshipped in a building of pre-Reformation age. 
Rev. Adam Philip in his history of the parish^ relates that he was 
fortunate enough to meet with one who used to worship in the old 
Imilding, and described it as follows : — " It was," he says, " an old, long, 
narrow, and inconvenient building, consisting of two parts, and evidently 

Fig. 3. Fragments of Ancient Font at Longforgan. 

built at very different periods. Tlie eastmost, wliich belonged entirely 
to the estate of Castle Huntly, was a substantial building, idl of ashlar 
Kingoody stone ; and from a very handsome cross in the east gable, and 
several recesses of hewn stone within, probably for altars, or shrines of 
some favourite saints, it had every appearance of having been the original 

* The Parish of Lomjforgan, : A Sketch of Us Church and People^ by the Rev. 
Adam Philip, M.A., Edin. (1896). 

472 PftOCKfiDlNGS 0^ THft SOCIETY, MAY 14, 1900. 

church when the Roman Catholic religion prevailed. . . . The west end 
of the church, though apparently older, must have been of a much later 
date. It was a very insuflficient building of bad material." 

This description is of much value in enabling us to realise the appear- 
. ancc of the old church. Apparently it had possessed a choir or chancel 
of different masonry and probably of different width from the rest of the 
church. This was doubtless the oldest part of the building : the " Ashlar 
of Kingoody stone," the handsome cross on east gable, and the " recesses 
of hewn stone," doubtless mural tombs or monuments in the internal 
walls, all help the student of architecture to realise the character and 
period of the work. Several of the ashlar stones can be traced in the 
present building. In like manner portions of moulded window and door 
jambs have been found broken up and utilised as building stones in the 
walls, along with the broken fr.igments of an elaborately sculptureil 
baptismal font. Evidently the choir had a door in its external walls, for 
in the Kirk Session records, under date 2nd October 1654, in a relation 
of the arrangements made for the celebration of the Communion, we read 
that certain of the elders were appointed " to collect the alms and tokens " 
at "the quyer doore." From tlie same source, we learn that the church 
was roofed with what arc known as " gray slates," that is of thin pave- 
ment of local stone. 

Fortunately, other particulars of information as to the dimensions and 
appearance of the old church exist in a ^fS. belonging to ^fr Paterson 
of Castle Huntly.^ This MS. is not dated, but from internal evidence 
appears to have been written about 1760, by the then forester of Castle 
Huntly. As the description of the church there given deals with a mode 
of internal decoration then pnjbably very coninion in Scottish churches, 
but which ])efore the middle of the present century had entirely dis- 
appeared, it is heni copied out verhatim et Htei'cdim. 

"The Church is ane old Gothick Building 106 foot Long — On the west end 
ane Elegant Steeple witli Baleater and raills to walk around — and from thence 

* Mr Paterson has most obligingly peimitted the use of this MS. for the purposes of 
this paper. 


g08 a Spire with a Weather Cock — in this Spire is 3 bells with a clock & 2 
Stone Dial Plates to show the hours — In the ground floor of this steeple is ane 
arched vault for a prison house* — above the door of this prison house is a 
round window & in it a stone plate with this Inscription on it 

founded in the year 1691 (sic, the actual date on the stone is 1690), and 
finished att the charge of Patrick Earl of Strathmore and Kinghom Viscount 
Lyon Lord Glammiss &c. the Bells was given by the Session, and the Clock by 
the frank Contribution of the people — 

In the East End of the Church is the family's Seat a fine painted Loft Said 
to be done by thos that did the dining room & Drawing room of Castle Lyon — 
in the roof is the Sun & Moon, the 7 planets the 12 Signs of the Zodiack 
Stars & Seraphs permiscously. 

In the front is the Earl of Strathmore's Arms at Large with Coronets, Seraphs 

with Tnunpets in their hands & 4 Ionic Columns witli these Letters P — S. 

C—S— 1684.2 

Around the sides of the Loft is painted our Lord's i)rayer. Creed & the 
Commandments with Gloria : Patria with several anotations of Scripture — the 
familys Seat is 2 Long Square seats Sc l^ehind Each of these is 4 Large Desks ^ 
for Serv** — the door to this Loft inter by a stone Stair in the Gable & on the 
topii of this Gable is the signe of the crose fine cutt of Stone & above the door 
is the Earl of Strathmore's Arms intermixed with the Earl of Middleton's* — the 
breath (breadth) of the stiiir from the Loft door is the retiring Room a Noble 
Square Building with a door on the siime liat with that of the Loft that gos into 
the Church — the room is all waiiiscotted round hath a big window to the South 
a chimney — the Lower i>lace is a Burying Vault for the family tmd the Corps is 
Laid on Iron grates. On the top of this House is a big globe with a Iron rod 
richly ornamented and on the top of the rod a big tliane all gilded." 

* At the period of the alterations in 1794, this vault in the bottom of the steeple 
was utilised as an entrance to the church, but as the arch was rather low an oppor- 
tunity was afforded last year during the recent improvements on the church of rais- 
ing the ceiling of the entrance, and the arched roof was removed. During these 
operations a narrow slit was discovered in the south wall, which had given light and 
air to the prison. This slit measures about 12 inches in height by 1 inch in width ; 
and as it passed through a wall SJ feet in thickness, very little i>ro8pect of the 
exterior world had been possible from its interior. The slit has been preserved, so 
that it can now be seen. 

'^ These are doubtless the initials of Patrick, first Earl of Strathmore, and his wife, 
Lady Helen Middleton, although the arrangement of the lady's initials is peculiar. 
Probably the letters have hw.n transposed in transcription and were really arranged 

H — S, Countess Helen Strathmore. 

' Pews were frequently so called at this period. 

* Doubtless the quartering of the arms of the Countess. 


In the Book of Record, a diary written by Patrick, First Earl of 
Strathmore, and edited for the Scottish History Society, by Mr A. H. 
Millar, F.S.A. Scot., additional light is cast on the old church, in tlie 
following extracts : — 

** In summer 1683 when the roofe of the Quire of the Church of Long- 
forgane was altogether ruinous, it gott a new roofe att the common charge 
of the heritors, but I took occasione att the same time to reform my loft 
and seat of the Church, and to build a roume off it for a retyring place 
betwixt sermons"; and on 25th September 1684 occurs the entry, "The 
Glazier's acct. of glass and weir for my new loft at the Church of Long- 
forgan came to in alx)ut 60 lib.," which, however, we are informed in- 
cluded the cost of repairing " some broken glass windows at Castle Lyon" 
(pp. 36, 68). 

An entry occurs with regard to the painting of the ceiling of the choir, 
of which the Earl did not have such a high opinion as that expressed by 
the forester in his MS. account. " William Rennay in Dundee hes gott 
towards his payment for the painting (such as it is) of the roofs of the 
(^uir of Lougforgone, 40 111), and u boll of meall" (p. 68). This William 
Kennay, as ^Er^Millar exi)Iain.s in his introduction, was employed at Glaniis 
and Cjistlo Ly(jn (now Castle Huntly) in some of the coarser decorative 
painting; and tlie Dutch artist, Jacol) De Wet, who was employed on 
the artistic work, gave liini some of this work to do, much to the Eiirl's 
dissatisfaction ; hence, doul)tless, the Earl's note of disapproval here. It 
will have ])ecn noted that the forester in his account of the paintings on 
the choir roof, says they wore reported " to be done by thos that did 
the dining-room and drawing-room of Castle Lyon." 

In the foregoing ^18. the length of the old church is given as 106 feet 
over walls. The breadtli at the west end as ascertained during the recent 
alterations Avas 27 feet over walls. There was nothing to indicate the 
breadth of the choir, ])ut it was probably narrower than the body of the 

A singular feature of the portions of this pre-Reformation church 
still remaining is tlie existence in the walls of a considerable number of 


pieces of Fifesliire freestone. No carved stones of this material were 
met with, but many blocks were to be seen, large enough to be used as 
ashlar or face stones in the walls. This would seem to point to the 
existence of a still earlier structure which had been erected of Fife stone, 
the materials of which had been used along with Kingoodie or local 
stone, in the construction of the building, wliich was so nearly all taken 
down in 1794, that only the west gabl(» wiis left along with portions of 
the foundations of the side walls. Could it be possible that the associa- 
tion with St Andrews would lead to tlie use of Fifesliire stones for the 
earlier structure, and possibly to the employment cjf masons from the 
Cathedral town? Tmns[>ort by water would be comparatively easy. 
The quarries at Kingoodie have probably been worked for many centuries. 
It is judged by experts that the Old Steeple in Dundee, and the Church 
of Fowlis Easter, both buildings attributable to the fifteenth century, 
are erectcHl of Kingoodie stones. It may, however, well be that a church 
existed at Longforgan long prior to this ; and if, as is not impro])al)le, 
masons were sent from Fifesliin^ it may have l)een considered desirable 
to supply them with the class of stones they wen; accustomed to. 



HUTCHESON, F. S.A.Scot., Beoughty Ferry. 

In the village of Longforgan, Perthshire, there is preserved a relic, 
which tradition connects with the Scottish Patriot, Sir William 
Wallace. I understand it is the intention of Mr Charles J. G. 
Paterson of Castle Huntly, shortly to place this relic for preservation 
in a public position in the village of Longforgan. A fitting oppor- 
tunity has therefore offered for a critical notice, which has not 
hitherto been accorded to the relic in question. 

The tradition, w^hich is a purely local one, relates that when 
Wallace fled from Dundee, after having slain the son of the English 
Governor, he rested on a stone which stood at the door of a cottage 
in Longforgan, and there received refreshment at the hands of the 
occupants, and the stone which served as a seat for the youthful 
hero has, it is clainKMl, Ikhhi preserved to the i)resent day, and is 
locally known as Hhe Wallace Stone.' 

The Longforgan incident is not referred to by Llind Harry, although 
he detiiils the fatal (piarrel in Dundee and the flight of Wallace. 

The earliest reference 1 have met with to the Walhicc St(.>ne occurs 
in a MS. in the possession of ]\lr Paterson of Castle Huntly. This 
MS., which gives a description of the lordship of Castle Huntly — 
then called Castle Lyon — is not dated, Init from internal evidence 
appears to have l)een written about 1760, by one who had api)arently 
discharged the duties of forester or gardener on the estate.^ The 
reference to the Wallace Stone is here given entire and I'erbcUivi. 

"Among tlie curiosities of tliis Lordship tlieir is on in the Village of Long- 
forgan omited formerly whidi I shall mention liere, viz. : — In the reign of Edward 
Longslianks of England Sir William Wallace of Elerslie, Barronet, being 
a promising youth of 14 years of age wa.s sent from there to his uncle's 

^ The MS. is signed * A Crardener,' but whether the actual surname of the writer 
or a nom deplume signifying his employment there is nothing to show. 


than proprietor of Kilspinde for his Education, who sent him to the 
Sdiool of^ Dundie — tlie Mayor of Dundie at that time was a Yorkshire 
Gentleman of the name of Selbie, who had on only son of 16 years of 
age was likewise at School their. 

On day when all the Schoolars was at play at the west port of that 
town Yomig Selbie found fault with Wallace for having a Suit of short 
Qreen Clothes with a belt from thence depended a Durk or Skene. This 
weapon is still pratised in Scotland and is very Dangerous in Close Combat, 
it serves for manual uses as well as for Defence ; it is ten Inches Long 
in the Blade and two edged with a row of holls up the midle, the handle 
is five inches Long, it hings befor on the Belly* — this Weapon young 
Selbie wanted from Wallace at anyrate, so that a scuffle inshued between 
the two young Heroes, four times Wallace threw his antagonist on the 
ground, at the fifth atack Wallace drew his Skene & stobed young 
Selbie to the Heart and then fled to a house on the Northside of the 
Overgate of that tou-n- where he was well screened by the female Sex 
while the English Garislion vended their fury on the inhabitants of the 
town and would have Laid it in ashes if it had not been for the inter- 
position of Sir John Scrimger of Dudup who went to his kness and stopted 
their fury. As this was the first of our Scots- worthy's Exploits Let us 
return to him. Wallace being cunducted safe out at the West Port fled 
up the Tayside. The first halt he made was at a house in Longforgan 
and sat Down at the Door of said house on a stone which serves for a 
knocking stone and hear the Hospitall T^andlady give him an ample 
rejjast of Bread and Milk, from there he proceeded to Killspindie, but 
his Uncle fearing a Search from Dundie sent our young Hero with his 
wife over the ferry at Lindors on their way to Dunipce in Stirllingshire 
where he was safe at that time. But to return, that stone at the house 
in Longforgan still goes by the name of the Wallace Stone, and what is 
more remarkable ever since the for-mentioned period of Wallace, the 
name of Smith from father to son hath been Landlords of this House 
and how long before is not known, only this on thing among all the 
Revolitions oi time they have been very carfuU in preserving this stone 
as a piece of great Antiquity." 

The next notice in point of time, I have been able to trace, 
is contained in the Statistical Account of Sir John Sinclair, which 
gives the tradition as it existed in 1795. This account agrees with 

* This by no means correct description of a Scottish dirk was probably drawn from 
some specimen of a weapon the writer had seen. The Scots or Highland dirk is 
usually single edged. The double-edged sjiecimens have probably been made from 
the blade of a sword cut down — at least any that I have seen gave me that impres- 
sion. The * row of holls up the middle ' would be most unusual. It will be observed 
that the writer gives the popular Scottish pronunciation ** durk." 

* An independent tradition in Dundee also assigns the house to a site in the Over- 


the fonner; but as it is rather fuller in description, and is moreover 
apparently the ])asis of all subsequent references to the Stone, I make 
no apology for quoting it also entire. 

"There is a very respectable man in Longforgan (Perthshire), of the 
name of Smith, a weaver, and the farmer of a few acres of land, who has 
in his possession a stone, which is called Wallaces Stone. It is what was 
formerly called in this coimtry a bear done^ hollow like a large mortar, 
and was made use of to unhusk the bear or barley, as > preparation for 
the pot, with a large wooden mell, long before barley-mills were known. 

" Its station was on one side of the door, and covered with a flat stone 
for a seat, when not otherwise employed. Upon this stone Wallace sat 
on his way from Dundee, when he ned, after killing the Governor's son, 
and was fed with bread and milk by the good wife of the house, from 
whom the man, who now lives there, and is proprietor of the stone, is 
lineally descended, and here his forbears have lived ever since, in nearly 
the same station and circumstances for about 500 years." (xix. 616-2.) 

The story appears subsequently in much the same form in various 
publications, and amongst others in the Notes to Jamieson's E^tion of 
Blind Harry's Wallace. In a local publication, Myles' Rambles in For- 
farshire and tlie Borders of Pertlishire (Dundee, 1850), the writer, in 

giving the tradition, states that he has seen tlie Stone. ^ No mention is 
made of the Stone or of the tradition in the Scottish Text Society's 
Eilition of Wallace. 

Mr Henry Prain, Lonj^'forgan, who remembers seeing the stone and 
hearing the tradition seventy years ago, informs me that the List male 
representative of tlie Smith family had been long abroad. When he 
came home lie bouglit property in Dundee, and he and his sisters 
removed thither in or about 1860, and nothing is now known of the 
family. Mr Prain further states that the late Mr Oeorge Paterson of 
C-astle Huntly, shortly before Mr Smith left for Dundee, asked for and 
obtained possession of the Wallace Stone, and from that date until now 
the relic has boon preserved at Castle lluntly. 

A short description of the stone or stones is now desirable. The 

' He also rather inflatedly tells that it is kept as clear and clean a8 any dish in 
the house, and is exposed in as favourable a place for view as if it were a splendid 
piece of family china. 



kiger of tlie two stones (fig* l\ which la the only on© dcaciibed or 
referred to usually in jiving the tradition, is what was known amongst 
coiintry people as a * knock ing-stone * — a stone mortar for husking or 
prefKiring harley for cooking purposes. It moasurea externally about 
15 inches across^ by al>i>ut 10 inche& in height The basin or hollow in 
the stone is 9 inches in diameter at the top, sliglitly less nt the bottom, 
and 6^ inches in depth. Apart from the hollow, the stjiuc has not 
otherwise been shaped or dressed. It ia a mtlely rhomboiilal l)loi:k, 
aptmrently of Kingoodie^ sandstone, the edges and angles rounded by the 
weather or attrition. 

Fig. I. The * Wallace Stonefi'— a KJio<ikiiig-9tou& witli it8 coyer, {^.j 
(From a plLot<jgm|iU by Mr A. IIutch^tKiu.) 

The other stone, which accompanies it, and whii^h ought perhaps ttj 
be regar<led as the real 'Wallace Stone/ since it and not the other 
formed the seatj is a thin uudressed slab of a hard-grained sandstone, 
not more than 1 J inches in thiekneaa, and otherwise of such dimensions 
as just to cover the lower stone, which was indeed ita purpose (fig. 2). 
The under side of the slab appears to have been painted, and exhibits, 
when tnrned up to the light, many lines of circular striation such m 
would naturally be formed by contact with the lips of the trough when 

« A qiiany b the noighboui-hood. Tlie older knockiug-atoaes were like thin 
one, unsb^ped Dxtoru&Uy ; th@ more modern esiimptea were squared or o<;ta|^oiia] in 



the fonnor; but as it is rather \ 
apparently the liasis of all m)--^' 
no apolog}' for quoting it alsi 

"There is a very respecta)il</ 
name of Smith, a weaver, aijil t 
in his possession a stone, wb^^ '< 
form(;rly allied in this eoun 
and was made use of to im 
the pot, with a large woodei 

" Its station was on one si 
for a seat-, when not otherwj 
on his way from Dundee, v 
and was fed with bread ant 
whom the man, who now 1 
lineally desa^nded, and here 
the same station and circumfi 

The story appears subsoj|tiit 
publication^), and amongst oi 
Blind Harry's Wallace. In 
farslnre and the BartJers o; 
^'iving tlie tradition, states t 
made of the Stone or of tht^ 
K(liti(ni of Wallace. 

Mr Henry I'rain, Tjonj^f organ, w . 
licarin^' the tradition seven t\' years ii 
n'pn'Sfiitative of tin* Smitli family 
cauK^ liome he bou;^lit |»roporty ii 
n'HLoved thither in or about 1860, 
family. Mr Train further st-jites tl 
(\ist.le Iluntly, schorl ly bef<.r«* Mr Sn 
obtained jMK^ession of the Walhice 5 
tlic relie has been preservi'il nt Cast' 

A slmrt description nf tlif sloi 

' II.' also rntli.T ii.lliit.-.lly U-]U thai 
tin- liouse. ami is ixpo^).! jn -j^ t.-iVOUrso. 
jiiccL' of family cliiiKi. 


have more than once liad to acknowledge my grateful indebtedness 
for like aid, has favoureil me with the following particulars of the 
process : — 

The dry ])arley grains were put into tlie stone pot or knocking-stone, 
sprinkled witli a little water to moisten them and to soften the husk, 
and then Ixiaten witli a wooden mallet or mell until tlie husks were 
nil)}>ed oft'. If th(? day was dry and a wind blowing, the contents of 
the stone pot would l)e taken out and laid on a cloth or any little knoll 
or dry place to get the husks blown away, or sometimes, and especially 
if it was wet weatlier or no wind blowing, the barley was put into a 
* wecht ' (a slieepskin stretched over a hoop) and shaken up and down, 
the liusks meanwhile being vigorously blown away by the breath. 
This would be repeated until all th(i husks were blown away. By this 
j)rimitive method the barley intinided for broth was prepared down to 
as recently as 1850 in some districts in tlie Highlands. 

The wooden mallet was sometimes shapiHl like a pestle, and in use 
was simply lifted up and down with pounding moticm ; more frequently 
the mallet was fixed in a wood hanclle axe- wise, and was then used like 
a hammer. Sometimes the mallet was double headed, having a broad 
or ball-head at each end of a stem, like a dumb-bell, and having the 
handle fixed at a right angle to the middle of the stem. The advantage 
of this arrangement was thought to be that as the ball ends, from being 
used at intervals alternately, got to be worn to a slightly different 
superficies, they imparteil, wlien alternated, a sort of rotiitory motion 
to the grains of barley which contributed to unhusking, l)esides making 
a Ijetter balanced hammer than the one-sided form.^ 

In Strathspey, wooden knocking-pots were used instead of stone.^ 
They were usually much deeper than and not so wide at the mouth 
as the stone ones. The wood was supposed by some to be })etter than 

* For descrijition of a knocking-stono and niell of axc-tyiw in the Society *8 
Museum, see Proceed itt'js, vol. xii. p. 263. 

^ There is a wood knocking-block with its wooden mell from Struthspey in the 
Museum. For description of it, see ProccaHntjs, vol. xxiv. p. 278. 

VOL. XXXIV. 2 11 


stone, inasmuch as the wood did not cut the barley as a hard stone 
would do, and the greater depth of the wooden {wt was supposed to 
prevent the barley from jumping out in the process of being beaten. 

These wooden pots had also covers of wood in the same way as the 
stone examples, tlie object of the cover being to keep the interior 
clean, and to prevent dogs and poultry from getting at the pot. Barley 
was said to be sweeter when dressed in tliis way than by modem 

The barley stone always stood just within the door, so as to be 
handy for getting the husks blown away. 

Those who have seen the interior of a Higldand cottage before the 
inroad of tlie modern tourist had made the inhabitants 'sprush up' 
can well realise that a few barley husks lying about the floor would not 
raise any feelings of inconvenience to the inmates, and the probability is 
that in Wallace's time the barley stone stood well inside the house, as 
this position would give it better protection from the weather, and it 
might at the same time furnish a seat at a period when we may be sure 
the cottage homes of Scotland were not overburdened ^vith furniture. 

This is not the place to discuss the probabilities of the tradition. 
It is sufficient to observe that there are distinct points of difference 
between it and the narrative of Blind Harry, which would seem to 
indicate the tradition was not due to that work. Further, it may be 
remarked that the Longforgan tradition does not deal with any of the 
superhuman feats, the hero-myths current in Scotland, many of wOiich 
have not yet been recorded, but relates to an incident that has all 
the colour of probability about it, and I think there is every reason for 
the careful preservation of a relic so interesting, mainly on account 
of the story which luis linked them with the National hero, but also 
as relics of an extinct domestic usa^e in Scotland. 



F.S.A. Scot., Beoughty-Fkeey. 

The use of chanu-stones is probably coeval with human superstition. 
The brilliant colours of gems and crystals doubtle^^ early impressed the 
imaginative faculty which endowed them with suggestions of occult 
powers and potentialities, Imt long ere man had reached the stage of 
polishing gems so as to bring out their lustre and brilliant colours, mere 
form and natural colour had arrested his attention and led him to 
associate with the water-rounded stone a special quality of power and 
influence over human affairs. The frequency with which the simple 
water-rounded pebble c»f white quartz is found associated with early 
burials^ points to an underlying significancy so highly esteemed as to 
have rendered it not unfrequently to all appearance the only relic thought 
worthy of preser\'ation among the ashes of the dead ; and the child of 
modem days who collects from the gravel beach his hoard of little white 

man, and inherent in the human race. 

But noteworthy as is the frequency with which the white pebble 
recurs in ancient burial sites, it seems probable that a significance attached 
to water-rounded stones of any kind. Their smoothness, r^ularity of 
rounded outline, and, when wet, their pleasing colours must have soon 
marked them out for notice and suggested to early man's infant powers 
Ei mysterious origin. Hence, doubtless, the reason for the paving of the 
bottoms of many burial cists with such water-rolled pebbles, brought 
in some cases from a considerable distance. . , 

There is an early literary reference to a mystic stone which 
illustrates in a remarkable manner this tendency of sui)erstition to 

^ Sir Arthur Mitchell has gathered together and comthented ou a number of 
instancea in ancient and modern times of the association of white pebbles with 
burials. See Proc.^ vol. xviii. pp. 286-291. 


pebbles is probably only following out a tendency evinced by prehistoric I \ j 



In form it is egg-sliaped, approximately symmetrical, rather flatter on 
the apex than the true egg-fonn, and distinctly ovate in the short 
section. It measures two inches in the longer diameter and rather over 
one and a half inch in the shorter, weighs exactly four ounces, and has 
a specific gravity of 2-666, or almost that of Aherdecn granite. The 
stone exhibits a beautifully mottled cream and liver coloured surface, 
with delicate touches and streaks of pink here and there on the cream 
colour. It is difficult to designate a stone so evenly smoothed and 
polished and exhibiting no fracture, and this difficulty is increased on 
account of its surface being more or less greasy from long or frequent 

It has been suggested that it is a volcanic tuff, but its specific gravity 
would seem to preclude such a conclusion, even if Sutherland were a 
volcanic county geologically, which it is not. 

The history of the stone so far as known is as follows. It is said 
to be one of three charm-stones which belonged to a reputed witch in 
Sutherlandshire. Iler story is thus related in the Statistical Account 
of the parish of Farr.^ 

" Connected with the antiquities of the Parisli of Farr, in Sutherland- 
sliire, there is a loch in Strathnaver, to which superstition has ascrilxHl 
wonderful healing virtues. The time at which this loch came to be in 
repute with the sick cannot now be ascertained. It must, however, have 
been at a time when superstition had a firm hold of the minds of all 
classes of the community. The tradition as to tlie origin of it^ healing 
virtues is briefly as follows : — A woman, either from Ross-shire or 
Inverness-shire, came to the heights of Strathnaver, pretending to cure 
diseases by means of water into which slie had previously thrown some 
pebbles wliich she carried about with her. In her progress down the 
strath, towards tlie coast, a man in whose house she lodged wished to 
possess himself of tlie pebbles, but, discovering his design, she escaped 
and he pursued. 

" Finding, at the loch referred to, that she could not escape her 
' Ncv: SUdvitkal Acorunt of Scotland, vol. xv. p. 72. 



pursuer any l*»iii?rr, <i>* ;L:*v iB^f pf«>i>tfftt iK«^ iBj^ Vv)u ^xdjiimii^ iy^ 

(laelic, *w^/-nar/ :hii Ss. iihiJiDf* c ilt sduoDf'. FV"«a i^)$ v':sy^}ja)Mlii>4) 

the Iiich re^^eivirnl :h-r z^iziir^ -wljri, ii 5Ci£I ?«aditN. " /L/«rlMWMMr/ «^l liw* 

phbles are >up>i^I i. hh^i inLjiirTAi lo Si :i5 b^inc ^'^i&rtiK^Y. TVhn^ 

are only f"Ur .Uy? in lib* y^ftkr in mii^'^t ax? <sap|v>5»e\l cm^K: <^mii W 

effected. Th€^ ir>r zhr ±r??: M oiiy, v4d mift, of Ftfbtnwirr^ M;ny. 

August, and N:-Tr=L:»rr. I^zrlzii: Ff^btrotxy azkI Nv^TvaiKMr ik> ow^ vi:4l3? 

it; but in May ir?i A":ir^i>:. n:iinl«r» fiv«n ;^;h^fiuKi OMihiwt^ R^^i^ss 

shire, and even fr:^ Inrrj^ifear^fiiiw And Ortney <v«i^ to this ftir luKioi 

It)ch. The tiieren. cie> lLt:-.^ whSch ili^ patienu^ Imiv\? to go «* lh<* 

followin;! : — Y^rrj nu>i ill t«e a: ihe kxli side aKmi tw«lw oVWk *l 

night, A> r:ir> n Xro-iiy as .>ne i>r twv* oVloek in Uie iiH^ming^ ihii* i 

patient is :* • plunce, t :►• V^ jJuniz^U ihneip tiiiwi^ into Uw» Wh : b U> 

drink of its wiier? : ;• • ihri>w a piece of coin into il *s a kind of trilniU* : 

and must Y^ .iway fr»:»m its l^mks, $¥> as to be f^riy oiu of si^t ixf itijt 

waters Vjeforv ibe sun rises, else no cure is suppi^sed to W etlecte^i.*" Tho 

writer ad'is that even at the time he wn>le many still came fix>m li^e 

sliires already menti«»neil and say they an? Wueiite^l by thfcse pract.ic<>s, 

but adds his «»pini»»n that such jxitients Wing mostly |>ersons a!(eete«l by 

nervous complaints, are probably Wnetitoil by the journey and Uie health^ 

ful air of the hills and glens through which they have U> jxiss*' 

So far the story as given in the St«itistical Accinint, but while Umditit^n 
claims this as one of the stones thrown into lA>chmonar, it ftul» to 
record by what means one of the stones was rescueil fn^ni tlie w^atewk 
Wliat seems t<» be cort^un is that at simie time in the end of la^t 
century this particular st<ine wiis in the pi^ssession of liiml Keuy ; tluit 
his lordship wjis much annoyed by people coming fnmi far »uul ue<ir 
to procure water into which the stone had Ih»oii dip|HHl, and giivo it 
away to an ancestor of its pivsent owner, Mr Kric lb>8ss (»ol8pie» 
to whose courtesy I am indebted for tlie foUowing particulars and for 

' Dr Oiegor, in the Folklore JimnmJ for 1888, quote^l by Mr MacKinUyi givwi n 
somewhat different vei-sion of this tradition, which makes mention of only OMO «tou<>| 
and that a wliite one, possessed by the witch-womnn. 


permission to exhibit this very interesting relic to the Society. Mr 
Ross's notes are as follows : — 

" The WH^h^s Stmie^i. — The story of tlie three ni;igic stones thrown liy .the 
witcli into Loch Mon-«aar, and the suljseciuent healing jwwers of tliat locli, 
is to be found in the Statistical Account of the County of Sutherland, 
written by the ministers of the different parishes towards the end of last 
century. This stone, which had been in the possession of the Reay family 
for generations, was highly esteemed by the country people, who came from 
all parts of Sutherland, when their cattle fell ill, for a small bottle of water, 
in which the stone had first been immersed. This water was faithfully 
administered to the ailing animals. Lord Reay was so bothered by these 
visitors that he gave the stone to my father, who in his turn was often called 
upon for the magical water. My father bequeathed the stone to my elder 
l)rother, who dying about three years ago, the ancient stone became my property. 
I rememl)er well in my yoimg days, the people coming for the water ; and 
their anxious faces as they watched the stone being put into the bowl of 
water. It is to be regretted tliat no particulars of the early history of the 
stone are known, except the fact that it was once the property of a notorious 
witch. Hifctory is silent also regarding the recovery ot the stone from Loch 
Mon-aar, how it came into the possession of the Keay family, and the fate 
of its fellow-stones. The stone was never used except for the purpose already 
mentioned. If the stone dried q^uickly after l^eing taken out of the water, 
the sick animal would get well rapidly ; but if slowlv it would be a lingering 
recovery : so the poor people believed. What the stone was used for in 
ancient times, it is impossible to know. The loch, however, into which 
the witch-woman tlu'ew the precious stones, was ever afterwards regarde^l 
as a place of healing ; and hundreds of people have been known to journey 
from far to the loch for the sake of plunging into its dark \vaters to heal some 
real or imaginary ills. The plunge had to be taken at midnight and the 
l)ather out of sight of the loch before the sun rose and shone upon its waters, 
or else the charm would fail to work." 

It will be observed that in his interesting narration Mr Ross refers 
to the story of the witch as given in the Statistical Account, which 
story so given, it must be confessed, may have helped to perpetuate the 
tradition in modern times. Be this ccmnection as it may, the stone has 
a history all its own. The ))elief of its efhcacy in the cure of diseases 
among catth* in the present generation is doubtless but the survival 
of a more extended influence in former times, when, as ascril)ed to the 
Loch Monar stones, the cure of human ills linked it, as we have seen, 
with a superstition at least as old as the days of St Columba. 



the plan (marking roughly the sites of the urns and patches of 
ashes found) is a triangle named ROCK ; on the apex of this rock, 
which is 46 feet 5 inches W.S.W. of the first urn-site, from B on 
small plan, a deep mark has been chiselled which will be a guide to 
any further investigation. From it, due east 370 feet, is another 



— h- 

J>00 300 
— < 1— 


— 4— 



■ Feet. 



cui*->MjaaE3> STciNx: 

(axTK or) 



F L ^ T ^ E 








■2-A- ij 


vmiv ;|. 

9«.n» »»r,,t 


Fig. 1. Ground Plan of site of lironze Age Burials on Braid Hills. 

rocky point similarly marked. 50 feet south of this last, and in the 
hollow sward, may yet be traced the site of the cup-and-ring-marked 
stone discovered by Mr Liimb. The stone now leans up against the 
north side of the tool shod. Due S.W. from this shed, 134 feet, is 
a small wliinstone boulder, deeply earth-fast, which bears the three 


cup-marks as descril>ed in my former mites. lU disUuice fn^in the site 
of the otlier cup-marked stone is 368 feet ; and 930 feet due west, we 
toucli the an^rle of tlie Marcli-dike whicli hen^ intersects the Klf LiH'h, 
( )n the soutli side of this dike, on the Ihickstone ^dfcourse, ut *U' 
near tlie six>t marked with a star on tlie ph\n, wore h^n^ iij(t» iliwun'onMl 
the empty cists seen hy Sir J. Y. Simpson.^ 

The above measurements were made hy clmiuing, and in nmny o{ 
them with the assistance of Mr J. E. Simpkins, second attendant in 
the Museum. 

In dealing more particularly witli tlie finding of the unm, wo nnint 
note, first, that the whole extent of tlie plateau in common with otlier 
and mucli less level portions of the Braids boar distinct marks <if Imving 
been ploughed and cultivated. Therefore, it is not surprising to hear 
that, on the turf being stripped, only the lower iK)rtions of tlie large 
Cinerary Urn (Urn 1 on the small plan), that is, the shoulder and the 
rim — for it stood inverte<l —were discoverable : the rest, no <loiibt, having 
been knocked away by ploughshare or harrow. In the space oovereil 
by this urn (about 11 inches in diameter) was a small (juantity of burnt 
bones, which, from their slightness, jwint to the intcmnent as that of u per 
son of immature age. Four feet six inches to the west there wait olifierved 
a small quantity of ashes much mixed with the soil (marki^l with small 
crosses in plan). Five days later Mr Anderson, the gre^ni-kee|Mfr| brought 
to the Museum the pieces of a sec^nid urn, which hail \mtm found the 
previous day at the sp^t indicated on the small plan, Just 4 feet H,W. 
of the deposit of ashes (Uni 2). On going to the N|Mit with himi we 
made a little very careful digging in the same line for aUiiit 8 feet, but 
came on no more p^Htery, though the s^iil woi* tunieil over for a de|^|i of 
2 feet Exactly undenn^th the siUi of the muufml iini, which is of 
Cinerary tj-pe but small, burnt stuff aiwl Uiny remains wer« irHd^Mu\tU* 
down to 2 feet 9 inch<^. 

Datriplion of tli/i Urns. — TImj large vMufmry nm (ttg, I), on 
fortunatelj to imperfe'-t, must luave uaiaMtirnii aU;iit 18 UniUim in Uifiy^Ui^ 
* Prooe<din^9t vol xxxi« j/, J J 2, 


pftocREomaa OF the society, may m, laoo. 

tiiiHiriiiir from the mouth to a Im^e of 3i iuoLiea iti diameter, [t i» cif 
very ocw^r?*^ xritty rlaVp and hnlf an iindj thick at tlio plain ttat lip. 
Afu'iws tl»o mouth thi* diahit^ttr is 11 J inrhei*, at the ^ihoidder 15 im^ht^'S 
i\n* ii<*[itfi fjf the overhanghig nm l>t!ing 3 J nidiesfi, vertieid find with 
n shaiply*di*iiiifid edge ; the Uiml, IjcIow this, is also well defincilj ami 
lut'jtsiivi's il>'^ iiichf^s in dt^pth. The omamentation on tho overhangiuj^ 
rim cousirtts of fourteen wide trinnglea tilled in with verticid lin&ri^ 
th« outtir 8p«iees with many simikr lint^s |ilacetl ohlicjnely ; and all doin^ 







H* M f . • » ^ 

Fig. 1. Larger Urn from Braid Hills, (i.) 

Fig. 2. Smaller Urn from 
Braid Hills. U.) 

jiH if witli u twisted cord. The lower band bears a triple row of deeply- 
nuirkod, short sharp diagonals, as if done with an edged tool of some kind. 
Th(^ small urn of cinerary type (fig. 2) is 5J inches in height, 5J 
inches wide across tlie mouth, at the shoulder 6 inches wide and 2 inches 
in depth, from the lower edge of which it tapers to a base of 3 inches. 
Tho ornamentation on the slioulder is of crossed lines done with a point, 
untl below it a single rcnv of sharp, oblique lines with a double row of 
rudely triani^'ular notches of a somewhat peculiar form, not preciseh'^ 
like th(^ nail or tih^;ur mruks tjEii^urntly ubsen'd. ^'ii ii.s il i>ressiri] h 
with the l^rifadisli ggii^^i of a bonf.', mv ntbcr }m^ ' ■ Meni, 


(2.) Note of the Discxjverv of a axd Urn near Portpatrick, 


On the 29th October 1899, notice wax received of this discover}', in 
the form of a communication from Rev. (i. Philip Robertson, Free 
Church Manse, Sandhead, U* Dr Anderson ; and suljsequently an 
extract from The GaJhffcay Gaz^^, enclose^l in a letter U) Dr Anderson 
from the Right Hon. Sir Hcrljert K >faxwell, of cUite 5th Xovemljer 
1899, gave the following fact^ re/aitling it: — 

The site, alx)ut 2 miles s^>uth of Portpatrick, is on the farm of 
Port of Spittal, in Stoneykirk. Tlie interment was found by some boys in 
a sandpit, on the sloping south-«ast side of a field, in which there is a 
standing stone, a bhick of whinsU^ne about 5 feet high ; near to which, 
it is stated, many years ago, gmve-slabs were turned up by the plough, 
but, the graves being empt>', the slabs were replaced. Locally, the field 
is known as " The burial-ground of the four Kings." Quantities of sand 
having been removed for building purposes, the grave was exjiose^L It 
was made of flat sea-washed stones, and measured 3 feet 9 inches in length 
vfith a breadth and depth of 2 feet 6 inches. At the S.E. cfjTner was a dw;^>- 
rated urn, " smaller than a boy^s heail," the exterior brown, the intent ft 
black. Besides the urn, which was irretrievably smashed, there were 
found a jaw-bone containing nine t4,*eth in g^xxl preservation, and r/ther 
small pieces of bone, Vm^wn with age but haiti in suljstance. Tlie grave 
was covered, as usual, with a heavy whinst^/ne slab, which lay fuHy 
3 feet below the surface of the tiel'L Tlie setting of the grave secfrns 
to have been east and wej*t. 

Judging from these detaiU the interment «e*;nw Uf have U;*;n of th#5 j 1 

ordinary variety «>f uncr<fmate«l Bronze Age burial, iuuufm\ts%nm\ by an 
urn uf fojil-vesnel tyjj#i. 



Abercrombie, Armorial Bearings of, . . . . 428 

Abercromby ( Hon. J. ), Donation of Irish Gun-money and a Copper Medal by, 1 35 

Aberdeenshire, Flint Arrow-heads from, ..... 488 

Axe of Clay-slate from, ....... 482 

Greenstone Axe from, ....... 482 

Pair of Barnacles from, ....... 804 

Three Stone Balls from, —Purchased, ... .488 

Aberfeldy, Mote on Torr Hill at, 60 

Tyndun, a Fort near, ....... 70 

Aberlemno, Greenstone Axe from, 484 

Abemethy and Leslie, Quartering of Arms of, . 808 

Aldbar Castle, Moat near, . * . 60 

Alexander the Carpenter, Payment for work at Stirling Cattle to, 288 
Altar dedicated to the Magusan Hercules from Bridge-of-BrightonH, 

Falkirk 260 

Airlie, Earth -houses at, . 210 
Aitken (Dr A. P.), Donation of Indian Calumet of Buffalo Horn by, 186 
Donation of Fragments of two Cinerary Urns from liOnwalt 

by, . . 223 

Anderson (Captain J. H.), Notes on Bock- Basins, Cup- and King-marked 

Stones, and Archaic Customs in India, by, . 886 
(Dr. J.), Notice of a Cist containing Three Urns of Kood'ViMol 

Type at Duncra Hill Farm, Pencaitland, by, 181 
Description of a Collection of Objects Found in Kxeavattonii 

at St Blane's Church, Bute, exhibited by the MarquU of huta, 

by, «07 826 

(Rev. J. D.), Sarer Bracelet exhibited by, . . 26U 

Ani^o-Saxon Burhi and Early Norman Castles, . , . , 200 2HM 

Antler of Irish Elk, Donation by Sir H. E. >Uxwell of au, . 18 

Arimthnot, ForU called Castle Dikes near, f}0 

Azmitage (Mrs E. S.), Anglo-Saxon Bnrbs and Early Norman Ca»tl«ii by, *lliO 'IHH 

Anudbal, Mote near, 64 

I of FUnt from Aberdeenshire,— I'arcba«ad, 480 



Arrow-heads of Flint from Gordonstown, Banffshire, — Purchased, 
• from Peeblesshire and Lanarkshire, — Purchased, 

and Spear-head of Chert from Nebraska, 

Athelstan, Laws of, regarding Burhs^ .... 
Auchcncorth, Bronze Sword from, .... 

Aucheries, Cruden, Aberdeenshire, Polished Stone Axe from, 
Auchmithie, Castle Rock at, .... . 

Auchquhorthies, Banchory- Deveuick, Stone Circle at,, Four Earth-houses at, . 
Auld Kirk 0' Tough, Stone Circle called The, . 
Axe of Greenstone from Benachie, — Purchased, 

of Caribbean Type, — Exhibited, 

from Aberdeenshire, — Purchased, 

from Invcrkeithny, Banff, — Purchased, 

from Riskbuie, Colonsay, Donation of an, 

of Bronze, Flat, from Uarlaw Moor, — Purchased, 

of Iron, found at Moraytown, Inverness-shire, 

of Jade from Makarora, New Zealand, . 

of Mica-schist from Balglossie, Aberlemno, — Purchased, 

of Stone from Cruden, Aberdeenshire, — Purchased, . 

from Kirkton of Aberlemno,— Purchased, 

of Caribbean Type, said to have been found on Culbin 

■ polished, from Aucheries, Cruden, 

polished, from Lanarkshire, 

Axes of polished Stone from Peeblesshire, Purchase of thirteen. 
Axe-hammer of Greenstone found at Drumfad, Glasserton, Donation 
H. E. Maxwell of an, 

found at Mochrura, Donation by Sir H. E. Maxwell 

Ay ton, Armorial Bearings of, 


by Sir 
of an, 

Bain (J.), The Scottish De Quoncys of Fawside and Leuchars, Supplenien 
tary Notes by, ...... 

(James), " His Majestie's Wright," 

Baird (Rev. H.), Donation of Bronze Scabbard-tip by. 
Baker (Sir S.), Account of snaring Rhinoceros, by, 
Bamborough, an Anglo-Saxon Fort, .... 
15alblair, Stone Circle at, . 
Balglossie, Aberlemno, Axe of Mica- schist from, 
Balnacraig, Midinar, 0. M. Drawing of Stone Circle at, 
Balls of Greenstone from Aberdeenshire, 

four, of Stone from Peeblesshire, — Purchased, 

Banchory District, Tabular Summary of Stone Circles in the, 
Banff, Shields of Arms in, ..... 

BanlTshire, Flint Arrowheads from, — Purchased, 









Barclay (David de), Memorial stone of, ..... 468 

Barley, the old way of husking, . 481 

Barnacles, Pair of, from Aberdeenshire, ..... 304 

Barra Hill Fort, near Alyth, .... . . 93 

Vitrifaction in, ....... . 95 

Basalt, Smoothing Stone of, from Broughton, Peeblesshire, — Purchased, . 435 

Baxter (Rev. G. C), Donation of a Cup-marked Stone from Gargill by, . 304 

Bayeux Tapestry, Picture of a Motte at Hastings in the, 273 
Bead of Variegated Glass from a Cairn at Kirkchrist, Wigtownshire, 

Donation of, ....... . 17 

of Glass, from Lesmahagow, — Purchased, .... 436 

Beads of Jet from Cist at Moray town, Inverness-shire, . 215 

from Peeblesshire, Purchase of three, ..... 435 

found in the Eartli-house at Pitcur, 214 

of Glass or Paste from Aberdeenshire, — Purchased, 433 

Beddoe (Dr), Note on Surnames in Laurencekirk Kirkyard by, 45 

Bell (Alex.), Donation of Stone Balls and Stone Disc by, ... 223 

(David), Arch Deacon of Dunblane, ..... 288 

Ben Effery, Ochils, ... ... 72 

Benachie, Greenstone Axe from, ....... 432 

Bequest of a ( 'ollection of Bibles, Testaments, and Psalm Books by John 

Haxton, Markiiuh, ..... 18 

Bertram (J.), Donation of an *' Elgin Medal " by, . 223 

Beveridge (Erskine), Donation of Photographs of Brochs by, 186 

Bibles, Testaments, and Psalm Books, Bequest of a Collection of, . 18 

Bickaneer Desert, Snaring Wild Animals in the, ... 337 

Bickerton (John), Grant by Queen Mary to, . 294 

Binghill, Stone Circle at, 187 

Binning (Sir William), 291 

Bisset Moss, Forgue, Perforated Hammer of Greenstone from, 304 

Flint Scraper from, ... ... 433 

Blackhill Camj), Stonehaven, 107 

Blyth Bridge, Sandstone Whori from, ...... 436 

Bochastle, Fort at, . 62 

Book -clasp of Brass found at St Blane's, Bute, .... 324 

Boulders of Greenstone, (irooved, from Sheriffmuir, Peeblesshire, . 436 

Bouston (John), Grant by Queen Mary to, ... . 293 

Bowduns, near Stonehaven, ....... 60 

Bowl of ' Samian ' Ware found in the Earth-house at Pitcur, 212 

Bracelet of Silver from near Al ford, Aberdeenshire, .... 259 

Bradfield and Mcx])orough, Small Moated Mounds at, 268 

Braid Hills, Discovery of Bronze Age Urns on the, .... 489 

Brass, Book-clasp of, found at St Blane's, Bute 324 

lirfiascJies, the Norman- French Name for the Wooden Castles of Moats, . 269 




Brigham (D.), Donation of Pliotographs of Brochs, etc., by, 258 

British Museum, Purchase of the Glenlyon Brooch by the Trustees of the, 4 

Brochs, Donation of Photographs of, . 136,258 

Broichan, the Druid, cured by St Adam nan, . 484 

Bronze, Flat Axe of, from Harlaw Moor, ..... 435 

Scabbard-tip of, from Glencotho, Peeblesshire, . 224, 254 

Sword of, from Auchencorth, ...... 435 

Bronze Age Urns discovered on the Braid Hills, .... 489 

Broughton, Peeblesshire, Smoothing Stone from, ... 4i35 

Brown (Thomas), Master Smith at Holyrood, ..... 290 

Browne (Kight Rev. G. F., D.D., Bishop of Bristol), Notice of a Cup- 
marked Boulder called the Saj di Gorone, or Stone of the Heel, 
near Stresa, on the Lago Maggiore, by, .... 

Brownie of the Island, the Spirit of Sybilla's Isle, Loch Tay, 
Bruce (J.), Donation of a Perforated Hammer of Greenstojie and a Pair of 
Barnacles by, ........ 

(John), Notes of the Exploration of a Pile Structure on the North 

Hank of the Clyde, east from Dumbarton, by, 

(Sir William), Designer of the Modern Holyrood Palace, 

Buchan (VV.), Note on a Bronze Scabbard-tif> found on Glencotho Farm, 
Peeblesshire, by, ....... 

(Lady Isabella), Imprisonment of, .... . 

Buchanan (K. F.), Donation of a Perforated Hammer from Orkney by, 
Bull-roarer of Wood, Donation of, ..... . 

Burgie, Robert Dunbar of, 
- — Castle, Elgin, Shiold-s of Arms in, ..... 

Jiiirh, Derivation of the Word, .... 

Burhs, and Early Xornian Castles, ...... 

Laws of Athelstan regarding, ...... 

Chronological List of, ...... . 

Burials, Pre-historic, at QuarlV, Shetland, Notice of Discovery of, . 
Bute (the Marquis of), Collection of Carved Stones and other Objects from 
St Blanc's exhibited by, ...... 




262, 264 


( ^L'sar's Camp, Kolkestone, Relics found at, .... . 284 

Cages of Wood and Iron for Prisoners, . ..... 246 

Cairn, Bead of Variegated Glass found at Kirkchrist in a, . 17 

Cairn fauld. Stone Circle at, ..... . If.n 

Cairnwell, Stone Circle at, ....... 149 

Calder, (Thomas), Tombstone of, . ...... 3til 

Caledonian Camp, Name given in the U. M. to an enclosure at (Jorniaek 

Muir, 10 

Callender (J(»hn), Smith at Holyrood, ..... 2? 

Canielon, Donation of a large collection of Pottery, etc., from, . 2' 



Cameron (J.)» Donation of Arrow- and Spear-head of Chert, from Nebraska, 


Camp (so-called), at Camp Hill, Montgoldrnm, Bervie, 

Campbell (George), Gift by King George III. to, 

Canoe, Discovery at Dumbuck of a, 

Canoes, Dugout, in use in India, 

Canterland, Mary kirk, Mote near, . . 

Caolas, North Uist, Earth-house at. 

Castles, Early Norman, .... 

of the Motto type. List of. 

Castle of Carnassary, Kilmartin, Stone called " The Image of Laziness " 

in the, ..... 
Castle Dikes, near Arbuthnot Church, . 

Dow, near Logierait, 

Hill, Kinneff, .... 

Law, Abernethy, .... 


Tentlanda, Oval Disc from, 

Rock, Auchmithie, 

Castleton, near Meigle, Mote at, . 

Caterthun, the Brown, .... 

the White, . , . 

Chalmers, Armorial bearings of, . 

Charles II., Powers given to Sir William Bruce by, to punish the builders 

at Holyrood, .... 

Letter of Instructions of, — Exliibited, . 

Letter of Instructions to Sir William Fleming by, 

Chann, Tooth from a pre- historic burial carried about by a crofter as a, 
Charm-stone for Diseases of Cattle, ..... 

belonging to a Witch in Strathnaver, .... 

Charter, by the Commendator of Culross, — Purchased, 

Che^^i\ the Word as it appears in the A. S. Chronicle, 

Chouka River, Curious method of fishing in the, 

Chriatison (Dr I).), The Forts, "Camps," etc., of Perth, Forfar, and 

Kincardine by, ...... 

Rejwrt on Events of last Session by, . 

Chrystall (Miss), Donation of a Polished Stone Axe, from Craden, by. 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Elgin, Shields in the, . 
Churinga of Slate and liull-roarcr of Wood, Donation of a, . 
Cissbury, an Early British '* Camj)," ..... 
Cist with three Urns at Duncra Hill, Pencaitland, 

with an Urn, near the West Links, North licrwick. Discovery of a, 

and Urn, discovered near I'ortpatrick, . 

Cists at Moraytown, Dalcross, Inverness-shire, 






















I in IV 


I 111 




Dalchosnie, Perthshire, 15anner Pike-head from, .... 223 
Dalrymple (Hon. II. II.), Donation of portion of an Encaustic Tile from 

Olenluce Abbey by, ...... . 304 

Dassier's Medals, Donation of three of, ..... 358 

Dedericus, maker of a war "machine," ..... 289 

Deer-horn, Weaving Comb of, from Shetland, — Purchased, 434 

De Qucncy, Tomb in Culross Abbey with Arms of, .... 244 

Arms of Seyr and Roger, ..... 243 

De Quencys of Fawside and Leuchars, Supplementary Notes on, by Joseph 

Bain, 124 

Supplementary Notes on, by Dr W. W. Ireland, 241 

Charters in Magdalen College, Oxford, 251 

Table of Descent of the, 128 

Denmark, Dr Sophus Miiller on Motes in, .... . 280 

Denoon Law, Glamis, ........ 91 

Deskford Church, Shields of Arms in, . . . 423 

De Wett (Jacob), Paintings executed at Holyrood by, . . . 292 

Disc of Greenstone from Castle Law, Pentlands, — Purchased, . 436 

Dishington (Sir William), Master of Work at St Monans, ... 288 
Donations to the Museum and Library, . 17, 135, 220, 256, 304, 430 

Douglas (Alexander), Monument of, ..... . 373 

Douglas of Lochleven, Armorial Bearings of, . . 421 

Drainie Church, Ruins of, ....... 408 

Draught-Ox Shoes, Donation of a pair of, .... . 430 

Dron Hill, Sidlaws, 81 

Druid*s Camp, Stonehaven, ....... 107 

Drumfad, Glasserton, Wigtownshire, Axe-hammer found at, 18 

Dnimmond (John), the King's Carpenter, ..... 290 

(the Misses), Donation of Gold Luckenbooth Brooch by, 223 

(Sir Robert), Master of Works at Holyrood Palace, ... 232 

Duff of Dipple, the House of, ....... 390 

" Dug-out" Canoes in use in India, ...... 336 

Dumbarton, Construction by James IV. of a large Barge at, 289 

Dombuck, near Dumbarton, Notes of a Pile Structure at, . 437 

Discussion on the Discoveries at, . 466 

Animal Remains found at, . .... 440 

Dunbar, Armorial Bearings of, . 346 

Danblane, David Bell, Archdeacon of, . 288 

Duncan's Camp, Birnam Hill, ... ... 107 

Dunora Hill, Donation of three Urns from a Cist at, . 135 

Notice of the Cist and Urns found at, . 131 

Dundee Law, 52 

Dnndorn, probably the principal Stronghold of Fortrenn, ... 65 

Dmifennline Abbey, Grant of lands by Seyr de Quency to, . 250 



Fort on Ben Eflery, Oohils, * . 

of Garnao, on the Hill of Moncreiffe, 

on Castle Law, Abernethy,^ 

on Castle Law, Forgandenny, 

at Ciiltoqney, 

on Denoon Law, Olamis, . 

on Dron Hill, Sidlaws, 

on The Laws, Drumsturdy, 

- on Dnndorn, Strathearn, 

- on Dnnsinnan, Description of, 

- at Evelick, 

- on Finavon, Aberlemno, . 

- on the Grinnan Hill of Keir, 

- at Kempy, Cask, . 

- near Loaniiighead, 

- at Ogle Hill, OchUs, 
-atOrchill, . 

near Pitcaimgreen, 

at Rait, 

on Rossie Law, Ochils, 

on Turin Hill called Kemp Castle, 

Fortingall, Dun Mac Tnal, a Fort near, 

Forts, "Camps," etc., of Perth, Forfar and Kincardine, 

Friar Andrew, the King's Carpenter, 

the Wright, 

Oarrs^ the Fortifications of the Early Welsh, . 

Gallowhill, Cargill, Perthshire, Cup-marked Stoue from, 

Galychtly (John de), ..... 

Gardyne Castle, Gallows Law Moat, near, 

Garrol Wood, Stone Circle in, . 

Cask, Perthshire, Grants to English Hospitals, from De Quency lands at, 

Glassel, Stone Circle at, , 

Glass, Bead of Variegated, from Kirkchrist, Wigtownshire, 

from Lesmahagow,— Purchased, 

Beads of, from Aberdeenshire, 

Glencotho, Peeblesshire, Bronze Scabbard-tip found at, 
Glenluce Abbey, portion of Encaustic Tile from. 
Glen Lyon Ikooch, reference to the sale of, 

Dun Geal, a Fort in, .... 

Gold, Luckenbooth Brooch of, . 
Gordon, Armorial Bearings of, . 
Gordonstown, Banffshire, Flint Arrow-heads from, 
House, Elgin, Shields of Arms in, 














Grangemouth, EUirthenware Jar containing Coins found at, — Purchased, 
Grave-slabs found at St Blane*s, Bute, ..... 

Gray (A.), Borers and Notched Implements of Flint exhibited by, 
Green Cairn, Fettercairn, ....... 

Green-Castle, Fort near Fettercairn, ..... 

Greenstone, Axe of, from Riskbuie^ Colonsay, .... 

Axe-hammer of, found at Drumfad, Glasserton, Wigtownshire, 

found at Mochrum, Wigtownshire, 

• Grooved Boulders of, from Sheriff Muir, Stobo, 
- Oval Disc of, from the Pentlands, 

■ Perforated Hammer of, from Bisset Moss, Forgue, 

• Pebble of, from Noblehouse, Peeblesshire, 

Grinnan Hill of Keir, Fort on the, ..... 

Gun-money (Irish), and a Copper Medal, Donation of, 

Gunning Fellowship, Report on Stone Circles obtained under the, . 

Hamilton (Adam), Grant by Queen Mary to, . 

of Crage, Master of Works at Ilolyrood, 

Hammer of Stone from Whitfield, West Linton, — Purchased, 

Harlaw Moor, Bronze flat Axe from, 

Haverfield (F.), Notes on the Anti<iuity of the Wheel Causeway by, 

Haxton (John), of Markinch, Bequest of a Collection of Bibles, Testaments 

and Psalm Books by the late, 
Hay, Sarcophagus Tomb with Arms of, ... 

Hectour (James), Grant by Queen Mary to, . 
Heidenplatte, Cup-marked Stone at Zmutt called the, 
Hepburn (Patrick), Bishop of Murray, .... 
Heraldry of Elgin and neighbourhood, Notes on the, 
Heriot's Hospital, Wallace the Carver at, . . . 

Hewat (Rev. K.), Notice of a peculiar Stone Cross found on the Farm of 

Cairn, Cumnock, Upper Nithsdale, by, ... 300 

Hill of Moncreifl'e, Fort of Carnac on the, ..... 79 

Holyrood Palace founded in 1525, ...... 227 

facade of the jmlace added in 1679, ..... 230 

Palace, James Fifth's Towers in, 224 

Palace, Master Wrights connected with, 290, 291 

Hopetoun (The Rt. Hon. the Earl oQ, Donation of three Urns from a Cist at 

Duncra Hill by, ....... 135 

Horn, Indian Calumet of, presented by Dr Aitken, .136 

Comb of, Inscribed, . 433 

Spoon of, found in Ringheel Moss, Mochrum, ig 

Houme, Imprisonment in 1515 in tower of Holy rood-house, of Lord, 227 

Huldwani, in the Terai, Province of Kumaon, India, Ring-marked Stone 

near, 336 











l>unferiiiline Abbey, Suj»ih»sjm1 Arms of the K:nl 

Dun Gcal, (Hen Lyon. 

iMnikdd, Uuilding of tlic l>ri(]gc of, 

I>un M.ic Tual, Kortingall, 

Diininoro, I'en I/cdi, 

in the Snia' Clon, . 

l)iin, tlie. Tyndun, Abi-rfehly, 

l>unn (W.), Stono Cup found on .Scliiclialii 

Dunnichcn, .... 

tlie Law Moat near, 

Dunsinnan, Earth-house at, 

one of the few Korts mentioned ' 

Interior liuildings of, 

Kxcavation by Mr Nairne ti!". 

luHUllicicncy of the Excavati" 

Relics found during Exeavaf 

Site described, 

Dyce, the Standing Stones of, 

Khrokis, the lands of, 
Earthenware, Jar of, found at <•• 
Earth-house at Caolas, N. Uist 

at Coujiar Grange, 

at Dunsinnan, 

— — in Ireland, incntii)n> 

- - at Meigle, . 
at Mudhall, Uen-" 

- - - at riteur, Deser.j 
- three Iv: 

— two ev., 


— "Sm:- 

— oth. • 

at Kuthvo! 

:i.k.y Ian 

Ivirth houses, al 

at Audit • 

- - Timber 
in vi'M: 

iiiitliworks V- 

laster Cairn •■ 

lasterton •■ 

Mwanl t! 
Ed w a pi I 

ds at. 












Kitchen-midden at Rhodes Links, Discovery of a, . 120 

Knocking-pots of Wood, used in Strathspey, ..... 481 

Knocking-stone, Description of the use of a, . 480 

Lady Hill, Elgin, Remains of Castle on the, ..... 392 

Lanarkshire, Purchase of Stone Axes from, ..... 434 

Law (A. ), Donation of Perforated Disc of Sandstone from Tanganyika by, . 222 

Donation of Digging Stone of Steatite from Tanganyika by, 222 

I-Aw Tumulus near KinnefT, ....... 108 

Laws, The, Drumstnrdy, ........ 82 

Fort, Vitrifaction in, ...... . 85 

Hill, Drumsturdy, Notice and Date of the Spoliation of the Fort on, 83 

Laurencekirk Kirkyard, Note by Dr Beddoe on Surnames in, . . 45 

Lhanbryd Church, Elgin, Shields of Arms in, . .... 399 

Learmonth, Armorial Bearings of, ..... . 419 

Loarny, no remains of Stone Circle at, ...... 171 

Loischman (John), Grant by King James VI. to, . . 295 
Leithies, North Berwick, Discovery of an Ancient Interment at the, . . 120 
Leslie, Armorial Bearings of, ...... . 346, 363 

Lesmahagow, Bead of Glass from, ...... 435 

liPswalt, Wigtownshire, Fragments of Two Small Cinerary Urns from, 223 

Letter of Instructions for Sir W. Fleming by Charles II., — Exhibited, 138 

Description of, . 199 

Lindsay, Armorial Bearings of, . . 388 

Littlejohn (Andrew), Grant by (^)ueen Alary to, .... 294 

Loaninghead, Fort near, ........ 54 

Loch-monar, Reputed Ongin of the Name, ..... 487 

Tay, Polished Stone Axe from, — Purchased, .... 15 

Logierait, Castle Dow, a Fort near, 71 
Logy, Annual Grant of Forty Pounds for building Holyrood Palace, in 

1504, to Maister, ....... 226 

Longforgan, Note on a Baptismal Font at, . . 470 

Notes from a MS. relative to the Church of, .... 472 

Notes on the Parish Church of, ..... 470 

Incised Sepulchral Slab in the Church at, . . 463 

Notice of the Wallace Stones at, ..... 476 

William De W'et's Painting at the Church of, . . 474 

Lorn, Armorial Bearings of, ...... . 350 

Lothian, Minute regarding the Death of the Marquis of, . . . 218 

Lourison (Robert), the King's Carpenter, ..... 289 

Luckenbooth Brooch in Gold, ....... 223 

Brooches and Pendant Crosses from an Indian Mound, 220 

Lud Castle, Auchmithie, ........ 59 

Lyel (William), Memorial Stone of, ..... . 418 



Maodonald, Atiuute r«gai\liiig the Death of Dr Jstue.^^ 

(W. llae), Notes on the lleraUry of Elgin, ete,, bj, . 

Mackenzie (R«Fv, J. li), Donatjou of aii Axe orOrBcniton* bjr. 
Notes oil flome Cup-marked Stones and Hocks ncir Ken- 
more, and their lolk-Jort', by, , 
M 'Intosh ( A I ra ) , Large S j pear- h ead of B ron ze from I nd ia , ~ Kxb ibtled lj% 
Macpitchie (IX). Dcscnutbii of on Earih^ house at ritcuFi Forfaruhire, bj, 
Magdalen Col legs, Oxford, De Quencj Charters in^ 
Maiden Castlc", A rh math, . ....... 

Makarorti, New Z«alnnd, Jade Axe fiom^ 

Malcolm, the Wright, . , . 

Malcolm's Mount, near Fetteresiso, , . « , . 

Mar, Edward L*9 orders for the Imiinsonment of the Counlesa of, 

Margaret (de Quency), widow ol William do FerrerSt . . 

Master Wri^dits ttpiioiritetj under the Privy Seal, 

Mastersof Works at Holy rood| .... 

Maxwell (Sir H. E.)^ Donation of Antler of Irish Elk by, 

Donation of two Axo Ifamme'rs liy, 

Effigj' in Wood of aii Ecclesiaalio eihibited by, 

Donation of a Ulass Bead by^ 
• Donatioti of a Spoon of Horn by, 

Medal in Copper^ and Irish Gun -money, Donation of a, 

Medals, Donation of thrM of DAaaier'e, ^ * « 

Meigle, Earth -house *t. . 

Melgund, Mole of, near Aborlemno, . . . 

Melrose, Whorl of Grey Sandstone found at, — Purchased, 

Menmuir (C. ), Donation of three of Dai<sier*s Medals by, 

Midmar Kirk, Stone Circle at, ..... . 

Millar (A. H.), Notice of an Incised Sepulchral Slab found in the Church 
of Longforgan by, ...... 

Moat near Aldbar Castle, ....... 

at Castlehill, Inshewan, ...... 

Gallows Law, ....... 

of Inchbrackie, ....... 

the Law, Dunnichen, ...... 

Mochrum, Wigtownshire, Axe-Hammer found at, . 

Moness Burn, Aberfeldy, Haunt of a Kelpie, .... 

Montrose, Instructions for Sir William Fleming with regard to the Earl 


Moraytown, Dalcross, Inverness-shire, Archffiological Notes from, . 

Dalcross, Inverness- shire, Cist at, . . 

Inverness-shire, Iron Axe found at, . 

Inverness-shire, Cluimbcr of Water-worn Stones at, . 

Moreduii Top, Remains of Fort on, ..... 














Mote near Canterland, Mary kirk, 

at Castleton, Meigle, 

of Melgund, Aberlemno, . 

on Torr Hill, Aberfeldy, . 

^[otes, Geographical Distribution of, 

Mottes in England in which Relics have been found, 

Motte-aml -Bailey f ..... 

at Hastings, Picture in the Bayeaux Tapestry of a, . 

Type, Frequency throughout England of the, 

Infrcquency of Castles in Scotland of tlie, 

Probable Origin and Date of, . 

Richard's Castle, near Ludlow, an existing specimen of the. 

Moulds of Stone from West Linton and Stow, — Purchased, . 

Mudhall, Bendochy, Elarth-house at, . 

M tiller (Dr Sophus), on Danish fortifications of the Motte type, 

Munro (A.), Note on an Incised Stone Cross at Strathy, Sutherlandshire, 


Armorial Bearings of, . 

Murray (James), Grant by King James VL to, 
Mylne (John), Wright in Edinburgh, 1561, 

(Rev. R. S.), Notices of the King's Master Wrights of Scotland 

with Writs of their Appointments, by, 

Nairne(Mr), Excavation of Dunsinnan by, 
Nebraska, Arrow-heads and Spear-head from, 
Neenah, Wisconsin, Copper Spear-head or Knife from, 
Noblehouse, Peeblesshire, Greenstone Implement from, 
Numerals, early example on a Tomb of Arabic, 

Ogilvie (Alexander), Tomb in Cullen Church of, 
Ogilvy, Armorial bearings of, . 

Ogle Hill, Ochils, 

Old Bourtree Bush, Stone Circle at, . 

Old Wester Echt, Remains of Stone Circle at, . 

Oliphant (Thomas), Wright at Holyrood Palace, 

Orabilis, widow of an Earl of Mar, 

Orchill Fort, near Gask, ..... 

Onlcricus Vitalis, Testimony of, as to absence of Castles in England at 

the Conquest, 
Orkney, Perforated Stone Hammer from, 
Ourisk, also known as " Brounaidh an Eilan," in Loch Tay, 

Palisade Trenches, Note of first Discovery in Scotland of, . 
^'Paterlan na Fhearnan," ..... 

























Fiitevitm {timicm\\ VV right at Writers' Court, 
Ftosmre HouHt?, Wright Work of James H&iD at, 
PebblB of White St«>ite blesswi by St Ad&ninan, 
PefjlilesHliiit;, Lbirtwn Polished Stone Axen hmu vi^rioiis hie^Iitiea in,— 

four Stone Balld from, 

tbreo Bea^a of Jet from, . 

flight Stone Whorla from* 

Perth, Forfftrj and Kincftrdine, the Forta^ *' Cimpi/' etc of, 

tftrthworka in, 

>- ■ Stone Forts in, 

Sites marked *' Fort" or '* Cam|i ** on the O.IL. 

— Sites not marked on O^M.^ 

General renmrka on tho Forts and Camps of, 

Pettegrew (Thomas), Griiiit by Queen Sliarj tn, 

(T*), Confirmation of Grant to, . 

Photographs of Ikochs^ Donation of. . 
Pike head from DnlohoEnie, , , , 

Pile structure near Dnmharton, Notes of the Discovery of ft, 
Pilffl (Itidian) of Buffalo Horn, Donation of n large ^ 
Pitcairugreen, Fort nojir, . , . . , 

Pi tour, Forfarshire, Descri[ttion of an Earth -house at, 
Pluscarden Priory, Shields of Arms at, . 
Porteous (James), Wright at Holy rood, , 
Port[ifttriek, Wigtownsbirc, discovery of a Cist and 0rn near, 
Pottery, Bronze objects, etc., from Camelon, — Presented, 
green glazed, found at Cffisar's Camp, Folkestone, 

Priory of Whithorn, Wooden Effigy of an Ecclesiastic found 
Purchases for the Museum and Library, 

Quarff, Shetland, tight Cists found in the Mound at, . 

Pre- Historic Burial-Place at, 

Urn of Clay from, 

Queen Mary, Grants to Wrights, etc., by. 

Raes of Clune, Stone Circle at, . 

Hait, Fort at, 

Recumbent Stone in Stone Circles, various positions of the, 
Rei<l(A.G.), Notice of an Original Letter of Instructions for Sir William 
Fleming by King Charles II. by, 

(Robert), Abbot of Kinloss, 

Rennay (William , Painter at Longforgan Churcli, 
Rhfiiitidii't, iiMiiJi, ilu' Iv lijisiiia at, 
Khiuoctroa, a melhod of snjniug Ihi.^, 










near, . 41 

15, 16, 17, 432-436 




. 293, 294 



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. !:o2i Lxi Tij — ^TFT-TiMirrJ H, 

rroE Peer-jeasbi-T* *gf 

at AzuL./iiianiiifit iMnciiorr-IiBvaiiaiL. liE 

AS EfclrZiir. "L^mianrf of. . j^ 

f:TZL£r.~T IT. LtLiiia'jiaic;. Mirmia* jjt^ 

AS liim-w^L. ^^ 

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«•' i*»i^- JC. J«C. 

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ST. laann u- r^iuaim of iu*. ZTl 

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a*. 'j;t V *^^' }>nr: kt^imtw v1 i^ 

ri }a4J (:.'/*; ''unti^ '1 liiniuf hunruttrr^ vi J.W» 

— * ti*i\ru v«ii,/«/i*. «/ tj** ii^,ijiis^fir, *»i^n*» ti. l|#( 

will iir;-.*^* ' -tvo /'/tij^* #1 /?v«.t*,i»* iSi; 

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^— ><r^V«X,<r' • -aw/fi*^ /' '» '♦^ Vr.<*>»- **p7 



by the 

.•u .^'•'' 






Wallace (T.), Archeeological Notes from Moraytown, Dalcross, Inyerness- 

shire, by, ........ . 216 

(William), the Carver at HerioVs Hospital, .... 291 

Wallace-Stones at Longforgan, Notice of the, ..... 476 
WatsoD-Greig (T.), Donation of Banner Pike-head from Dalchosnie, Perth- 
shire, by, ........ . 223 

Seal (Impression) of Archbishop Sharpe, exhibited by, . 224 

Weir (John), Master Wright at Linlithgow Palace, .... 289 

West Links, North Berwick, Discovery of a Cist with an Urn at the, . 120 

West Linton, Six Saws of Flint from neighbourhood of, . . . 436 

and Stow, Stone Moulds from, ...... 435 

Wheel Causeway, Note by Mr F. Haver field on the Antiquity of the, * . 129 

Whitfield, West Linton, Stone Hammer from, ..... 486 

Whorl of Sandstone, — Purchased, ...... 433 

from Blyth Bridge,— Purchased, .... 486 

found at Melrose, — Purchased, ..... 16 

Whorls of Stone from Peeblesshire, Purchase of, ... . 436 

William I. or William II., List of Castles of the Motte Type built in the 

Keign of, . . . . . . . . 279 

Winchester (Bishop John), Altar Tomb at Elgin of, . . . . 368 

Wood, Effigy in, of an Ecclesiastic, exhibited by Sir H. E. Maxwell, . 41 

Knocking- pots of, used in Strathspey, ..... 481 

Worship-Stones, Certain Boulders near Kenmore called, . . . 330 

Wright (Duncan), Cari>enter of Edinburgh Castle, .... 289 

(Oill)€rt), ......... 289 

(Martin), Master of Works at Ekiinburgh Castle, 289 

Wrights, incor]>oration into one Society of the Edinburgh, . 290 

Writs appointing Master Wrights, copies of twelve, .... 293 

Wrycht (Thomas), builder of the bridge of Dunkeld, . . 290 

Zmutt, reference to Stone called the HeUlenplatU at, ... 299 





Hindoo 't?^ 

XrottoT V 


\l,** O Str. 1ri-r 




Stanford University Libraries 
Stanford, California 

lUtnrn thli book oa of twfon date do*.